PLANTS and PRODUCTIONS
Worlds in the Planets
Written in Latin by
And inscrib’d to his Brother
Late Secretary to his Majesty K. William.
Printed for TIMOTHY CHILDE at the
White Hart at the West-end of St.
Paul’s Church-yard. MDCXCVIlI.
THIS Book was just finished, and designed for the Press, when the Author, to the great loss of the Learned World, was seized by a Disease that brought him to his Death. However he took care in his last Will of its Publication, desiring his Brother, to whom it was writ, to take that Trouble upon him. But he was so taken up with Business and Removals, (as being Secretary in Holland to the King of Great Britain) that be could find no time for it till a year after the Death of the Author: When it so fell out, that the Printers being somewhat tardy, and this Gentleman dying, the Book was left without either Father or Guardian. Yet it now ventures into the Publick, in the same method that it was writ by the Au[iv]thor, and with the same Inscription to his Brother, tho dead; in confidence that this last Piece of his will meet with as kind a reception from the World as all the other Works of that Author have. ’Tis true there are not every where Mathematical Demonstrations; but where they are wanting, you have probable and ingenious Conjectures, which is the most that can be reasonably expected in such matters. What belongs to, or has any thing to do with Astronomy, you will see demonstrated, and the rest ingeniously and shrewdly guess’d at, from the affinity and relation of the heavenly Bodies to the Earth. For your farther Satisfaction read on, and farewel.
I Doubt not but I shall incur the Censures of learned Men for putting this Book into English, because, they’l say, it renders Philosophy cheap and vulgar, and, which is worse, furnishes a sort of injudicious People with a smattering of Notions, which being not able to make a proper use of, they pervert to the Injury of Religion and Science. I confess the Allegation is too true: but after Bishop Wilkins, Dr. Burnet, Mr. Whiston, and others, to say nothing of the antient Philosophers, who wrote in their own Tongues; I say after these great Authors have treated on as learned and abstruse Subjects in the same Language [vi] I hope their Example will be allowed a sufficient excuse for printing this Book in English.
Concerning this Edition I can say, that I have taken care to have the Cuts exactly done, and have plac’d each Figure at the Page of the Book that refers to it, which I take to be more convenient to the Reader than putting ’em all at the end.
I have been careful to procure the best Paper; that I might in some measure come up to the Beauty of the Latin Edition, tho this bear but half the Price of it.
And l hope the Translator has express’d the Author’s Sense aright, and has not committed Faults beyond what an ingenuous Reader can pardon.
By the Corrector’s fault Knowlege is spelt
thro-out the Book without a d.
A Man that is of Copernicus’s Opinion, that this Earth of ours is a Planet, carry’d round and enlighten’d by the Sun, like the rest of them, cannot but  sometimes have a fancy, that it’s not improbable that the rest of the Planets have their Dress and Furniture, nay and their Inhabitants too as well as this Earth of ours: Especially if he considers the later Discoveries made since Copernicus’s time of the Attendents of Jupiter and Saturn, and the Champain and hilly Countrys in the Moon, which are an Argument of a relation and kin between our Earth and them, as well as a proof of the Truth of that System. This has often been our talk, I remember, good Brother, over a large Telescope, when we have been viewing those Bodies, a study that your continual business and absence have interrupted for this many years, But we were always apt to conclude, that ’twas in vain to enquire after what Nature had been pleased to do there, seeing there was no likelihood of ever coming to an end of the Enquiry. Nor could I ever find that any Philosophers, those bold Heros, either antient or modern, ventur’d so far. At the very birth of Astronomy, when the Earth was first asserted to  be Spherical, and to be surrounded with Air, even then there were some men so bold as to affirm, that there were an innumerable company of Worlds in the Stars.
Bur later Authors, such as Cardinal Cusanus, Brunus, Kepler (and if we may believe him, Tycho was of that opinion too) have furnish’d the Planets with Inhabitants. Nay, Cusanus and Brunus have allow’d the Sun and fixed Stars theirs too. But this was the utmost of their boldness; nor has the ingenious French Author of the Dialogues about the Plurality of Worlds carry’d the business any farther. Only some of them have coined some pretty Fairy Stories of the Men in the Moon, just as probable as Lucian’s true History; among which I must count Kepler’s, which he has diverted us with in his Astronomical Dream. But a while ago thinking somewhat seriously of this matter (not that I count my self quicker sighted than those great Men, but that I had the happiness to live after most of them) methoughts the enquiry was not so impracticable, nor the way so  stopt up with Difficulties, but that there was very good room left for probable Conjectures. As they came into my head, I clapt them down into common places, and shall now try to digest them into some tolerable Method for your better conception of them, and add somewhat of the Sun and Fixt Stars, and the Extent of that Universe of which our Earth is but an inconsiderable point. I know you have such an esteem and reverence for any thing that belongs to Heaven, that I perswade my self you will read what I have written without pain: I’m sure I writ it with a great deal of pleasure; but as often before, so now, I find the saying of Archytas true, even to the Letter, That tho a Man were admitted into Heaven to view the wonderful Fabrick of the World, and the Beauty of the Stars, yet what would otherwise be Rapture and Extasie, would be but a melancholy Amazement if he had not a Friend to communicate it to. I could wish indeed that all the World might not be my Judges, but that I might chuse my Readers, Men like you, not  ignorant in Astronomy and true Philosophy; for with such I might promise my self a favourable hearing, and not need to make an Apology for daring to vent any thing new to the World. But because I am aware what other hands it’s likely to fall into, and what a dreadful Sentence I may expect from those whose Ignorance or Zeal is too great, it may be worth the while to guard my self beforehand against the Assaults of those sort of People.
There’s one sort who knowing nothing of Geometry or Mathematicks, will laugh at it as a whimsical and ridiculous undertaking. It’s mere Conjuration to them to talk of measuring the Distance or Magnitude of the Stars: And for the Motion of the Earth, they count it, if not a false, at least a precarious Opinion; and no wonder then if they take what’s built upon such a slippery Foundation for the Dreams of a fanciful Head and a distemper’d Brain. What should we answer to these Men, but that their Ignorance is the cause of their Dislike, and that if they had more Sense they  would have fewer Scruples? But few people having had an opportunity of prosecuting these Studies, either for want of Parts, Learning, or Leisure, we cannot blame their Ignorance; and if they resolve to find fault with us for spending time in such matters, because they do not understand the use of them, we must appeal to properer Judges.
The other sort, when they hear us talk of new Lands, and Animals endued with as much Reason as themselves will be ready to fly out into religious Exclamations, that we set up Conjectures against the Word of God, and broach Opinions directly opposite to Holy Writ. For we do not there read one word of the Production of such Creatures, no not so much as of their Existence; nay rather we read the quite contrary. For, That only mentions this Earth with its Animals and Plants, and Man the Lord of them; but as for Worlds in the Sky, ’tis wholly silent. Either these Men resolve not to understand, or they are very ignorant; For they have  been answer’d so often, that I am almost asham’d to repeat it: That it’s evident God had no design to make a particular Enumeration in the Holy Scriptures, of all the Works of his Creation. When therefore it is plain that under the general name of Stars or Earth are comprehended all the Heavenly Bodies, even the little Gentlemen round Jupiter and Saturn, why must all that multitude of Beings which the Almighty Creator has been pleased to place upon them, be excluded the Privilege, and not suffer’d to have a share in the Expression? And these Men themselves can’t but know in what sense it is that all things are said to be made for the use of Man, not certainly for us to stare or peep through a Telescope at; for that’s little better than nonsense. Since then the greatest part of God’s Creation, that innumerable multitude of Stars, is plac’d out of the reach of any man’s Eye; and many of them, it’s likely, of the best Glasses, so that they don’t seem to belong to us; is it such an unreasonable Opinion, that there are  some reasonable Creatures who see and admire those glorious Bodies at a nearer distance?
But perhaps they’ll say, it does not become us to be so curious and inquisitive in these things which the Supreme Creator seems to have kept for his own knowlege: For since he has not been pleased to make any farther Discovery or Revelation of them, it seems little better than presumption to make any inquiry into that which he has thought fit to hide. But these Gentlemen must be told, that they take too much upon themselves when they pretend to appoint how far and no farther Men shall go in their Searches, and to set bounds to other Mens Industry; just as if they had been of the Privy Council of Heaven: as if they knew the Marks that God has plac’d to Knowlege: or as if Men were able to pass those Marks. If our Forefathers had been at this rate scrupulous, we might have been ignorant still of the Magnitude and Figure of the Earth, or of such a place as America. The Moon might have  shone with her own Light for all us, and we might have stood up to the ears in Water, like the Indians at every Eclipse: and a hundred other things brought to light by the late Discoveries in Astronomy had still been unknown to us. For what can a Man imagine more abstruse, or less likely to be known, than what is now as clear as the Sun? That vigorous Industry, and that piercing Wit were given Men to make advances in the search of Nature, and there’s no reason to put any stop to such Enquiries. I must acknowlege still that what I here intend to treat of is not of that nature as to admit of a certain knowlege; I can’t pretend to assert any thing as positively true (for that would be madness) but only to advance a probable guess, the truth of which every one is at his own liberty to examine. If any one therefore shall gravely tell me, that I have spent my time idly in a vain and fruitless enquiry after what by my own acknowlegement I can never come to be sure of; the answer is, that at this rate he would put down all  Natural Philosophy as far as it concerns it self in searching into the Nature of things:
In such noble and sublime Studies as these, ’tis a Glory to arrive at Probability, and the search it self rewards the pains. But there are many degrees of Probable, some nearer Truth than others, in the determining of which lies the chief exercise of our Judgment.
But besides the Nobleness and Pleasure of the Studies, may not we be so bold as to say, they are no small help to the advancement of Wisdom and Morality? so far are they from being of no use at all. For here we may mount from this dull Earth, and viewing it from on high, consider whether Nature has laid out all her cost and finery upon this small speck of Dirt. So, like Travellers into other distant Countrys, we shall be better able to judg of what’s done at home, know how to make a true estimate of, and set its own value upon every thing. We shall be less apt to admire what this World calls great, shall nobly despise those Trifles the generality of Men set their Affections  on, when we know that there are a multitude of such Earths inhabited and adorned as well as our own. And we shall worship and reverence that God the Maker of all these things; we shall admire and adore his Providence and wonderful Wisdom which is displayed and manifested all over the Universe, to the confusion of those who would have the Earth and all things formed by the shuffling Concourse of Atoms, or to be without beginning. But to come to our purpose.
And now because the chief Argument for the proof of what we intend will be taken from the disposition of the Planets, among which without doubt the Earth must be counted in the Copernican System, I shall here first of all draw two Figures.
The first is a Description of the Orbs the Planets move in, in that order that they are placed round the Sun, drawn as near as can be in their true Proportions, like what you have seen in my Clock at home. The second shows the Proportions of their Magnitudes in respect of one another and of the  Sun, which you know is upon that same Clock of mine too. In the first the middle Point or Center is the Place of the Sun, round which, in an order that everyone knows, are the Orbits of Mercury, Venus, the Earth with that of the Moon about it; then those of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn: and about the two last the small Circles that their Attendents march in: about Jupiter four, and about Saturn five. Which Circles as well as that of the Moon are drawn larger than their true Proportion would admit, otherwise they could not have been seen. You may easily apprehend the Vastness of these Orbits by this, that the distance of the Earth from the Sun is ten or twelve thousand of the Earth’s Diameters. Almost all these Circles are in the same Plane, declining very little from that in which the Earth moves, call’d the Plane of the Ecliptick. This Plane is cut obliquely by the Axis upon which the Earth turns it self round in 24 hours, whence arise the Successions of Day and Night:
The Axis of the Earth always keeping the same Inclination to the Ecliptick (except a small change best known to Astronomers) while the Earth it self is carry’d in its yearly Course round the Sun, causes the regular Order of the Seasons of the Year: as you may see in all Astronomers Books. Out of which I shall transcribe hither the Periods of the Revolutions of the Planets, viz. Saturn moves round the Sun in 29 Years, 174 Days, and 5 Hours: Jupiter finishes his Course in 11 Years, 317 Days, and 15 Hours: Mars his in about 687 Days. Our Year is 365 Days 6 Hours: Venus’s 224 Days 18 Hours: and Mercury’s 88 Days. This is the now commonly receiv’d System, invented by Copernicus, and very agreeable to that frugal Simplicity Nature shows in all her Works.
If any one is resolved to find fault with it, let him first be sure he understands it. Let him first see in the Books of Astronomers with how much greater ease and plainness all the Motions of the Stars, and Appearances in the Heavens are explained and demonstrated in this than either in  that of Ptolemy or Tycho. Let him consider that Discovery of Kepler, that the distances of the Planets from the Sun, as well of the Earth as the rest; are in a fixt certain proportion to the times they spend in their Revolutions. Which Proportion it’s since observed that their Satellites keep round Jupiter and Saturn. Let him examine what a contradictory Motion they are fain to invent for the solution of the Polar Star’s changing its distance from the Pole. For that Star in the end of the Little Bear’s Tail which now describes so small a Circle round the Pole, that it is not above two Degrees and twenty Minutes, was observed about 1820 Years ago, in the time of Hipparchus, to be above 12: and will within a few ages more be forty five Degrees distant from it: and after 25000 years more will return to the same place it is now in. Now if with them we allow the Heavens to be turned upon their own Axis, at this rate they must have a new Axis every day: a thing most abominably absurd, and repugnant to the nature of all motion. Whereas nothing is easier with Copernicus than to give us satisfaction in this matter. Then he may impartially weigh those Answers that Galileus, Gassendus, Kepler, and others have given to all Objections proposed, which have so satisfied all Scruples, that generally all Astronomers now adays are brought over to our side, and allow the Earth its Motion and Place among the Planets. If he cannot be satisfied with all this, he is either one whose Dulness can’t comprehend it, or who has his Faith at another man’s disposal, and so for fear of Galileo’s fate dare not own it.
In the other Figure you have the Globes of the Planets, and of the Sun, represented to your eyes as plac’d near one another. Where I have observ’d the same Proportion of their Diameters to that of the Sun, that I publish’d to the World in my Book of the Appearances of Saturn: namely, the Diameter of the Ring round Saturn is to that of the Sun as 11 is to 37; that of Saturn himself about as 5 to 37; that of Jupiter as 2 to 11; that  of Mars as 1 to 166; of the Earth as 1 to 111; and of Venus as 1 to 84: to which I shall now add that of Mercury observ’d by Hevelius in the Year 1661, but calculated by my self, and found to be as 1 to 290.
If you would know the way that we came to this knowledg of their Magnitudes, by knowing the Proportion of their Distances from the Sun, and the measure of their Diameters, you may find it in the Book beforementioned: and I cannot yet see any reason to make an alteration in those I then settled, altho I will not say they are without their faults.
For I can’t yet be of their mind, who think the use of micrometers, as they call them, is beyond that of our Plates, but must still think that those thin Plates or Rods of which I there taught the use, not to detract from the due praises of so useful an Invention, are more convenient than the Micrometers.
In this Proportion of the Planets it is worth while to take notice of the prodigious Magnitude of the Sun in comparison with the four innermost,  which are far less than Jupiter and Saturn. And ’tis remarkable, that the Bodies of the Planets do not increase together with their distances from the Sun, but that Venus is much bigger than Mars.
Having thus explain’d the two Schemes, there’s no body I suppose but, sees, that in the first the Earth is made to be of the same sort with the rest of the Planets. For the very Position of the Circles shows it. And that the other Planets are round like it, and like it receive all the Light they have from the Sun, there’s no room (since the Discoveries made by Telescopes) to doubt, Another thing they are like it in is, that they are moved round their own Axis; for since ’tis certain that Jupiter and Saturn are, who can doubt it of the others? Again, as the Earth has its Moon moving round it, so Jupiter and Saturn have theirs. Now since in so many things they thus agree, what can be more probable than that in others they agree too; and that the other Planets are as beautiful and as well stock’d with  Inhabitants as the Earth? or what shadow of Reason can there be why they should not?
If anyone should be at the dissection of a Dog, and be: there shewn the Intrails, the Heart, Stomach, Liver, Lungs and Guts, all the Veins, Arteries and Nerves; could such a Man reasonably doubt whether there were the same Contexture and Variety of Parts in a Bullock, Hog, or any other Beast, tho he had never chanc’d to see the like opening of them? I don’t believe he would. Or were we thorowly satisfy’d in the Nature of one of the Moons round Jupiter, should not we straight conclude the same of the rest of them? So if we could be assur’d in but one Comet, what it was that is the cause of that strange appearance, should we not make that a Standard to judg of all others by?
’Tis therefore an Argument of no small weight that is fetch’d from Relation and Likeness; and to reason from what we see and are sure of, to what we cannot, is no false Logick. This must be our Method in this Treatise,  wherein from the Nature and Circumstances of that Planet which we see before our eyes, we may guess at those that are farther distant from us.
And; First, ’tis more than probable that the Bodies of the Planets are solid like that of our Earth, and that they don’t want what we call Gravity, that Virtue, which like a Loadstone attracts whatsoever is near the Body to its Center. And that they have such a quality, their very Figure is a proof; for their Roundness proceeds only from an equal pressure of all their Parts tending to the same Center. Nay more, we are so skilful now adays, as to be able to tell how much more or less the Gravitation in Jupiter or Saturn is than here; of which Discovery and its Author you may read my Essay of the Causes of Gravitation.
But now to carry the search farther, let us see by what steps we must rise to the attaining some knowlege in the more private Secrets concerning the State and Furniture of these new Earths. And, first, how likely is it  that they may be stock’d with Plants and Animals as well as we? I suppose no body will deny but that there’s somewhat more of Contrivance, somewhat more of Miracle in the production and growth of Plants and Animals, than in lifeless heaps of inanimate Bodies, be they never so much larger; as Mountains, Rocks, or Seas are. For the finger of God, and the Wisdom of Divine Providence, is in them much more clearly manifested than in the other. One of Democritus’s or Cartes’s Scholars may venture perhaps to give some tolerable Explication of the appearances in Heaven and Earth, allow him but his Atoms and Motion; but when he comes to Plants and Animals, he’ll find himself non-plus’d, and give you no likely account of their Production. For every thing in them is so exactly adapted to some design, every part of them so fitted to its proper life, that they manifest an Infinite Wisdom, and exquisite Knowlege in the Laws of Nature and Geometry, as, to omit those Wonders in Generation, we shall by and by show; and  make it an absurdity even to think of their being thus haply jumbled together by a chance Motion of I don’t know what little Particles. Now should we allow the Planets nothing but vast Deserts, lifeless and inanimate Stocks and Stones, and deprive them of all those Creatures that more plainly speak their Divine Architect, we should sink them below the Earth in Beauty and Dignity; a thing that no Reason will permit, as I said before.
Well then, now we have gain’d the Point for them, and the Planets may be allow’d some Bodys capable of moving themselves, not at all inferior to ours, (for why should they?) and these are Animals. Now for fear of starving there poor Creatures, we must have Plants you know. And so the other Point is gain’d. And as for their Growth and Nourishment, ’tis no doubt the same with ours, seeing they have the same Sun to warm and enliven them as ours have.
But perhaps some body may say, we conclude too fast. They will not deny indeed but that there may be  Plants and Animals on the Surface of the Planets, that deserve as well to be provided for by their Creator as ours do: but why must they be of the same nature with ours? Nature seems to court variety in her Works, and may have made them widely different from ours either in their matter or manner of Growth, in their outward Shape, or their inward Contexture; she may have made them such as neither our Understanding nor Imagination can conceive. That’s the thing we shall now examin, and whether it be not more likely that she has not observ’d such a variety as they talk of. Nature seems most commonly, and in most of her Works, to affect Variety, ’tis true; But they should consider ’tis not the business of a man to pretend to settle how great this Difference and Variety must be. Nor does it follow, because it may be Infinite, and out of our comprehension and reach, that therefore things in reality are so. For suppose God should have pleased to have made all things there just as he has here, the Inhabitants of those Places (if there  are any such strange things) would admire his Wisdom and Contrivance no less than if they were widely different; seeing they can’t come to know what’s done in the other Planets. Who doubts but that God, if he had pleased, might have made the Animals in America and other distant Countries nothing like ours? (and Nature you know affects Variety) yet we see he has not done it. They have indeed some difference in their shape, and ’tis fit they should, to distinguish the Plants and Animals of those Countries from ours, who live on this side the Earth; but even in this variety there is an Agreement, an exact Correspondence in figure and shape, the same ways of Growth, and new Productions, and of continuing their own kind. Their Animals have Feet and Wings like ours, and like ours have Heart, Lungs, Guts, and the Parts serving to Generation; whereas all these things, as well with them as us, might, if it had so pleased Infinite Wisdom, have been order’d a very different way. ’Tis plain then that Nature has not exhibited that Variety in her Works that she could, and therefore we must not allow that weight to this Argument, as upon the account of it to make every thing in the Planets quite different from what is here. ’Tis more probable that all the difference there is between us and them, springs from the greater or less distance and influence from that Fountain of Heat and Life the Sun; which will cause a difference not so much in their Form and Shape, as in their Matter and Contexture.
And as for the matter whereof the Plants and Animals there consist, tho it is impossible ever to come to the knowlege of its Nature, yet this we may venture to assert (there being scarce any doubt of it) that their Growth and Nourishment proceeds from some liquid Principle. Far all Philosophers agree that there can be no other way of Nutrition; some of the chief among them having made Water to be the Original of all things: Far whatsoever’s dry and without moisture, is without motion too; and  without motion it’s impossible there should be any increase. But the parts of a Liquid being in continual motion one with another, and insinuating and twisting themselves into the smallest Places, are thereby very proper and apt to add not themselves only, but whatsoever else they may bring along with them to the increase and growth of Bodies. Thus we see that by the means of Water the Plants grow, blossom, and bear Fruit; and by the addition of that only, Stones grow together out of Sand. And there’s no doubt but that Metals, Crystals, and Jewels, have the same method of Production: Tho in them there has been no opportunity to make the same observation, as well by reason of their slow advances, as that they are commonly found far from the Places of their Generation; thrown up I suppose by some Earthquakes or Convulsions. That the Planets are not without Water, is made not improbable by the late Observations: For about Jupiter are observ’d some spots of a darker hue than the rest of his Body,  which by their continual change show themselves to be Clouds: For the spots of Jupiter which belong to him, and never remove from him, are quite different from these, being sometimes for a long time not to be seen for these Clouds; and again, when there disappear, showing themselves. And at the going off of these Clouds, some spots have been taken notice of in him, much brighter than the rest of his Body, which remain’d but a little while, and then were hid from our sight. These Monsieur Cassini thinks are only the Reflection from the Snow that covers the tops of the Hills in Jupiter: but I should rather think that it is only the colour of the Earth, which chances to be free from those Clouds that commonly darken it.
Mars too is found not to be without his dark spots, by means of which he has been observ’d to turn round his own Axis in 24 hours and 40 minutes; the length of his day: but whether he has Clouds or no, we have not had the same opportunity of observing as in Jupiter, as well because even when  he is nearest the Earth, he appears to us much less than Jupiter, as that his Light not coming so long a Journey, is so brisk as to be an Impediment to exact Observations: And this Reason is as much stronger in Venus as its Light is. But since ’tis certain that the Earth and Jupiter have their Water and Clouds, there is no reason why the other Planets should be without them.
I can’t say that they are exactly of the same nature with our Water; but that they should be liquid their use requires, as their beauty does that they should be clear. For this Water of ours, in Jupiter or Saturn, would be frozen up instantly by reason of the vast distance of the Sun. Every Planet therefore must have its Waters of such a temper, as to be proportion’d to its heat: Jupiter’s and Saturn’s must be of such a nature as not to be liable to Frost; and Venus’s and Mercury’s of such, as not to be easily evaporated by the Sun. But in all of them, for a continual supply of Moisture, whatever Water is drawn up by the Heat of the Sun into Vapors, must necessarily return back again thither. And this it cannot do but in drops, which are caused as well there as with us, by their ascending into a higher and colder Region of the Air, out of that which, by reason of the Reflection of the Rays of the Sun from the Earth, is warmer and more temperate.
Here then we have found in there new Worlds Fields warm’d by the kindly Heat of the Sun, and water’d with fruitful Dews and Showers: That there must be Plants in them as well for Ornament as Use, we have shewn just now. And what Nourishment, what manner of Growth shall we allow them? Why, I think there can be no better, nay no other, than what we here experience; by having their Roots fastned into the Earth, and imbibing its nourishing Juices by their tender Fibres. And lest they should be only like so many bare Heaths, with nothing but creeping Shrubs and Bushes, we’ll e’en send them some nobler and loftier Plants, Trees, or somewhat like them: These being the greatest, and, except Waters, the only  Ornament that Nature has bestow’d upon the Earth. For not to speak of those many uses that are made of their Wood, there’s no one that is ignorant either of their Beauty or Pleasantness. Now what way can anyone imagine for a continual Production and Succession of these Plants, but their bearing Seed? A Method so excellent that it’s the only one that Nature has here made use of, and so wonderful, that it seems to be design’d not far this Earth alone. In fine, there’s the same reason to think that this Method is observ’d in those distant Countries, as there was of its being follow’d in the remote Quarters of this same Earth.
’Tis much the same in Animals as ’tis in Plants, as to their manner of Nourishment, and Propagation of their kind. For since all the living Creatures of this Earth, whether Beasts, Birds, Fishes, Worms, or Insects, universally and inviolably follow the same constant and fixt Institution of Nature; all feed on Herbs, or Fruits, or the Flesh of other Animals that fed  on them: since all Generation is perform’d by the impregnating of the Eggs, and the Copulation of Male and Female: Why may not the same rule be observ’d in the Planetary Worlds? For’t is certain that the Herbs and Animals that are there would be lost, their whole Species destroy’d without some daily new Productions: except there be no such thing there as Misfortune or Accident: except the Plants are not like other humid Bodies, but can bear Heat, Frost and Age, without being dry’d up, kill’d, or decay’d: except the Animals have Bodies as hard and durable as Marble; which I think are gross Absurdities. If we should invent some new way for their coming into the World, and make them drop like Soland Geese from Trees, how ridiculous would this be to any one that considers the vast difference between Wood and Flesh? Or suppose we should have new ones made every day out of some such fruitful Mud as that of Nile, who does not see how contrary this is to all that’s reasonable? And that ’tis much more agreeable to  the Wisdom of God, once for all to create of all sorts of Animals, and distribute them all over the Earth in such a wonderful and inconceivable way as he has, than to be continually obliged to new Productions out of the Earth? And what miserable, what helpless Creatures must these be, when there’s no one that by his duty will be obliged, or by that strange natural fondness, which God has wisely made a necessary argument for all Animals to take care of their own, will be moved to assist, nurse or educate them?
As for what I have said concerning their Propagation, I cannot be so positive; but the other thing, namely, that they have Plants and Animals, I think I have fully proved. And by the same Argument, of their not being inferiour to our Earth, they must have as great a variety of both as we have. What this is, will be best known to him that considers the different ways our Animals make use of in moving from one place to another. Which may be reduc’d, I think, to these; either that they walk upon two feet or four; or like Insects, upon six, nay sometimes hundreds; or that they fly in the Air bearing up, and wonderfully steering themselves with their Wings; or creep upon the Ground without feet; or by a violent Spring in their Bodies, or paddling with their feet, cut themselves a way in the Waters. I don’t believe, nor can I conceive, that there should be any other way than these mention’d. The Animals then in the Planets must make use of one or more of these, like our amphibious Birds, which can swim in Water as well as walk on Land, or fly in the Air; or like our Crocodiles and Sea-Horses, must be Mongrels, between Land and Water. There can no other method be imagin’d but one of these. For where is it possible for Animals to live, except upon such a solid Body as our Earth, or a fluid one like the Water, or still a more fluid one than that, such as our Air is? The Air I confess may be much thicker and heavier than ours, and so, without any disadvantage to its Transparency, be fitter for the volatile Animals. There may be too many sorts of Fluids ranged over one another in rows as it were. The Sea perhaps may have such a fluid lying on it, which tho ten times lighter than Water, may be a hundred times heavier than Air; whose utmost Extent may not be so large as to cover the higher places of their Earth. But there’s no reason to suspect or allow them this, since we have no such thing; and if we did, it would be of no advantage to them, for that the former ways of moving would not be hereby at all increas’d: But when we come to meddle with the Shape of these Creatures, and consider the incredible variety that is even in those of the different parts of this Earth, and that America has some which are no where else to be found, I must then confess that I think it beyond the force of Imagination to arrive at any knowlege in the matter, or reach probability concerning the figures of these Planetary Animals. Altho considering these ways of Motion we e’en now recounted;  they may perhaps be no more different from ours than ours (those of ours I mean that are most unlike) are from one another.
If a man were admitted to a Survey of Jupiter or Venus, he would no doubt find as great a number and variety as he had at home. Let us then, that we may make as near a guess at, and as reasonable a judgment of the matter as we can, consider the many sorts, and the admirable difference in the shapes of our own Animals; running over some of the chief of them (for ’twould be tedious to set about a general Catalogue) that are notoriously different from one another, either in their Figure or some peculiar Property belonging to them; as they belong to the Land, or the Water, or the Air. Among the Beasts we may take notice of the great distance between the Horse, the Elephant, the Lion, the Stag, the Camel, the Hog, the Ape, the Porcupine, the Tortoise, the Cameleon: in the Water, of that between the Whale, and the Sea-Calf, the Skait, the Pike, the Eel, the Ink-Fish, the Pourcontrel, the Crocodile, the flying Fish, the Cramp Fish, the Crab, the Oister, and the Purple Fish: and among Birds, of that between the Eagle, the Ostrich, the Peacock, the Swan, the Owl, and the Bat: and in Insects, of that between the Ants, the Spider, the Fly, and the Butterfly; and of that Prodigy in their wonderful change from Worms. In this Roll I have pass’d by the creeping kind as one sort, and skip’d over that vast multitude of less different Animals that fill the intermediate spaces.
But be they never so many, there is no reason to think that the Planets cannot match them. For tho we in vain guess at the Figures of those Creatures, yet we have discover’d somewhat of their manner of Life in general; and of their Senses we shall more by and by.
The more considerable Differences in our Plants ought to be thought on, as well as the other. As in Trees, that between the Fir and the Oak, the Palm, the Vine, the Fig, and the Coca-Nut Tree, and that in the Indies, from whose Boughs new Roots spring;  and grow downwards into the Earth. In Herbs, the difference is notable between Grass, Poppy, Colewort, Ivy, Pompions, and the Indian Fig with thick Leaves growing up without any Stalk, and Aloe. Between everyone of which again there are many less differing Plants not taken notice of. Then the different ways of raising them are remarkable, whether from Seeds, or Kernels, or Roots, or by grafting or inoculating them. And yet in all these, whether we consider the things themselves, or the ways of their Production, I make no doubt but that the Planetary Worlds have as wonderful a variety as we.
But still the main and most diverting Point of the Enquiry is behind, which is the placing some Spectators in these new Discoveries, to enjoy these Creatures we have planted them with, and to admire their Beauty and Variety. And among all, that have never so slightly meddled with these matters, I don’t find any that have scrupled to allow them their Inhabitants: not Men perhaps like ours, but  some Creatures or other endued with Reason. For all this Furniture and Beauty the Planets are stock’d with seem to have been made in vain, without any design or end, unless there were some in them that might at the same time enjoy the Fruits, and adore the wise Creator of them. But this alone would be no prevailing Argument with me to allow them such Creatures. For what if we should say, that God made them for no other design, but that he himself might see (not as we do ’tis true; but that he that made the Eye sees, who can doubt?) and delight himself in the contemplation of them? For was not Man himself, and all that the whole World contains, made upon this very account? That which makes me of this opinion, that those Worlds are not without such a Creature endued with Reason, is, that otherwise our Earth would have too much the advantage of them, in being the only part of the Universe that could boast of such a Creature so far above, not only Plants and Trees, but all  Animals whatsoever: a Creature that has a Divine somewhat within him, that knows, and understands, and remembers such an innumerable number of things; that deliberates, weighs and judges of the Truth: a Creature upon whose account, and for whose use, whatsoever the Earth brings forth seems to be provided. For every thing here he converts to his own ends. With the Trees, Stones, and Metals, he builds himself Houses: the Birds and Fishes he sustains himself with: and the Water and Winds he makes subservient to his Navigation; as he doth the sweet Smell and glorious Colours of the Flowers to his Delight. What can there be in the Planets that can make up for its Defects in the want of so noble an Animal? If we should allow Jupiter a greater variety of other Creatures, more Trees, Herbs and Metals, all these would not advantage or dignify that Planet so much as that one Animal doth ours by the admirable Productions of his penetrating Wit. If I am out in this, I do not know when  to trust my Reason, and must allow my self to be but a poor Judg in the true estimate of things.
Nor let anyone say here, that there’s so much Villany and Wickedness in this Man that we have thus magnified, that it’s a reasonable doubt, whether he would not be so far from being the Glory and Ornament of the Planet that enjoys his Company, that he would be rather its Shame and Disgrace. For first, the Vices that most Men are tainted with, are no hindrance, but that those that follow the Dictates of true Reason, and obey the Rules of a rigid Virtue, are still a Beauty and Ornament to the place that has the happiness to harbour them. Besides, the Vices of Men themselves are of excellent use, and are not permitted and allow’d in the World without wise design. For since it has so pleased God to order the Earth, and every thing in it as we see it is (for it’s nonsense to say it happen’d against his Will or Knowlege) we must not think that those different Opinions, and that various multiplicity of Minds  were plac’d in different Men to no end or purpose: but that this mixture of bad Men with good, and the Consequents of such a mixture, as Misfortunes, Wars, Afflictions, Poverty, and the like, were given us for this very good end, viz. the exercising our Wits, and sharpening our Inventions; by forcing us to provide for our own necessary defence against our Enemies.
’Tis to the fear of Poverty and Misery that we are beholden for all our Arts, and for that natural Knowlege which was the product of laborious Industry; and which makes us that we cannot but admire the Power and Wisdom of the Creator, which otherwise we might have pass’d by with the same indifference as Beasts. And if Men were to lead their whole Lives in an undisturb’d continual Peace, in no fear of Poverty, no danger of War, I don’t doubt they would live little better than Brutes, without all knowlege or enjoyment of those Advantages that make our Lives pass on with pleasure and profit. We should want the wonderful Art of Writing, if its great  use and necessity in Commerce and War had not forc’d out the Invention. ’Tis to these we owe our Art of Sailing, our Art of Sowing, and most of those Discoveries of which we are Masters; and almost all the Secrets in experimental Knowlege. So that those very things that make up their Indictment against Reason, are no small helps to its advancement and perfection. For those Virtues themselves, Fortitude and Constancy; would be of no use if there were no Dangers, no Adversity, no Afflictions for their exercise and trial.
If we should therefore imagine in the Planets some such reasonable Animal as Man is, adorn’d with the same Virtues, and infected with the same Vices, it would be so far from degrading or vilifying them, that while they want such a one, I must think them inferior to our Earth.
Well, but allowing these Planetarians some sort of Reason must it needs be the same with ours? Why truly I think ’tis, and must be so; whether we consider it as applied to Justice and  Morality, or exercised in the Principles and Foundations of Science. For Reason with us is that which gives us a true sense of Justice and Honesty, Praise, Kindness and Gratitude: ’tis that that teaches us to distinguish universally between Good and Bad; and renders us capable of Knowlege and Experience in it. And can there be any where a Reason contrary to this? or can what we call just and generous in Jupiter or Mars be thought unjust Villany? This is not at all, I don’t say probable, but possible. For the aim and design of the Creator is every where the preservation and safety of his Creatures. Now when such a Reason as we are masters of, is necessary for the preservation of Life, and promoting of Society (a thing that they be not without, as we shall show) would it not be strange that the Planetarians should have such a perverse sort of Reason given them, as would necessarily destroy and confound what it was design’d to maintain and defend? But allowing Morality and Passions with those Gentlemen to be somewhat  different from ours, and supposing they may act by other principles in what belongs to Friendship, and Anger, Hatred, Honesty, Modesty, and Comeliness, yet still there would be no doubt, but that in the search after Truth, in judging of the Consequences of things, in reasoning, particularly in that sort which belongs to Magnitude or Quantity, about which their Geometry (if they have such a thing) is employ’d, there would be no doubt I say, but that their Reason here must be exactly the same, and go the same way to work with ours, and that what’s true in one part will hold true over the whole Universe; so that all the difference must lie in the degrees of Knowlege, which will be proportional to the Genius and Capacity of the Inhabitants.
But I perceive I am got a little too far: For till I have furnished them with Senses, neither will Life be any pleasure to them, nor Reason of any use. And I think it very probable, that all their Animals, as well their Beasts as rational Creatures, are like  ours in all that relates to the Senses: For without the power of Seeing we should find it impossible for Animals to provide Food for themselves, or be forewarn’d of any approaching danger, so as to guard themselves from it. So that where-ever we plant any Animals, except we would have them lead the Life of Worms or Moles, we must allow them Sight; than which nothing can conduce more either to the preservation or pleasure of their Lives.
Then if we consider the wonderful nature of Light, and the amazing Artifice in the fit framing the eye for the reception of it, we cannot but see that Bodies so vastly remote could not be view’d by us in their proper Figures and just Distances, any other way than by Sight. For this Sense, and all others that we know of, must proceed from an external Motion. Which in the sense of Seeing must come either from the Sun, the fixt Stars, or Fire: whose Particles being whirled about with a rapid Motion, communicate it to the Celestial Matter about, whence ’tis convey’d in an instant to the most  distant parts, just like Sound through the Air. If it were not for this Motion of the intermediate Matter, we should be all in darkness, and have sight neither of Sun nor Stars, nor any thing else, for all other Light must come to us at second-hand from them. This Motion perceived by the Eyes is called Light. And the nice Curiosity of this Perception is admirable, in that it is caused by the smallest Particle of that fine Matter, and can at the same time determine the Coast from whence the Motion comes; in that all these different Roads of Motion, these Waves crossing and interfering with one another, are yet no hindrance to every ones free passage. All these things are so wisely, so wonderfully contrived, that it’s above the power of humane Wit, not to invent or frame somewhat like them, but even to imagine and comprehend them. For what can be more amazing, than that a Particle of Body should be so devised and framed, as by its means to show us the Shape, the Position, the Distance, and all the Motions, nay and all the  Colours, distinguishing of a Body that is far remote from us? And then the artful Composition of the Eye, drawing an exact Picture of the Objects without it, upon the concave side of the Choroides, is even above all admiration, nor is there any thing in which God has more plainly manifested his excellent Geometry. And these things are not only contrived and framed with so great Wisdom and Skill, as not to admit of better, but to any one that considers them attentively, they seem to be of such a nature as not to allow any other Method. For it’s impossible that Light should represent Objects to us at so vast a distance, except by such an intervening Motion; and it’s as impossible that any other Composition of the Eye should be equally fitted to the reception of such Impressions. So that I cannot but think them mightily out, that maintain these things might have been contrived many other ways. It’s likely then, and credible, that in these things the Planets have an exact correspondence with us, and that their Animals  have the same Organs, and use the same way of sight that we do. Well then they have Eyes, and two at least we must grant them, otherwise they would not perceive some things close to them, and so could not avoid Mischiefs that take them on the blind side. And if we must allow them all Animals for the preservation of their Life, how much more must they that make more, and more noble uses of them, not be deprived of the Blessing of so advantageous Members? For by them we view the various Flowers, and the elegant Features of Beauty: with them we read, we write, we contemplate the Heavens and Stars, and measure their Distances, Magnitudes, and Journeys: which how far they are common to the Inhabitants of those Worlds with us, I shall strait examine.
But first I shall enquire whether now we have given them one, we may not venture upon the other four Senses, to make them as good Men as our selves. And truly Hearing puts in hard, and almost perswades me to give it a share in the Animals of those new Countries. And ’tis of great consequence in defending us from sudden accidents; and, especially when Seeing is of no use to us, it supplys its place, and gives us seasonable warning of any imminent danger. Besides, we see many Animals call their fellows to them with their Voice, which Language may have more in it than we are aware of, tho we don’t understand it. But if we do but consider the vast uses and necessary occasions of Speaking on the one side, and Hearing on the other, among those Creatures that make use of their Reason, it will scarce seem credible that two such useful, such excellent things were designed only for us. For how is it possible but that they that are without these, must be without many other Necessaries and Conveniences of Life? Or what can they have to recompense this want?
Then, if we go still farther, and do but meditate upon the neat and frugal Contrivance of Nature in making this same Air, by the drawing in of which we live, by whose Motion we sail, and by whose means Birds fly, for a  conveyance of Sound to our ears; and this Sound for the conveyance of another man’s Thoughts to our Minds: can we ever imagin that she has left those other Worlds destitute of so vast Advantages? That they don’t want the means of them is certain, for their having Clouds in Jupiter puts it past doubt that they have Air too; that being mostly formed of the Particles of Water flying about, as the Clouds are of them gathered into small Drops. And another proof of it is, the necessity of breathing for the preservation of Life, a thing that seems to be as universal a Dictate of Nature, as feeding upon the Fruits of the Earth.
As for Feeling, it seems to be given upon necessity to all Creatures that are cover’d with a fine and sensible Skin, as a Caution against coming too near those things that may injure or incommode them: and without it they would be liable to continual Wounds, Blows and Bruises. Nature seems to have been so sensible of this; that she has not left the least place free from such a perception. Therefore it’s probable that the Inhabitants of those Worlds are not without so necessary a Defence, and so fit a Preservative against Dangers and Mishaps.
And who is there that doth not see the inevitable necessity for all Creatures that live by feeding to have both Tast and Smell, that they may distinguish those things that are good and nourishing, from those that are mischievous and harmful? If therefore we allow the Planetary Creatures to feed upon Herbs, Seeds, or Flesh, we must allow them a distinguishing Tast and Smell too, that they may chuse or refuse any thing according as they find it likely to be advantagious or noxious to them.
I know that it hath been a question with many, whether there might not have been more Senses than those five. If we should allow this, it might nevertheless be reasonably doubted whether the Senses of the Planetary Inhabitants are much different from ours. I must confess, I cannot deny but there might possibly have been more Senses; but when I consider the Uses  of those we have, I cannot think but they would have been superfluous. The Eye was made to discern near and remote Objects, the Ear to give us notice of what our Eyes could not, either in the dark or behind our back: Then what neither the Eye nor the Ear could, the Nose was made (which in Dogs is wonderfully nice) to warn us of. And what escapes the notice of the other four Senses, we have Feeling to inform us of the too near approaches of, before it can do us any mischief. Thus has Nature so plentifully, so perfectly provided for the necessary preservation of her Creatures here, that I think she can give nothing more to those there, but what will be needless and superfluous. Yet the Senses were not wholly design’d for use: but Men from all, and all other Animals from some of them, reap Pleasure as well as Profit, as from the Tast in delicious Meats; from the Smell in Flowers and Perfumes; from the Sight in the contemplation of beauteous Shapes and Colours; from the Hearing in the sweetness and harmony of Sounds; from the Feeling in Venery, unless you please to count that for a particular Sense by it self.
Since it is thus, I think ’tis but reasonable to allow the Inhabitants of the Planets these same advantages that we have from them. For upon this consideration only, how much happier and easier a man’s Life is render’d by the enjoyment of them, we must be obliged to grant them these Blessings, except we would ingross every thing that is good to our selves, as if we were worthier and more deserving than any else. But moreover, that Pleasure which we perceive in eating or in copulation, seems to be a necessary and provident Command of Nature, whereby it tacitly compels us to the preservation and continuance of our Life and Kind. It is the same in Beasts. So that both for their happiness and preservation it’s very probable the rest of the Planets are not without it. Certainly when I consider all these things, how great, noble, and useful they are; when I consider what an admirable Providence it is  that there’s such a thing as Pleasure in the World, I can’t but think that our Earth, the smallest part almost of the Universe, was never design’d to monopolize so great a Blessing. And thus much for those Pleasures which affect our bodily Senses, but have little or no relation to our Reason and Mind. But there are other Pleasures which Men enjoy, which their Soul only and Reason can relish: some airy and brisk, others grave and solid, and yet nevertheless Pleasures, as arising from the Satisfaction which we feel in Knowlege and Inventions, and searches after Truth, of which whether the Planetary Inhabitants are not partakers, we shall have an opportunity of enquiring by and by.
There are some other things to be consider’d first, in which it’s probable they have some relation to us. That the Planets have those Elements of Earth, Air, and Water, as well as we, I have already made not unlikely.
Let us now see whether they may not have Fire too: which is not so properly call’d an Element, as a rapid  Motion of the Particles in the inflammable Body. But be it what it will, there are many Arguments for their not being without it. For this Earth is not so truly call’d the Place of Fire as the Sun: and as by the heat of that all Plants and Animals here thrive and live; so, no doubt, is it in the other Planets. Since then Fire is caused by a most intense and vigorous Heat, it follows that the Planets, especially those nearer the Fountain of it, have their proportionate degrees of Heat and Fire. And when there are so many ways of its Production, as by the collection of the Rays of the Sun, by the reflection of Mirrors, by the striking of Flint and Steel, by the rubbing of Wood, by the close loading of moist Grass, by Lightning, by the eruptions of Mountains and Volcanos, it’s strange if neither Art should have produc’d it, nor Nature effected it there by one of these many means. Then how useful and necessary is it to us? By it we drive away Cold, and supply the want of the Sun in those Countries where his oblique Rays  make a less vigorous Impression, and so keep a great part of the Earth from being an uninhabited Desart: which is equally necessary in all the Planets, whether we allow them Succession of Seasons, or a, perpetual Spring and Æquinox: for even then the Countries near the Pole would receive but little advantage from the Heat of the Sun. By the help of this we turn the night into day, and thereby make a considerable addition to the shortness so our Lives. Upon all these accounts I must not let this Earth of ours enjoy it all alone, and exclude all the other Planets from so advantageous and so profitable a Gift.
But perhaps it maybe asked as well concerning Brutes as rational Creatures, and of their Plants and Trees too, whether they are proportionably larger or less than ours. For if the Magnitude of the Planets was to be the Standard of their measure, there would be Animals in Jupiter ten or fifteen times larger than Elephants, and as much longer than our Whales. And then their Men must be mere Goliahs,  in respect of our Pygmiships. Now tho I don’t see any so great absurdity in this as to make it impossible, yet there is no reason to think it is really so, seeing Nature has not always ty’d her self to those Rules which we have thought more convenient for her: for example, the magnitude of the Planets is not answerable to their distances from the Sun; but Mars, tho more remote, is far less than Venus: and Jupiter turns round his Axis in ten hours, when the Earth which is much lees than him, spends 24. But since Nature, perhaps some body will say, has not observ’d such a Regularity in the proportion of things, for ought we know we may have a Race of Pygmies about the bigness of Frogs and Mice, possess’d of the Planets. But I shall show that this is very improbable by and by.
There may arise another Question, whether there be in the Planets but one or more sorts of rational Creatures possess’d of different degrees of Reason and Sense. There is something not unlike this to be observ’d among  us. For to pass by those who have human Shape (altho some of them would very well bear that enquiry too) if we do but consider some sorts of Beasts, as the Dog, the Ape, the Beaver, the Elephant, nay some Birds and Bees, what sense and Understanding they are masters of, we shall be forc’d to allow, that Man is not the only rational Animal. For we discover somewhat in them of Reason independent on, and prior to all teaching and practice.
But still no body can doubt, but that the Understanding and Reason of Man is to be prefer’d to theirs as being comprehensive of innumerable things, indued with an infinite memory of what’s past, and capable of providing against what’s to come. That there is some such rational Creature in the other Planets, which is the Head and Sovereign of the rest, is very reasonable to believe: for otherwise, were many endued with the same Wisdom and Cunning, we should have them always doing mischief, always quarrelling and fighting one another  for Empire and Sovereignty, a thing that we feel too much of where we have but one such Creature. But to let that pass, our next Enquiry shall be concerning those Animals in the Planets which are furnish’d with the greatest Reason, whether it’s possible to know wherein they employ it, and whether they have made as great advances in Arts and Knowlege as we in our Planet. Which deserves most to be consider’d and examin’d of any thing belonging to their nature; and for the better performance of it we must take our rise somewhat higher, and nicely view the Lives and Studies of Men.
And in those things wherein Men provide and take care only of what’s absolutely necessary for the preservation of their Life; in defending themselves from the Injuries of the Air; in securing themselves against the Incursions of Enemies by Walls; and against Fraud and Disturbances by Laws; in educating their Children, and providing for themselves and them: In all these I can see no great  reason that Man has to boast of the preeminency of his Reason above Beasts and other Animals. For most of these things they perform with greater ease and art than us, and some of them they have no need of. For that sense of Virtue and Justice in which Man excels, of Friendship, Gratitude and Honesty, of what use are they, but either to put a stop to the Wickedness of Men, or to secure us from mutual Assaults and Injuries, a thing wherein the Beasts want no Guide but Nature and Inclination? Then if we set before our eyes the manifold Cares, the disturbances of Mind, the restless Desires, the dread of Death, that are the result of this our Reason; and compare them with that easy, quiet, and harmless Life which other Animals enjoy, we should be apt to wish a change, and conclude that they, especially Birds, liv’d with more pleasure and happiness than Man could with all his Wisdom. For they have as great a gusto of bodily Pleasures as we, let the new Philosophers say what they will, who would  have them go for nothing but Clocks and Engines of Flesh; a thing which Beasts so plainly confute by crying and running away from a stick, and all other actions, that I wonder how anyone could subscribe to so absurd and cruel an Opinion. Nay I can scarce doubt but that Birds feel no small pleasure in their easy, smooth sailing through the Air; and would much more if they but knew the advantages it hath above our slow and laborious Progression.
What is it then after all that sets human Reason above all other, and makes us preferable to the rest of the Animal World? Nothing in my mind so much as the contemplation of the Works of God, and the study of Nature, and the improving those Sciences which may bring us to some knowlege in their Beauty and Variety. For without Knowlege what would be Contemplation? And what difference is there between a Man, who with a careless supine negligence views the Beauty and Use of the Sun, and the fine golden Furniture of the Heaven, and one  who with a learned Niceness searches into their Courses; who understands wherein the Fixt Stars, as they are call’d, differ from the Planets, and what is the reason of the regular Vicissitude of the Seasons; who by sound reasoning can measure the magnitude and distance of the Sun and Planets? Or between such a one as admires perhaps the nimble Activity and strange Motions of some Animals, and one that knows their whole Structure, understands the whole Fabrick and Architecture of their Composition?
If therefore the Principle we before laid down be true, that the other Planets are not inferior in dignity to ours, what follows but that they have Creatures not to stare and wonder at the Works of Nature only, but who employ their Reason in the examination and knowlege of them, and have made as great advances therein as we have? They do not only view the Stars, but they improve the Science of Astronomy: nor is there any thing can make us think this improbable, but that fond conceitedness of every thing that we  call our own, and that pride that is too natural to us to be easily laid down. But I know some will say, we are a little too bold in these Assertions of the Planets, and that we mounted hither by many Probabilities, one of which, if it chance to be false, and contrary to our supposition, would, like a bad Foundation, ruin the whole Building, and make it fall to the ground. But I would have them to know, that all I have said of their Knowlege in Astronomy, has proofs enough, antecedent to those we now produc’d. For supposing the Earth, as we did, one of the Planets of equal dignity and honor with the rest, who would Venture to say, that no where else were to be found any that enjoy’d the glorious sight of Nature’s Opera? Or if there were any fellow-Spectators, yet we were the only ones that had dived deep into the secrets and knowlege of it? So then here’s a proof not so far fetch’d for the Astronomy of the Planets, the same which we used for their having rational Creatures, and enjoying the other advantages we before talk’d of, which serves at the same time for the confirmation of our former Conjectures. But if Amazement and Fear at the Eclipses of the Moon and Sun gave the first occasion to the study of Astronomy, as they say it did, then it’s almost impossible that Jupiter and Saturn should be without it; the Argument being of much greater force in them, by reason of the; daily Eclipses of their Moons, and the frequent ones of the Sun to their Inhabitants. So that if a Person disinterested in his Judgment, and equally ignorant of the Affairs of all the Planets, were to give his Opinion in the matter, I don’t doubt he would give the cause for Astronomy to those two Planets rather than us.
This supposition of their Knowlege and Use of Astronomy in the Planetary World, will afford us many new Conjectures about their manner of life, and their state as to other things.
For, First: No Observations of the Stars, that are necessary to the knowlege of their Motions, can be made without Instruments; nor can  these be made without Metal, Wood, or some such solid Body. Here’s a necessity of allowing them the Carpenters Tools, the Saw, the Ax, the Plane, the Mallet, the File: and the making of these requires the use of Iron, or some equally hard Metal.
Again, these Instruments can’t be without a Circle divided into equal Parts, or a streight line into unequal. Here’s a necessity for introducing Geometry and Arithmetick.
Then the necessity in such Observations of marking down the Epochas or Accounts of Time, and of transmitting them to Posterity, will force us to grant them the Art of Writing; I won’t say the same with ours which is commonly used, but I dare affirm not more ingenious or easy. For how much more ready and expeditious is our way, than by that multitude of Characters used in China; and how vastly preferable to Knots tied in Cords, or the Pictures in use; among the barbarous People of Mexico and Peru? There’s no Nation in the World but has some way or other of writing and marking down  their Thoughts: So that it’s no wonder if the Planetarians have been taught it by that great School-mistress Necessity, and apply it to the study of Astronomy and other Sciences. In Astronomical matters the necessity of it is moreover apparent from hence, that the motion of the Stars is as ’twere to be fancied and guess’d at in different Systems, and these Systems to be continually improved and corrected, as later and more exact Observations shall convince the old ones of faults: all which can never be deliver’d down to succeeding Generations, unless we make use of Letters and Figures.
But for all our large and liberal allowances to these Gentlemen, they will still be behind-hand with us, For we have so certain a knowlege of the true System and Frame of the Universe; we have so admirable an Invention of Telescopes to help our failing Eye-sight in the view of the bigness and different forms of the Planetary Bodies, in the discovery of the Mountains, and the Shadows of them on  the Surface of the Moon, in the bringing to light an innumerable multitude of Stars otherwise invisible, that we must necessarily be far their Masters in that Knowlege. What must I do here? I could find in my heart (and I can see no reason why I may not, except it be to flatter and complement our selves in being the only People that have the advantage of such excellent Inventions) either to allow these Planetary Inhabitants such sharp Eyes as not to need them, or else the use of Glasses to help the deficiency of their Sight. And yet I dare not, for fear People should be so disturbed at the ridiculous Extravagancy of such an Opinion, as to take the measure of my other Conjectures by it, and hiss them all off, upon the account of this alone.
But some body may perhaps object, and that not without reason at first sight, that the Planetarians it’s likely are destitute of all refined Knowlege, just as the Americans were before they had Commerce with the Europeans. For if one considers the Ignorance of  those Nations, and of others in Asia and Africa equally barbarous, it will appear as if the main design of the Creator in placing Men upon the Earth was that they might live, and, in a just sense of all the Blessings and Pleasure they enjoy, worship the Fountain of their Happiness; but that some bold fellows have leapt over the bounds of Nature, and made searches into those forbidden depths only out of an affectation of knowing more than they were made for. There does not want an Answer for these Men. For God could not but foresee the advances Men would make, in their enquiring into the Affairs of Heaven: that they would discover Arts useful and advantageous to Life: that they would cross the Seas, and dig up the Bowels of the Earth. Nothing of all this could happen contrary to the Mind and Knowlege of the Infinite Author of all things. And if he foresaw these things would be, he so appointed and destin’d them to human kind. And the Studies of Arts and Sciences cannot be said to be contrary to Nature, since in the search thereof they are employ’d: especially if we consider the natural desire and love of Knowlege, rooted in all men. For it’s impossible this should have been given them upon no design or account. But they will urge, that if such a Knowlege is natural, if we were born for it, why are there so very few, especially in Astronomy, that prosecute these Studies? For Europe is the only Quarter of the Earth in which there have been any advancements made in Astronomy. And as for the Judicial Astrology, that pretends to foretel what is to come, it is such a ridiculous, and oftentimes mischievous Folly, that I do not think it fit to be so much as named. And even in Europe, not one in a hundred thousand meddles with these Studies. Besides, its Original and Rise is so late, that many Ages were past before the very first Rudiments of Astronomy or Geometry (which is necessary to the learning of it) were known. For every body is acquainted almost with its first beginnings in Egypt and Greece. Add to  this, that ’tis not yet above fourscore years since the bungling Epicycles were discarded, and the true and easy plain Motion of the Planets was discover’d. For the satisfaction of these Scruples, to what we said before, concerning the Fore-knowlege of God, may be added this; That God never design’d we should come into the World Astronomers or Philosophers ; these Arts are not infus’d into us at our birth, but were order’d, in long tracts of Time, by degrees to be the rewards and result of laborious Diligence: especially those Sciences which are now in debate, are so much the more difficult and abstruse, that their late Invention and slow Progress are so far from being a wonder, that it is rather strange they were ever discover’d at all. There are but few, I acknowlege one or two perhaps, in an age, that pursue them, or think them their business: but their number will be very considerable if we take in those that have liv’d in all the ages in which Astronomy hath flourished: and no body can deny them that happiness and contentment which  they have pretended to above all others. In fine, it was sufficient that so small a number should make it their study; so that the Profit and Advantage of their Inventions might but spread it self over all the World. Since then the Inhabitants of this Earth, let them be never so few, have had Parts and Genius sufficient for the attainment of this Knowlege; and there’s no reason to think the Planetarians less ingenious or happy than our selves; we have gained our point, and ’tis probable that they are as skilful Astronomers as we can pretend to be. So that now we may venture to deduce some Consequences from such a Supposition.
We have before show’d the necessary Dependence and Connexion, not only of Geometry and Arithmetick, but of mechanical Arts and Instruments with this Science. This leads us naturally to the enquiry how they can use these Instruments and Engines for the observation of the Stars, how they can write down such their Observations, and perform other things which we do with our hands.
So  that we must necessarily give them hands, or some other Member, as convenient for all those uses, instead of them. I know an antient Philosopher laid such stress upon the use and conveniency of the hands, that he made no scruple to affirm, they were the cause and foundation of all our Knowlege. By which, I suppose, he meant no more, than that without their help and assistance men could never arrive to the improvement of their Minds in natural Knowlege: And truly not without reason. For suppose instead of them they had had Hoofs like Horses or Bullocks given them, they might have laid indeed the model and design of them in their Head, but they would never have been able to have built Cities and Houses. They would have had no Subject of Discourse but what belong’d to their Victuals, Marriages, or Self-preservation. They would have been void of all Knowlege and Memory, and indeed would have been but one degree distant from brute Beasts. What could we invent or imagine that could be so  exactly accommodated to all the design’d uses as the Hands are? Shall we give them an Elephants Proboscis. ’Tis true, these Beasts can lay hold of, or throw any thing, can take up even the smallest things from the Ground, and can perform such admirable feats with it, that it has not very improperly been call’d their Hand, tho indeed it is nothing but a Nose somewhat longer than ordinary. Nor do Birds show less Art and Design in the use of their Bills in the picking up their Meat, and the wonderful composure of their Nests. But all this is nothing to those Conveniences the Hand is so admirably suted to; nothing to that amazing contrivance in its capacity of being stretch’d, or contracted, or turned to any part as occasion shall require. And then, to pass by that nice Sense that the ends of the Fingers are endued with, even to the feeling and distinguishing most sorts of Bodies in the dark, what Wisdom and Art is show’d in the disposition of the Thumb and Fingers, so as to take up or keep fast hold of any thing we please? Either then the Gentlemen that live there must have Hands, or somewhat equally convenient, which is no easy matter; or else we must say that Nature has been kinder not only to us, but even to Squirrels and Monkeys than them.
That they have Feet scarce anyone can doubt, that does but consider what we said but just now of the different methods of Progression, which it’s hard to imagin can be perform’d any other ways than what we there recounted. And, of all those, there’s none can agree so well with the state of the Planetarians, as that that we here make use of. Except (what is not very probable, if they live in Society, as I shall show they do) they have found out the art of flying in some of these Worlds.
The Stature and Shape of Men here does show forth the Divine Providence so much in its being so fitly adapted to its design’d Uses, that it is not without reason that all the Philosophers have taken notice of it nor without probability that the Planetarians have their Eyes and Countenance upright, like us, for the more convenient and easy Contemplation and Observations of the Stars. And the Wisdom of the Creator is so observable, so praiseworthy in the position of the other Members; in the convenient situation of the Eyes, as Watches in the higher Region of the Body; in the removing of the more uncomly parts out of sight as ’twere; that we cannot but think he has almost observed the same Method in the Bodies of those remote Inhabitants.
Nor does it follow from hence that they must be of the same shape with us. For there is such an infinite possible variety of Figures to be imagined, that both the Oeconomy of their whole Bodies, and every part of them; may be quite distinct and different from ours. How warmly and conveniently are some Creatures clothed with Wool, and how finely are others deck’d and adorn’d with Feathers? Perhaps among the rational Creatures in the Planets there may some such distinction be observ’d in their Garb and Covering; a thing in which Men are apt to envy the happiness of Beasts, tho perhaps without reason. For men might be born naked, only perhaps for the employment and exercising their Wits, in the inventing and making that Attire that Nature had made necessary for them. And ’tis this necessity that has been the greatest, if not only occasion of all the Trade and Commerce of all the Mechanical Inventions and Discoveries that we are masters of. Besides, Nature might have another great Conveniency in her eye, by bringing men into the World naked, namely, that they might accommodate themselves to all places of the World, and go thicker or thinner cloth’d, according as the Season and Climate they liv’d in required. There may still be a greater difference between us and them; for there is a sort of Animals in the World, as Oysters, Lobsters, and Crab-fish, whose Flesh is on the inside of their Bones as ’twere. What if the Planetarians should be such? O no, some body will say, it would be a hideous sight,  so ugly, that Nature has not made any but her refuse and meaner Creatures of such an odd Composition. As for that, I should not be at all moved with their ugly shape, if it were not, that hereby they would be deprived of that quick easy motion of their Hands and Fingers, which is so useful and necessary to them.
For ’tis a very ridiculous opinion, that the common people have got among them, that it is impossible a rational Soul should dwell in any other shape than ours. And yet as silly as ’tis, it has been the occasion of many Philosophers allowing the Gods no other shape; nay, the Foundation of a Sect among the Christians, that from hence have the name of Anthropomorphites. This can proceed from nothing but the Weakness, Ignorance, and Prejudice of Men; as well as that too of humane Figure being the handsomest and most excellent of all others, when indeed it’s nothing but a being accustomed to that figure that makes us think so, and a conceit that we and all other Animals naturally have, that no shape or colour can be so good as our own. Yet methinks this fancy has such a rule upon my mind, that I cannot without horror and impatience suffer any other figure for the habitation of a reasonable Soul. For when I do but represent to my Imagination or Eyes a Creature like a Man in every thing else, but that has a Neck four times as long, and great round sawcer Eyes five or six times as big, and farther distant, I cannot look upon’t without the utmost aversion, altho at the same time I can give no account of my Dislike.
As I was talking somewhat above of the Stature of the Planetary Inhabitants, I hinted that ’twas improbable they should be less than we are. For it’s likely, that as our Bodies are made in such a proportion to our Earth, as to render us capable of travelling about it, and making Observations upon its bulk and figure, the same Order is observ’d in the Inhabitants of the other Planets, except here too our Pride put in for our Preeminence. Then seeing we have before  allow’d them Astronomy and Observations, we must give them Bodies and Strength sufficient for the ruling their Instruments, and the erecting their Tubes and Engines. And for this the larger they are the better. For if we should make them little Fellows about the bigness of Rats or Mice, they could neither make such Observations as are requisite; nor such Instruments as are necessary to those Observations. Therefore we must suppose them larger than, or at least equal to our selves, especially in Jupiter and Saturn, which are so vastly bigger than the Planet which we inhabit.
Astronomy, we said before, could never subsist without the writing down the Observations: nor could the Art of Writing (any more than the Carpenters and Founders) ever be found out except in a Society of reasonable Creatures, where the necessities of Life forc’d them upon Invention: So that what I promis’d to prove follows from hence, namely, that the Planetarians must in this be like us, that they maintain a Society and Fellowship with, and afford mutual Assistances and Helps to one another. Hereupon we must allow them a settled, not a wandring Scythian way of living, as more convenient for men in such circumstances. But what then? Shall they have every thing else proper for such a manner of living granted them too? Shall they have their Governours, Houses, Cities, Trade, and Bartering? Why not? when even the barbarous People of America and other places were at their first discovery found to have somewhat of that nature in use among them. I won’t say, that things must be the same there as they are here. We have many that may very well be spared among rational Creatures, and were design’d only for the preservation of Society from all Injury, and for the curbing of those men who make an ill use of their Reason to the detriment of others, Perhaps in the Planets they have such plenty and affluence of all good things, as they neither need or desire to steal from one another; perhaps they may be so just and good as to be at perpetual  Peace, and never to lie in wait for, or take away the Life of their Neighbour: perhaps they may not know what Anger or Hatred are; which we to our cost and misery know too too well. But still it’s more likely they have such a medly as we, such a mixture of good with bad, of wise with fools, of war with peace, and want not that Schoolmistress of Arts Poverty. For these things are of no small use: and if there were no other, ’twould, be reason enough that we are as good Men as themselves.
What I am now going to say may seem somewhat more bold, and yet is not less likely than the former. For if these new Nations live in Society, as I have pretty well show’d they do, ’tis somewhat more than probable that they enjoy not only the Profit, but the Pleasures arising from such a Society: such as Conversation, Amours, Jesting, and Sights. Otherwise we should make them live like so many Catos, without Diversion or Merriment; we should deprive them of the great Sweetness of Life, which it can’t well  be without, and give our selves such an advantage over them as Reason will by no means admit of.
But to proceed to a farther Enquiry into their Business and Employment, let’s consider what we have not already mention’d, wherein they may bear any likeness to us. And first we have good reason to believe they build themselves Houses, because we are sure they be not without their Showers. For in Jupiter have been observ’d Clouds, big no doubt with Vapors and Water, which hath been proved by many other Arguments, not to be wanting in that Planet. They have then their Rain, for otherwise how could all the Vapors drawn up by the heat of the Sun be disposed of? and their Winds, for they are caused only by Vapors dissolved by heat, and it’s plain that they blow in Jupiter by the continual motion and variety of the Clouds about him. To protect themselves from these, and that they may pass their Nights in quiet and safety, they must build themselves Tents or Huts, or live in holes of the Earth.  For I dare not affront the Pride of Men so much as to say, they are as good Architects, have as noble Houses, and as stately Palaces as our selves. And good now who are we? Why a company of mean fellows living in a little corner of the World, upon a Ball ten thousand times less than Jupiter or Saturn. And yet we forsooth must be the only skilful People at Building: and all others must be our Inferiours in the knowlege of uniform Symmetry; and not be able to raise Towers and Pyramids as high, magnificent, and beautiful, as ourselves. For my part, I see no reason why they may not be as great Masters at it as we are, and have the use of all those Arts subservient to it, as Stone-cutting and Brick-making, and whatsoever else is necessary for it, as Iron, Lead and Glass; or ornamental to it, as Gilding and Picture.
If their Globe is divided like ours, between Sea and Land, as it’s evident it is (else whence could all those Vapors in Jupiter proceed?) we have great reason to allow them the Art of  Navigation, and not proudly ingross so great, so useful a thing to our selves. Especially considering the great advantages Jupiter and Saturn have for sailing, in having so many Moons to direct their Course, by whose guidance they may attain easily to the Knowlege that we are not Masters of, of the Longitude of Places. And what a troop of other things follow from this allowance? If they have Ships, they must have Sails and Anchors, Ropes, Pullies, and Rudders, which are of particular use in directing a Ship’s Course against the Wind, and in sailing different ways with the same Gale. And perhaps they may not be without the use of the Compass too, for the magnetical matter, which continually passes through the Pores of our Earth, is of such a nature, that it’s very probable the Planets have something like it. But there’s no doubt but that they must have the Mechanical Arts and Astronomy, without which Navigation can no more subsist, than they can without Geometry.
But Geometry stands in no need of being proved after this manner. Nor doth it want assistance from other Arts which depend upon it, but we may have a nearer and shorter assurance of their not being without it in those Earths. For that Science is of such singular worth and dignity, so peculiarly imploys the Understanding, and gives it such a full comprehension and infallible certainty of Truth, as no other Knowlege can pretend to: it is moreover of such a nature, that its Principles and Foundations must be so immutably the same in all times and places, that we cannot without Injustice pretend to monopolize it, and rob the rest of the Universe of such an incomparable Study. Nay Nature it self invites us to be Geometricians: it presents us with Geometrical Figures, with Circles and Squares, with Triangles, Polygones, and Spheres, and proposes them as it were to our consideration and study, which abstracting from its Usefulness, is most delightful and ravishing. Who can read Euclid, or Apollonius,  about the Circle, without admiration? or Archimedes of the Surface of the Sphere, and Quadrature of the Parabola without amazement? or consider the late ingenious Discoveries of the Moderns with Boldness and Unconcernedness? And all these Truths are as naked and open, and depend upon the same plain Principles and Axioms in Jupiter and Saturn as here, which makes it not improbable that there are in the Planets some who partake with us in these delightful and pleasant Studies. But what’s the greatest Argument with me, that there are such is their use, I had almost said necessity, in most Affairs of humane Life. Now we are got thus far, what if we should venture somewhat farther, and tell you, that they have our Inventions of the Tables of Sines, of Logarithms, and Algebra: I know I should be laugh’d at for an idle Discoverer of nothing but ridiculous Whimsies, and yet there’s no reason but the old one, of our being better than all the World, to hinder them from being as happy in their Discoveries, and as ingenious  in their Inventions as we our selves are.
It’s the same with Musick as with Geometry, it’s every where immutably the same, and always will be so. For all Harmony consists in Concord, and Concord is all the World over fixt according to the same invariable measure and proportion. So that in all Nations the difference and distance of Notes is the same, whether they be in a continued gradual progression, or the voice makes skips over one to the next. Nay very credible Authors report, that there’s a sort of Bird in America, that can plainly sing in order six musical Notes: whence it follows that the Laws of Musick are unchangeably fix’d by Nature, and therefore the same Reason holds valid for their Musick, as we e’en now proposed for their Geometry. For why, supposing other Nations and Creatures, endued with Reason and Sense as well as we, should not they reap the Pleasures arising from these Senses as well as we too? I don’t know what effect this Argument, from the immutable nature of these  Arts, may have upon the Minds of others; I think it no inconsiderable or contemptible one, but of as great Strength as that which I made use of above to prove that the Planetarians had the sense of Seeing.
But if they take delight in Harmony, ’tis twenty to one but that they have invented musical Instruments. For, if nothing else, they could scarce help lighting upon some or other by chance; the sound of a tight String, the noise of the Winds, or the whistling of Reeds, might have given them the hint. From these small beginnings they perhaps, as well as we, have advanced by degrees to the use of the Lute, Harp, Flute, and many string’d Instruments. But altho the Tones are certain and determinate, yet we find among different Nations a quite different manner and rule for Singing; as formerly among the Dorians, Phrygians, and Lydians, and in our time among the French, Italians, and Persians. In like manner it may so happen, that the Musick of the Inhabitants of the Planets may widely differ  from all these, and yet be very good. But why we should look upon their Musick to be worse than ours, there’s no reason can be given; neither can we well presume that they want the use of half-notes and quarter-notes, seeing the invention of half-notes is so obvious, and the use of ’em so agreeable to nature. Nay, to go a step farther, what if they should excel us in the Theory and practick part of Musick, and outdo us in Consorts of vocal and instrumental Musick, so artificially compos’d, that they shew their Skill by the mixtures of Discords and Concords? and of this last sort ’tis very likely the 5th and 3d in use with them.
This is a very bold Assertion, but it may be true for ought we know, and the Inhabitants of the Planets may possibly have a greater insight into the Theory of Musick than has yet bin discover’d amongst us. For if you ask any of our Musicians, why two or more perfect fifths cannot be us’d regularly in composition; some say ’tis to avoid that Sweetness and Lushiousness which arises from the repetition of this pleasing Chord: Others say, this must be avoided for the sake of that variety of Chords that are requisite to make a good composition; and these Reasons are brought by Cartes and others. But an Inhabitant of Jupiter or Venus will perhaps give you a better reason for this, viz. because when you pass from one perfect fifth to another, there is such a change made as immediately alters your Key, you are got into a new Key before the Ear is prepared for it, and the more perfect Chords you use of the same kind in Consecution, by so much the more you offend the Ear by these abrupt Changes.
Again, one of these Inhabitants will tell you how it comes about, that in a Song of one or more Parts, the Key cannot be kept so well in the same agreeable Tenor, unless the intermediate Closes and Intervals be so temper’d, as to vary from their usual Proportions, and thereby to hear a little this way or that, in order to regulate the Scale. And why this Temperature is best in the System of the Strings, when out of the fifth the fourth part of a  Comma is usually cut off; This same thing I have formerly shew’d at large.
But for the regulating the Tone of the Voice (as I before hinted) that may admit of a more easy proof, and we shall give you an Essay of it, being unwilling still to put you off with my own whims: I say therefore, if any Persons strike those Sounds which the Musicians distinguish by these Letters, C, F, D, G, C, by these agreeable Intervals, altogether, perfect, interchangable, ascending and descending with the Voice: Now this latter sound C will be one Comma, or very small portion lower than the first sounding of C. Because of these perfect Intervals, which are as 4 to 3, 5 to 6, 4 to 3, 2 to 3, an account is made in such a proportion, as 160 to 162, that is as 80 to 81, which is what they call a Comma. So that if the same Sound should be repeated nine times; the Voice would fall near the matter a greater Tone, whose proportion is as 8 to 9. But this the sense of the Ears by no means endures, but remembers the first Tone, and returns to it again.  Therefore we are compell’d to use an occult Temperament, and to sing these imperfect Intervals, from doing which less offence arises. And for the most part, all Singing wants this Temperament, as may be collected by the aforesaid Computations. And these things we have offer’d to those that have some Knowlege in Geometry.
We have spoke of these Arts and Inventions, which it is very probable the Inhabitants of the Planets partake of in common with us, besides which it seems requisite to take in many other things that serve either for the use or pleasure of their Lives. But what these things are we shall the better account for, by laying before us many of those things which are found amongst us. I have before mention’d the variety of Animals and Vegetables, which very much differ from each other, among which there are some that differ but little; and I have said, that there are no less differences in these things in the Planetary Worlds.
I shall now take a short view of the Benefits we receive both from those  Herbs and Animals, and see whether we may not with very good reason conclude that the Planetarians reap as great and as many from those that their Countries afford them.
And here it may be worth our while to take a review of the variety and multitude of our Riches. For Trees and Herbs do not only serve us for Food, they in their delicious Fruits, these in their Seeds, Leaves and Roots; but Herbs moreover furnish us with Physick, and Trees with Timber for our Houses and Ships. Flax, by the means of those two useful Arts of Spinning and Weaving, affords us Clothing. Of Hemp or Matweed we twist our selves Thread and small Ropes, the former of which we employ in Sails and Nets, the latter in making larger Ropes for Masts and Anchors. With the sweet Smells and beauteous Colours of Flowers we feast our Senses: and even those of them that offend our Nostrils, or are mischievous to our Bodies, are seldom without excellent uses: or were made perhaps by Nature as a foil to set off,  and make us the more value the good by comparing them with these. What vast advantages and profit do we reap from the Animals? The Sheep give us Clothing, and the Cows afford us Milk: and both of them their Flesh for our Sustenance. Asses, Camels, and Horses do, what if we wanted them we must do ours selves, carry our Burdens; and the last of them we make use of, either themselves to carry us, or in our Coaches to draw us. In which we have so excellent, so useful an Invention of Wheels, that I can’t let the Planets enjoy Society and all its consequences, and be without them. Whether they are Pythagoreans there, or feed upon Flesh as we do, I dare not affirm any thing. Tho it seems to be allow’d Men to feed upon whatsoever may afford them Nourishment, either on Land, or in Water, upon Herbs, and Pomes, Milk, Eggs, Honey, Fish, and no less upon the Flesh of many Birds and Beasts. A strange thing! that a rational Creature should live upon the Ruin and Destruction of such a number of other  his Fellow-Creatures! And yet not at all unnatural should it seem, since not only he, but even Lions, Wolves, and other ravenous Beasts, prey upon Flocks of other harmless things, and make mere Fodder of them; as Eagles do of Pidgeons and Hares; and large Fish of the helpless little ones. We have different sorts of Dogs for Hunting, and what our own Legs cannot, that their Nose and Legs can help us to. But the Use and Profit of Herbs and Animals are not the only things they are good for, but they raise our delight and admiration when we consider their various Forms and Natures, and enquire into all their different ways of Generation: things so infinitely multifarious, and so delightfully amazing, that the Books of Natural Philosophers are deservedly fill’d with their Encomiums. For even in the very Insects, who can but admire the six-corner’d Cells of the Bees, or the artificial Web of a Spider, or the fine Bag of a Silk-worm, which last affords us, with the help of incredible Industry, even Shiploads of soft delicate  Clothing. This is a short Summary of those many profitable Advantages the animal and herbal World serve us with.
But this is not all. The Bowels of the Earth too must contribute to Man’s Happiness. For what art and cunning does he employ in finding, in digging, in trying Metals, and in melting, refining, and tempering them? What Skill and Nicety in beating, drawing or dissolving Gold, so as with inconsiderable changes to make every thing he pleases put on that noble Lustre? Of how many and admirable uses is Iron? and how ignorant in all Mechanical Knowlege were those Nations that were not acquainted with it, so as to be fain to use no Arms but Bows, Clubs, and Spears, made of Wood. Poor Weapons! There’s one thing indeed we have, which it’s a question whether it has done more harm or good, and that’s a devilish Powder made of Nitre and Brimstone. At first indeed it seem’d as if we had got a more secure Defence than former Ages against all Assaults, and could  easily guard our Towns, by the wonderful strength of that Invention, against all hostile Invasions: but now we find it has rather encouraged them, and at the same time bin no small occasion of the decay of Valor, by rendring it and Strength almost useless in War. Had the Grecian Emperor who said, Virtue was ruin’d only when Slings and Rams first came into use, liv’d in our days, he might well have complain’d; especially of Bombs, against which neither Art nor Nature is of sufficient proof: but which be it never so strong, lays every thing, Castles and Towers, even with the Ground. If for nothing else, yet upon this one account, I think we had better have bin without the Discovery. Yet, when we were talking of our Discoveries, it was not to be pass’d over, for the Planets too may have their mischievous as well as useful Inventions.
We are happier in the uses for which the Air and Water serve us; both of which help us in our Navigation, and furnish us with a Strength  sufficient, without any labor of our own, to turn round our Mills and Engines; things which are of use to us in so many different Employments. For with them we grind our Corn, and squeeze out our Oyl; with them we cut Wood, and mill Cloth, and with them we beat our stuff for Paper. An incomparable Invention! Where the nastiest useless scraps of Linen are made to produce fine white Sheets. To these we may add the late discovery of Printing, which not only preserves from Death, Arts and Knowlege, but makes them much easier to be attained than before. Nor must we forget the Arts of Engraving and Painting, which from mean beginnings have improv’d to that Excellence, that nothing that ever sprung from the Wit of Man can claim Preeminence to them. Nor is the way of melting and blowing Glasses, and of polishing and spreading Quicksilver over Mirrors, unworthy of being mention’d, nor above all the admirable uses that Glasses have bin put to in natural Knowlege, since the invention  of the Telescope and Microscope. And no less nice and fine is the Art of making Clocks, some of which are so small as to be no weight to the Bearer; and others so exact as to measure out the Time in as small Portions as any one can desire: the improvement of which the World owes to my Inventions [The Author invented the Pendulum for Clocks].
I might add much here of the late Discoveries, most of them of this age, which have bin made in all sorts of Natural Knowlege as well as in Geometry and Astronomy, as of the weight and spring of the Air, of the Chymical Experiments that have brought to light a way of making Liquors that shall shine in the dark, and with gentle moving shall burn of themselves. I could tell you of the Circulation of the Blood through the Veins and Arteries, which was understood indeed before; but now, by the help of the Microscope, has an ocular Demonstration in the Tails of some Fishes: of the Generation of Animals, which now is found to be perform’d no otherwise than by the Seed of one  of the same kind; and that in the Seed of the Male are discover’d, by the help of Glasses, Millions of sprightly little Animals, which it’s probable are the very Offspring of the Animals themselves: a wonderful thing, and never before now known!
Thus have I heap’d together all these late Discoveries of our Earth: and now, tho perhaps some of them may be common to the Planetarians with us, yet that they should have all of them is not credible. But then they have somewhat to make up that defect, others as good and as useful, and as wonderful, that we want. We have allow’d that they may have rational Creatures among them, and Geometricians, and Musicians: we have prov’d that they live in Societies, have Hands and Feet, are guarded with Houses and Walls: yet if a Man was but carried thither by some powerful Genius, some Pegasus, I don’t doubt ’twould be a very pretty sight, pretty beyond all imagination, to see the odd ways, and the unusual manner of their setting about any thing, and their  strange methods of living. But since there’s no hopes of a Mercury to carry us such a Journey, we shall e’en be contented with what’s in our power: we shall suppose our selves there, and inquire as far as we can into the Astronomy of each Planet, and see in what manner the Heavens present themselves to their Inhabitants. We shall make some Observations of the Eminence of each of them, in respect of their Magnitude, and number of Moons they have to wait on them; and shall propose a new Method of coming to some knowlege of the incredible distance of the fix’d Stars. But first after this long Trouble we will give our Reader a breathing while.