Lunar Crescent Visibility Maps for Muḥammad’s Years in Medina

Visibility diagrams for the years when the prophet Muḥammad resided in Medina can be obtained from the following table. These may be of use to historians and theologians who wish to study the chronology of early Islam.

AH Islamic
Lunation
Numbers
Muḥarram
New Moon
Dhu ʾl-Ḥijja
New Moon
Download
0 –11 – 0 24 Jul 621 14 Jun 622 download pdf
1 1 – 12 14 Jul 622 3 Jun 623 download pdf
2 13 – 24 3 Jul 623 22 May 624 download pdf
3 25 – 36 21 Jun 624 12 May 625 download pdf
4 37 – 48 10 Jun 625 1 May 626 download pdf
5 49 – 60 31 May 626 21 Apr 627 download pdf
6 61 – 72 20 May 627 10 Apr 628 download pdf
7 73 – 84 9 May 628 30 Mar 629 download pdf
8 85 – 96 29 Apr 629 19 Mar 630 download pdf
9 97 – 108 18 Apr 630 8 Mar 631 download pdf
10 109 – 120 7 Apr 631 25 Feb 632 download pdf
11 121 – 132 26 Mar 632 14 Feb 633 download pdf

The months and years in these diagrams are denoted in the ‘proleptic’ Islamic lunar calendar, which assumes (as in the present-day Islamic calendar) that no intercalary months were inserted during the first decade of the Islamic calendar. However, before the ‘Farewell Pilgrimage’ (Dhu ʾl-Ḥijja 10 AH), when the intercalation of extra months in the Arabian calendar was abolished (Qurʾān, sūra 9:36-37), it was customary to add an extra month to the year every two or three years in order to keep the lunar calendar in step with the seasons.

As the intercalation rule of the Arabian calendar is uncertain, all proposed reconstructions of the Islamic calendar before 10 AH can only be regarded as hypothetical. For this reason, Western calendar dates commonly cited for key events in early Islam such as the hijra, the Battle of Badr, the Battle of Uhud, the Battle of the Trench and other events related to the life of Muḥammad, should be viewed with caution as they can be in error by one, two, three or more lunar months.