Conversion Tables for the Umm al-Qura Calendar (1420 AH to 1434 AH)

The following table lists the Western equivalents for the first day of the month in the Umm al-Qura calendar for the years 1420 AH to 1434 AH (1999/2000 CE to 2012/13 CE). The listed dates are the post-midnight equivalents, the first day of the month actually begins about 6 hours earlier on the previous evening at sunset for Mecca.

All calculations are based on the following coordinates for the Great Mosque of Mecca: longitude = 39º 49.57' East, latitude = 21º 25.34' North. The times of sunset and moonset are the calculated moments of disappearance of the upper limb, accounting for atmospheric refraction and the monthly variation in the lunar parallax, referred to an ideal horizon (i.e. 90º from the zenith).

First day of the Islamic month according to the Umm al-Qura calendar (1420 AH to 1424 AH)
 
Month 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424
Muḥarram 17 Apr 1999 Sa 6 Apr 2000 Th 26 Mar 2001 Mo 15 Mar 2002 Fr 4 Mar 2003 Tu
Ṣafar 16 May 1999 Su 5 May 2000 Fr 25 Apr 2001 We 14 Apr 2002 Su 3 Apr 2003 Th
Rabī‘ al-Awwal 15 Jun 1999 Tu 3 Jun 2000 Sa 24 May 2001 Th 13 May 2002 Mo 2 May 2003 Fr
Rabī‘ al-Ākhir 14 Jul 1999 We 3 Jul 2000 Mo 22 Jun 2001 Fr 12 Jun 2002 We 1 Jun 2003 Su
Jumādā ’l-Ūlā 12 Aug 1999 Th 1 Aug 2000 Tu 22 Jul 2001 Su 11 Jul 2002 Th 1 Jul 2003 Tu
Jumādā ’l-Ākhira 11 Sep 1999 Sa 30 Aug 2000 We 20 Aug 2001 Mo 10 Aug 2002 Sa 30 Jul 2003 We
Rajab 10 Oct 1999 Su 28 Sep 2000 Th 18 Sep 2001 Tu 8 Sep 2002 Su 29 Aug 2003 Fr
Sha‘bān 9 Nov 1999 Tu 28 Oct 2000 Sa 17 Oct 2001 We 7 Oct 2002 Mo 27 Sep 2003 Sa
Ramaḍān 9 Dec 1999 Th 27 Nov 2000 Mo 16 Nov 2001 Fr 6 Nov 2002 We 26 Oct 2003 Su
Shawwāl 8 Jan 2000 Sa 27 Dec 2000 We 16 Dec 2001 Su 5 Dec 2002 Th 25 Nov 2003 Tu
Dhū ’l-Qa‘da 7 Feb 2000 Mo 26 Jan 2001 Fr 15 Jan 2002 Tu 4 Jan 2003 Sa 24 Dec 2003 We
Dhū ’l-Ḥijja 7 Mar 2000 Tu 24 Feb 2001 Sa 13 Feb 2002 We 2 Feb 2003 Su 23 Jan 2004 Fr
Lunar visibility Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca
Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram

  

First day of the Islamic month according to the Umm al-Qura calendar (1425 AH to 1429 AH)
 
Month 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429
Muḥarram 21 Feb 2004 Sa 10 Feb 2005 Th 31 Jan 2006 Tu 20 Jan 2007 Sa 10 Jan 2008 Th
Ṣafar 22 Mar 2004 Mo 11 Mar 2005 Fr 1 Mar 2006 We 19 Feb 2007 Mo 8 Feb 2008 Fr
Rabī‘ al-Awwal 20 Apr 2004 Tu 10 Apr 2005 Su 30 Mar 2006 Th 20 Mar 2007 Tu 9 Mar 2008 Su
Rabī‘ al-Ākhir 20 May 2004 Th 9 May 2005 Mo 29 Apr 2006 Sa 18 Apr 2007 We 7 Apr 2008 Mo
Jumādā ’l-Ūlā 19 Jun 2004 Sa 8 Jun 2005 We 28 May 2006 Su 18 May 2007 Fr 6 May 2008 Tu
Jumādā ’l-Ākhira 18 Jul 2004 Su 7 Jul 2005 Th 26 Jun 2006 Mo 16 Jun 2007 Sa 5 Jun 2008 Th
Rajab 17 Aug 2004 Tu 6 Aug 2005 Sa 26 Jul 2006 We 15 Jul 2007 Su 4 Jul 2008 Fr
Sha‘bān 15 Sep 2004 We 5 Sep 2005 Mo 25 Aug 2006 Fr 14 Aug 2007 Tu 2 Aug 2008 Sa
Ramaḍān 15 Oct 2004 Fr 4 Oct 2005 Tu 24 Sep 2006 Su 13 Sep 2007 Th 1 Sep 2008 Mo
Shawwāl 14 Nov 2004 Su 3 Nov 2005 Th 23 Oct 2006 Mo 13 Oct 2007 Sa 1 Oct 2008 We
Dhū ’l-Qa‘da 13 Dec 2004 Mo 3 Dec 2005 Sa 22 Nov 2006 We 11 Nov 2007 Su 30 Oct 2008 Th
Dhū ’l-Ḥijja 12 Jan 2005 We 1 Jan 2006 Su 22 Dec 2006 Fr 11 Dec 2007 Tu 29 Nov 2008 Sa
Lunar visibility Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca
Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram

 

First day of the Islamic month according to the Umm al-Qura calendar (1430 AH to 1434 AH)
 
Month 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434
Muḥarram 29 Dec 2008 Mo 18 Dec 2009 Fr 7 Dec 2010 Tu 26 Nov 2011 Sa 15 Nov 2012 Th
Ṣafar 27 Jan 2009 Tu 16 Jan 2010 Sa 5 Jan 2011 We 26 Dec 2011 Mo 14 Dec 2012 Fr
Rabī‘ al-Awwal 26 Feb 2009 Th 15 Feb 2010 Mo 4 Feb 2011 Fr 24 Jan 2012 Tu 13 Jan 2013 Su
Rabī‘ al-Ākhir 28 Mar 2009 Sa 17 Mar 2010 We 6 Mar 2011 Su 23 Feb 2012 Th 11 Feb 2013 Mo
Jumādā ’l-Ūlā 26 Apr 2009 Su 15 Apr 2010 Th 5 Apr 2011 Tu 24 Mar 2012 Sa 13 Mar 2013 We
Jumādā ’l-Ākhira 25 May 2009 Mo 15 May 2010 Sa 4 May 2011 We 22 Apr 2012 Su 11 Apr 2013 Th
Rajab 24 Jun 2009 We 13 Jun 2010 Su 3 Jun 2011 Fr 22 May 2012 Tu 11 May 2013 Sa
Sha‘bān 23 Jul 2009 Th 13 Jul 2010 Tu 2 Jul 2011 Sa 21 Jun 2012 Th 10 Jun 2013 Mo
Ramaḍān 22 Aug 2009 Sa 11 Aug 2010 We 1 Aug 2011 Mo 20 Jul 2012 Fr 9 Jul 2013 Tu
Shawwāl 20 Sep 2009 Su 10 Sep 2010 Fr 30 Aug 2011 Tu 19 Aug 2012 Su 8 Aug 2013 Th
Dhū ’l-Qa‘da 20 Oct 2009 Tu 9 Oct 2010 Sa 29 Sep 2011 Th 17 Sep 2012 Mo 7 Sep 2013 Sa
Dhū ’l-Ḥijja 18 Nov 2009 We 7 Nov 2010 Su 28 Oct 2011 Fr 17 Oct 2012 We 6 Oct 2013 Su
Lunar visibility Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca Click to images/download the lunar visibility data for Mecca
Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram Click to images/download the global lunar visibility diagram

The weekday of the first day of the lunar month is indicated by its two-letter abbreviation (Mo = Monday, Tu = Tuesday, We = Wednesday, Th = Thursday, Fr = Friday, Sa = Saturday, Su = Sunday) and a colour code indicates whether the current lunar month is short/deficit (29 days) or long/full (30 days).

Detailed information on the relative position of the lunar crescent with respect to the horizon of Mecca, its orientation and its age at sunset, at moonset and at the ‛best time’ for observing the lunar crescent on the first three evenings of the lunar month can be images/downloaded as a pdf file (c. 48 kb in size) by clicking on the images/download button on the bottom of the table. In order to read these files, your computer must have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed. All times are in Saudi Arabian standard time (time zone 3 hours ahead of Universal Time).

The visibility of the lunar crescent (based on Yallop’s criterion) on the first evening of the lunar month is indicated by the following colour scheme:

Colour Legend
   Lunar crescent visible with the naked eye on the first evening
   Lunar crescent only visible with optical aid on the first evening
   Lunar crescent not visible on the first evening
   Lunar month starts before the astronomical new moon

As can be seen in the above table sequences of two, three or even four short or long months are not uncommon in the present version of the Umm al-Qura calendar. During the interval 1420 AH to 1434 AH a month that commences with a visible lunar crescent is nearly always short and is nearly always preceded by a long month.


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