References for the Talbot 2006 workshop "Automorphisms of Manifolds":

The main papers on automorphisms of manifolds:
-M. Weiss and B. Williams Automorphisms of manifolds Surveys on Surgery Theory vol. 2, 2001 (the "big picture").
-M. Weiss and B. Williams Automorphisms of manifolds and algebraic K-theory I K-theory 1, 1988, no. 6, 575--626.
-M. Weiss and B. Williams Automorphisms of manifolds and algebraic K-theory II JPAA vol 62, 1989, 47--107.
-M. Weiss and B. Williams Automorphisms of manifolds and algebraic K-theory III finished very recently (beware of typos!).
-W. Dwyer, M. Weiss and B. Williams. A parametrized index theorem for the algebraic K-theory Euler class Acta Math. 190, 2003, no. 1, 1--104.

Other sources on automorphisms of manifolds:
-J. Rognes Lectures on the stable parametrized h-cobordism theorem introductory lectures given in Bonn.
-J. Rognes Two-primary algebraic K-theory of spaces, and related spaces of symmetries of manifolds Algebraic K-Theory, AMS Proc. Symp. Pure Math. 67, 1999, 213--229.

Surgery theory:
-J. Milnor. Morse theory Annals of Mathematics Studies, No. 51 Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. 1963
-J. Milnor. Lectures on the h-cobordism theorem Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. 1965
-W. Lück. A basic introduction to surgery theory ICTP Lecture Notes Series 9, Vol 1, of ``High-dimensional manifold theory'' 2001. (specially chapters 3-5).
-A. Ranicki. Algebraic and geometric surgery Oxford Mathematical Monographs, 2002 (specially chapters 9-13).
-S. Weinberger. The topological classification of stratified spaces Chicago Lectures in Mathematics, 1994 (chapters 2-3 form a good quick survey).
-C. Wall. Surgery on compact manifolds Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, 69, 1999.
-F. Quinn. A geometric formulation of surgery 1970, in Topology of Manifolds, Proc. Inst., Univ. of Georgia, Athens, Ga., 1969, pp. 500--511.
-A. Ranicki High dimensional manifold topology then and now slides (great overview of the subject). Surgery theory slides (much lower level).

Algebraic surgery:
-A. Ranicki. Foundations of algebraic surgery ICTP Lect. Notes, 9, Vol 1 of "High-dimensional manifold theory" 2001.
-A. Ranicki. The structure set of an arbitrary space, the algebraic surgery exact sequence and the total surgery obstruction ICTP Lect. Notes, 9, Vol 1 of "High-dimensional manifold theory" 2001.
-A. Ranicki. Algebraic L-theory and topological manifolds Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics, 102, 1992. (specially chapters 1,3-6, 9,11,18).
-M. Weiss. Surgery and the generalized Kervaire invariant Proc. London Math. Soc. 3, 51, 1985, no. 1, 146--192. (specially introduction and section 0).
-M. Weiss. Visible L-theory Forum Math. 4, 1992, no. 5, 465--498.

K-theory:
-J. Milnor. Whitehead torsion Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 72, 1966, 358--426.
-W. Lück. A basic introduction to surgery theory ICTP Lecture Notes Series 9, Vol 1, of ``High-dimensional manifold theory'' 2001. (proof of the s-cobordism theorem in chapt. 1-2).
-J. Rosenberg. Algebraic K-theory and its applications Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 147, Springer-Verlag, 1994. (mainly K-theory of rings).
-C. Weibel An introduction to algebraic K-theory (specially chapters 2-4).
-F. Waldhausen. Algebraic K-theory of spaces Algebraic and geometric topology, Lecture Notes in Math. 1126, 318--419, 1985.
-F. Waldhausen. Algebraic K-theory of spaces, a manifold approach Current trends in algebraic topology, Part 1, pp. 141--184, CMS Conf. Proc., 2, 1982.
-F. Waldhausen. Algebraic K-theory of spaces, concordance, and stable homotopy theory Algebraic topology and algebraic K-theory, 392--417, Ann. of Math. Stud., 113.
-M. Weiss. Algebraic K-theory of spaces: What is it ? 2004. (4 page pamphlet).

Controlled K-theory:
-D. Anderson, F. Connolly, S. Ferry, E. Pedersen. Algebraic K-theory with continuous control at infinity J. Pure Appl. Algebra 94, 1994, no. 1, 25--47
-E. Pedersen, C. Weibel. K-theory homology of spaces Algebraic topology, 346--361, Lecture Notes in Math. 1370, 1989.
-E. Pedersen, C. Weibel. A nonconnective delooping of algebraic K-theory Algebraic and geometric topology, 166--181, Lecture Notes in Math. 1126, 1985.
-M. Weiss. Excision and restriction in controlled K-theory Forum Math. 14 (2002), no. 1, 85--119
-A. Ranicki and M. Yamasaki, Controlled K-theory Topology Appl. 61, 1995, no. 1, 1--59. (motivations and history)
-A. Ranicki and M. Yamasaki, Controlled L-theory Surgery and geometric topology. Sci. Bull. Josai Univ. 1997, Special issue no. 2, 119--136.

Index theory:
-M. Atiyah and I. Singer / M. Atiyah and G. Segal The index of elliptic operators.
-D. Freed's notes on the Atiyah-Singer index theorem. (readable introduction)
-J. Roe. Index theory, coarse geometry, and topology of manifolds CBMS Regional Conference Series in Mathematics, 90.
-B. Lawson and M-L Michelsohn. Spin geometry Princeton Mathematical Series, 38. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1989.
-W. Dwyer, M. Weiss and B. Williams. A parametrized index theorem for the algebraic K-theory Euler class Acta Math. 190, 2003, no. 1, 1--104.

Orthogonal calculus:
-T. Goodwillie. Calculus. I. The first derivative of pseudoisotopy theory K-Theory 4, 1990, no. 1, 1--27.
-T. Goodwillie. Calculus. II. Analytic functors K-Theory 5, 1991/92, no. 4, 295--332.
-T. Goodwillie. Calculus. III. Taylor series Geom. Topol. 7, 2003, 645--711, electronic.
-A. Bousfield and D. Kan. Homotopy limits, completions and localizations Lecture Notes in Mathematics 304, 1972.
-W. Dwyer and J. Spalinski. Homotopy theories and model categories Handbook of algebraic topology, 73--126, 1995.
-M. Weiss and B. Williams. Automorphisms of manifolds and algebraic K-theory, I K-theory 1, 1988, no. 6, 575--626. (sections 2-3 provide motivations and basic ideas).
-M. Weiss. Orthogonal calculus Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 347, 1995, no. 10, 3743--3796 (more formal). See also the Erratum Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 350, 1998, no. 2, 851--855.

The map from L-theory to Tate K-theory:
-M. Weiss and B. Williams Automorphisms of manifolds and algebraic K-theory II JPAA vol 62, 1989, 47--107.
-M. Weiss and B. Williams Duality in Waldhausen categories Forum Math. 10, 1998, 533--603.
-M. Weiss and B. Williams Automorphisms of manifolds (chapter 4.1).

Other:
-J. Kelner The surgery theoretic classification of high-dimensional smooth and piecewise linear simply-connected manifolds Harvard senior thesis, 2002. (computes the homotopy type of G/PL and G/TOP).

Acknoledgements: This page was written with the precious help of T. Macko and A. Ranicki