explanation      blue bibcodes link to ADS
Author name code: pasachoff
ADS astronomy entries on 2019-11-03
author:"Pasachoff, Jay M." 

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Title: Education and Outreach About Science at the 2017 Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
2019ASPC..516..331P    Altcode:
  When a solar eclipse is visible from a country, especially a total solar
  eclipse, we astronomers have the attention of the general public in
  addition to that of scientists and students. At the time of the 2017
  solar eclipse whose totality crossed the Continental United States,
  with a partial eclipse visible from all states, we were able to provide
  students and the general public, as well as scientists a wide range of
  substantial scientific information about eclipses, about the Sun, and
  about the rest of the Universe. For the Working Group on Solar Eclipses
  of the International Astronomical Union, we also acted as a liaison
  providing letters of invitation that were useful for foreign colleagues
  obtaining U.S. visas and helping to arrange observing locations.

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Title: Eclipse Megamovie 2017 Successes and Potential For Future Work
Authors: Peticolas, L.; Hudson, H.; Johnson, C.; Zevin, D.; White,
   V.; Oliveros, J. C. M.; Ruderman, I.; Koh, J.; Konerding, D.; Bender,
   M.; Cable, C.; Kruse, B.; Yan, D.; Krista, L.; Collier, B.; Fraknoi,
   A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Mendez, B.; McIntosh, S. W.;
   Filippenko, N. L.
2019ASPC..516..337P    Altcode:
  In 2011, an "Eclipse Megamovie" was envisioned for the 2017 total
  solar eclipse that would be created using the public's photographs of
  the Sun's corona as frames in a movie illuminating dynamic changes in
  the chromosphere and corona. On August 21, 2017, our team collected
  photographs of the total solar eclipse from thousands of volunteers
  with telescopes, DSLR (Digital Single-Lens Reflex) cameras, and mobile
  device cameras setup across the path of totality. Our efforts resulted
  in 1,190 photographers contributing 50,016 DSLR photographs in a final
  open-source, public archive that is 766 GB in size. All photographs
  in this archive are Creative Commons zero (CC0), making them freely
  available for public use. From mobile devices, we obtained an archive
  of 60,000 images, 211 GB in size. The first Eclipse Megamovie video
  was compiled and made available to the public a few hours after the
  Moon's shadow left the U.S. East Coast. For two weeks, additional
  images were added to this video, as volunteers uploaded them to the
  project server. The project also resulted in a comprehensive website
  with 12,749 users sufficiently interested in the project to each create
  a user profile on the website, several short documentaries, 190 articles
  and press releases, open-source code for use in future related efforts,
  and hundreds of public presentations across the country prior to the
  eclipse. Information on how to access these resources is included in
  this paper.

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Title: The IAU and Solar Eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Hiei, Eijiro; Perez, Cielo
2019IAUS..349..459P    Altcode:
  We describe the history of solar-eclipse supervision since the formation
  of the International Astronomical Union, as the supervising body morphed
  from a full commission to a subcommission to its current status as an
  Inter-Divisional Working Group of the Education, Outreach and Heritage
  Division and the Sun and Heliosphere Division.

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Title: Book Review: The Sun
Authors: Golub, Leon; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2018JAHH...21..241C    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Airborne and Ground Observations of the Stellar Occultation
    by Triton on 5 October 2017
Authors: Person, Michael J.; Schindler, Karsten; Bosh, Amanda S.; Wolf,
   Juergen; Levine, Stephen E.; Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Pfueller, Enrico;
   Caton, Daniel; Patton, Alexander; Pasachoff, Jay; Oswalt, Terry;
   von Hippel, Ted; Brothers, Timothy; Operations Tea, Sofia; Lincoln
   Labs Firepond Observations Team; Triton Occultation Observation Team
2018DPS....5041610P    Altcode:
  On 5 October 2017, Triton occulted the 13<SUP>th </SUP>magnitude star
  UCAC4 410-143659 as seen from the Eastern US, North Atlantic, and
  Europe. Our collaboration observed this event from the Stratospheric
  Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft, as well as numerous
  (over two dozen) ground stations throughout the US and Europe. Here, we
  present the preliminary results of analyzing this dataset and highlight
  a number of features of Triton's atmosphere. Initial reduction of the
  data indicates that the atmospheric pressure increases seen throughout
  the 90's have stabilized or perhaps begun to reverse, as the current
  pressures are more comparable to those measured during the earlier
  occultations of the 1990's than the later ones, although still greater
  than the pressure observed by Voyager 2 in 1989. Careful calibration
  of the multi-wavelength observations made from SOFIA indicates a clear
  atmosphere at the levels to which we are sensitive (&gt;35 km), with no
  signs of the various particulate dust plumes or cloud-like structures
  seen by Voyager 2 below 8 km altitude. Data reduction is progressing
  and a final report is in preparation.

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Title: Images and Spectra of the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Corona
    from our Oregon Site
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Lockwood, Christian; Meadors, Erin; Yu,
   Ross; Perez, Cielo; Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Seaton, Daniel B.;
   Voulgaris, Aris; Dantowitz, Ron; Rušin, Vojtech; Economou, Thanasis
2018FrASS...5...37P    Altcode:
  We report on early results from a suite of instruments for imaging
  and spectra we deployed to Salem, Oregon, for two minutes of
  totality at the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. Our instruments
  included refracting telescopes and telephoto lenses for use with CCD
  detectors and DSLR cameras, narrow-band filters at the wavelengths of
  coronal emission lines ([Fe XIV] 530.3 nm and [Fe X] 637.4 nm), and
  spectrographs. We also monitored the effect of the eclipse penumbra
  and umbra on the terrestrial atmosphere.

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Title: Who named the largest moons of Jupiter? Johannes Kepler
    contributed
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2018iau3.book...38P    Altcode:
  It is little known that one day after Galileo discovered what are
  generally called the Galilean moons of Jupiter (which is very well
  visible in the evening sky this month), Simon Marius of Nuremberg
  independently discovered them, if we go by written notes. (If we go
  by verbal accounts, Marius may well have seen them first.) In his
  book Mundus Iovialis (1614) Marius credits Kepler for giving him the
  idea to name the moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, the names
  that have stuck, even if the set of moons are known as the Galilean
  moons. Galileo took strong objection to Marius's report of independent
  discovery but historical verification favors Marius's claim. At the
  Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, two audio clips
  (#3 and #48) about Kepler's work (51 seconds and 2 minutes 41 seconds,
  respectively) recorded by Pasachoff are available to visitors; they are
  available also at https://airandspace.si.edu/explore-universe-audio-tour

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Title: Das Beispiel Hilmar und Waltraut - Ehepaare am Himmel der
    Kleinen Planeten
Authors: Schmadel, Lutz D.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ting, Peter M.
2018AcHA...64..281S    Altcode:
  The names of the minor planets are not just arabesques of its
  discoverers, but they also reflect the ever-changing zeitgeist of more
  than two centuries. Increasingly, the list of names is no longer to be
  regarded as merely an inventory of deceased astronomers or a list of
  mythological figures. More and more not only prominent figures in the
  history of astronomy but also their spouses have given their names to
  minor planets. In grateful memory of our colleagues Hilmar Duerbeck and
  Waltraut Seitter, we introduce a new catalog listing pairs (or triples)
  of married couples after whom minor planets have been named.

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Title: Science at the Great American Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2018A&G....59d4.19P    Altcode:
  Jay Pasachoff rounds up observations made by citizen scientists,
  individuals, groups and an array of spacecraft.

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Title: Predicting the corona for the 21 August 2017 total solar
    eclipse
Authors: Mikić; , Zoran; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Caplan, Ronald
   M.; Mackay, Duncan H.; Upton, Lisa A.; Riley, Pete; Lionello, Roberto;
   Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Wijaya, Janvier; Druckmüller,
   Miloslav; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Carlos, Wendy
2018NatAs...2..913M    Altcode: 2018NatAs.tmp..120M
  The total solar eclipse that occurred on 21 August 2017 across the
  United States provided an opportunity to test a magnetohydrodynamic
  model of the solar corona driven by measured magnetic fields. We used
  a new heating model based on the dissipation of Alfvén waves, and
  a new energization mechanism to twist the magnetic field in filament
  channels. We predicted what the corona would look like one week before
  the eclipse. Here, we describe how this prediction was accomplished,
  and show that it compared favourably with observations of the
  eclipse in white light and extreme ultraviolet. The model allows us to
  understand the relationship of observed features, including streamers,
  coronal holes, prominences, polar plumes and thin rays, to the magnetic
  field. We show that the discrepancies between the model and observations
  arise from limitations in our ability to observe the Sun's magnetic
  field. Predictions of this kind provide opportunities to improve the
  models, forging the path to improved space weather prediction.

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Title: Configuration of and Motions in the Solar Corona at the 2017
    Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Rusin, Vojtech; Vanur, Roman; Economou,
   Thanasis; Voulgaris, Aristeidis; Seiradakis, John H.; Seaton,
   Daniel; Dantowitz, Ronald; Lockwood, Christian A.; Nagle-McNaughton,
   Timothy; Perez, Cielo; Meadors, Erin N.; Marti, Connor J.; Yu, Ross;
   Rosseau, Brendan; Ide, Charles A.; Daly, Declan M.; Davis, Allen
   Bradford; Lu, Muzhou; Steele, Amy; Lee, Duane; Freeman, Marcus J.;
   Sliski, David; Rousseva, Ana; Greek Salem (Oregon) Team; Voulgaris,
   Aristeidis; Seiradakis, John Hugh; Koukioglou, Stavros; Kyriakou,
   Nikos; Vasileiadou, Anna; Greek Carbondale (Illinois) Team; Economou,
   Thanasis; Kanouras, Spyros; Irakleous, Christina; Golemis, Adrianos;
   Tsioumpanika, Nikoleta; Plexidas, Nikos; Tzimkas, Nikos; Kokkinidou,
   Ourania
2018AAS...23232510P    Altcode:
  We report on high-contrast data reduction of white-light images from
  the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. We show the configuration of
  the solar corona at this declining phase of the solar-activity cycle,
  with the projection onto the plane of the sky of the three-dimensional
  coronal streamers plus extensive polar plumes. We discuss the
  relation of the white-light coronal loops visible in our observations
  with extreme-ultraviolet observations from NASA’s Solar Dynamics
  Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and NOAA’s GOES-16
  Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI). We show differences and motions
  over a 65-minute interval between observations from our main site
  at Willamette University in Salem, Oregon, and a subsidiary site in
  Carbondale, Illinois. We discuss, in particular, a giant demarcation
  about 1 solar radius outward in the southwest that crosses the
  radial streamers.Our observations of the eclipse were sponsored
  in large part by the Committee for Research and Exploration of the
  National Geographic Society and by the Solar Terrestrial Program of
  the National Geographic Society. Additional support was received
  from the NASA Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Sigma Xi
  honorary scientific society, the University of Pennsylvania (for
  DS), the Slovak Academy of Sciences VEGA project 2/0003/16, and the
  Freeman Foote Expeditionary and Brandi funds at Williams College. We
  thank Stephen Thorsett, Rick Watkins, and Honey Wilson of Willamette
  University for their hospitality. See http://totalsolareclipse.org
  or http://sites.williams.edu/eclipse/2017-usa/.

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Title: Simon Marius's Mundus Iovialis and the Discovery of the Moons
    of Jupiter
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2018smhr.book..191P    Altcode:
  Though the details of who was first to see the four major satellites
  of Jupiter are obscured by the mists of time, it seems that Simon Mayr
  (Marius) nearly simultaneously and independently discovered them and
  noted the discovery only 1 day after Galileo similarly discovered and
  noted it. The twin discoveries were confused by the use of different
  calendars by Marius and by Galileo, the former using the Julian calendar
  then still in use in Protestant regions and the latter using the new
  Gregorian calendar that was adopted in Catholic regions. Galileo was
  particularly sensitive to his priority, and the use of 1609 by Marius
  in the title of his Mundus Iovialis of 1614 raised particular ire,
  though adding the required 10 days for the conversion from O.S. to
  N.S. brought Marius's discovery into early 1610. In the long run,
  we now use the names that Marius gave—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and
  Callisto—to what are called the Galilean satellites.

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Title: Preparing a Nation for the Eclipse of a Generation -
Authors: Speck, Angela; Habbal, Shadia; Tresch Fienberg, Richard;
   Kentrianakis, Michael; Fraknoi, Andrew; Nordgren, Tyler; Penn,
   Matthew; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Bakich, Michael; Winter, Henry; Gay,
   Pamela; Motta, Mario
2018AAS...23122002S    Altcode:
  On August 21st 2017, there was a total solar eclipse visible from
  a vast swath of the US.In preparation for that event, the American
  Astronomical society created a taskforce charged with planning
  for the eclipse for the entire nation. The preparations included
  interfacing with the public, the media, non-profit organizations and
  governmental organizations. Preliminary data suggests that nearly 90%
  of American adults watched the eclipse either directly or via live
  streams. Moreover, there were no major problems associated with the
  event, in spite of valiant attempts from, e.g. imprope solar viewing
  materials. The eclipse offered opportunities for many scientific
  experiments within and ebyond astronomy. Here we present on the work
  of the taskforce, and the lessons learned as well as lesser known
  science experiments undertaken during the eclipse.

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Title: Early Science Results from the Williams College Eclipse
    Expedition
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Dantowitz, Ron;
   Lockwood, Christian A.; Nagle-McNaughton, Tim; Meadors, Erin N.;
   Perez, Cielo C.; Marti, Connor J.; Yu, Ross; Rosseau, Brendan; Daly,
   Declan M.; Ide, Charles A.; Davis, Allen B.; Lu, Muzhou; Sliski, David;
   Seiradakis, John; Voulgaris, Aris; Rusin, Vojtech; Peñaloza-Murillo,
   Marcos A.; Roman, Michael; Seaton, Daniel B.; Steele, Amy; Lee,
   Duane M.; Freeman, Marcus J.
2018AAS...23122006P    Altcode:
  We describe our first cut of data reduction on a wide variety of
  observations of the solar corona and of the effect of the penumbra
  and umbra on the terrestrial atmosphere, carried out from our eclipse
  site on the campus of Willamette University in Salem, Oregon. Our
  team of faculty, undergraduate students, graduate students, and other
  colleagues observed the eclipse, taking images and spectra with a
  variety of sensors and telescopes. Equipment included frame-transfer
  cameras observing at 3 Hz in 0.3 nm filters at the coronal green and red
  lines to measure the power spectrum of oscillations in coronal loops or
  elsewhere in the lower corona; 3 spectrographs; a variety of telescopes
  and telephotos for white-light imaging; a double Lyot system tuned at
  Fe XIV 530.3 nm (FWHM 0.4 nm) and Fe X 637.4 nm (FWHM 0.5 nm); and a
  weather station to record changes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We
  are comparing our observations with predictions based on the previous
  mapping of the photospheric magnetic field, and preparing wide-field
  complete coronal imaging incorporating NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI and
  NRL/NASA/LASCO for the corona outside our own images (which extend,
  given the completely clear skies we had, at least 4 solar radii),
  and NASA SDO/AIA and NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI for the solar disk. One
  of our early composites appeared as Astronomy Picture of the Day for
  September 27: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap170927.htmlOur expedition
  was supported in large part by grants from the Committee for Research
  and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and from the Solar
  Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of
  the National Science Foundation, with additional student support from
  the STP/AGS of NSF, the NASA Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the
  Sigma Xi honorary scientific society, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation
  studentship and the Freeman Foote Expeditionary Fund at Williams
  College, other Williams College funds, and U. Pennsylvania funds.

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Title: First 2017-total-eclipse results from the Williams College team
Authors: Pasachoff, J.; Dantowitz, R.; Rusin, V.; Seiradakis, J. H.;
   Voulgaris, A.; Seaton, D. B.; Davis, A. B.; Lu, M.; Sliski, D.; Ladd,
   E. F.; Economou, T.; Peñaloza-Murillo, M. A.; Nagle-McNaughton, T.
2017AGUFMSH13B2476P    Altcode:
  We report on a wide range of observations we carried out during the
  total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. Our main site was on the campus
  of Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, at which we had a variety of
  telescopes, spectrographs, cameras, a grism, and terrestrial-atmospheric
  measuring devices. Our goals included differentiating between models
  of coronal heating through measuring power-spectra of coronal loops
  in the [Fe XIV] and [Fe X] emission lines at multi-Hertz cadence
  with a frame-transfer CCD and otherwise; following coronal structure
  over the solar-activity cycle; comparing the results of a full-MHD
  prediction with actual coronal streamers; studying the dynamics of
  coronal plumes given the minimum phase of the solar-activity cycle;
  measuring the variation of the corona over the solar-activity cycle from
  our continuing measurements of the green-line/red-line intensity ratio;
  studying a variety of additional coronal emisson lines; high-resolution
  coronal imaging compared with overlapping images from space coronagraphs
  aboard SoHO and STEREO; comparing with AIA/SDO, HMO/SDO, SUVI/GOES-16,
  and SWAP/PROBA2 space images; and more. Our research has been
  supported in large part by grants from the Committee for Research
  and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and from the Solar
  Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division
  of the National Science Foundation, with additional support from Sigma
  Xi. Additional support for undergraduate participation came from the
  NSF, the NASA Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, and the Clare Booth
  Luce Foundation, with travel support from the Freeman Foote Fund, the
  Rob Spring Fund, the Brandi Fund, and other sources at Williams College.

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Title: Pluto occultation on 2015 June 29 UTC with central flash and
    atmospheric spikes just before the New Horizons flyby
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Durst, Rebecca F.;
   Seeger, Christina H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Person,
   Michael J.; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Kosiarek,
   Molly R.; Abe, Fumio; Nagakane, Masayuki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Tristram,
   Paul J.; Arredondo, Anicia
2017Icar..296..305P    Altcode:
  We observed the occultation by Pluto of a 12th magnitude star, one of
  the two brightest occultation stars ever in our dozen years of continual
  monitoring of Pluto's atmosphere through such studies, on 2015 June
  29 UTC. At the Univ. of Canterbury Mt. John Observatory (New Zealand),
  under clear skies throughout, we used a POETS frame-transfer CCD at 10
  Hz with GPS timing on the 1-m McLellan telescope as well as an infrared
  camera on an 0.6-m telescope and three-color photometry at a slower
  cadence on a second 0.6-m telescope. At the Auckland Observatory, we
  used a POETS and a PICO on 0.5-m and 0.4-m telescopes, with 0.4 s and 2
  s cadences, respectively, obtaining ingress observations before clouds
  moved in. The Mt. John light curves show a central flash, indicating
  that we were close to the center of the occultation path. Analysis
  of our light curves show that Pluto's atmosphere remains robust. The
  presence of spikes at both sites in the egress and ingress shows
  atmospheric layering. We coordinated our observations with aircraft
  observations (Bosh et al., 2017) with the Stratospheric Observatory for
  Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Our chords helped constrain the path across
  Pluto that SOFIA saw. Our ground-based and airborne stellar-occultation
  effort came only just over two weeks of Earth days and two Pluto days
  before the flyby of NASA's New Horizons spacecraft.

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Title: Solar-system Education for the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2017DPS....4910103P    Altcode:
  I describe an extensive outreach program about the Sun, the silhouette
  of the Moon, and the circumstances both celestial and terrestrial
  of the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. Publications included
  a summary of the last decade of solar-eclipse research for Nature
  Astronomy, a Resource Letter on Observing Solar Eclipses for the
  American Journal of Physics, and book reviews for Nature and for Phi
  Beta Kappa's Key Reporter. Symposia arranged include sessions at AAS,
  APS, AGU, and AAAS. Lectures include all ages from pre-school through
  elementary school to high school to senior-citizen residences. The
  work, including the scientific research about the solar corona that
  is not part of this abstract, was supported by grants from the Solar
  Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division
  of NSF and from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the
  National Geographic Society. Additional student support was received
  from NSF, NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Honorary
  Research Society Sigma Xi, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation, and funds
  at Williams College.

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Title: Syzygy Information: Lunar Limb Profiles at Total Eclipses of
    the Decade
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Jubier, Xavier; Wright, Ernest
2017DPS....4941717P    Altcode:
  The topographic 3D mapping of the lunar surface by the Japanese Kaguya
  and NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has led to greatly improved
  predictions of Baily's beads at total solar eclipses. This information
  has been included in the program Solar Eclipse Maestro. Matching the
  predictions with observations of Baily's beads made at total solar
  eclipses, including the 21 August 2017 eclipse as well as previous
  total and annular eclipses, may even improve the accuracy of the solar
  diameter used as a standard by the International Astronomical Union.

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Title: The 2016 Transit of Mercury and the Solar Parallax
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Backhaus, Udo; Gährken, Bernd; Schneider,
   Glenn
2017DPS....4920004P    Altcode:
  We observed the 9 May 2016 transit of Mercury with the 1.6-m New Solar
  Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory of the New Jersey Institute
  of Technology in California and with smaller telescopes in Germany. The
  solar granulation behind the silhouette of Mercury can be aligned,
  showing Mercury's parallax. From these observations, the value of the
  solar parallax can be determined, showing historical parallels. As a
  second method of making the parallactic shift of Mercury visible and the
  distance to the sun measurable, we aligned photos taken with telescopes
  of shorter focal lengths, for instance, by using the prominent sunspots.

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Title: First Results from the August 21, 2017, Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2017SPD....4820803P    Altcode:
  I report on the observations planned and, weather permitting, made
  from our site in Salem, Oregon, at the August 21, 2017, total solar
  eclipse. I also give a first report on collaborators' successes,
  including Megamovie and simultaneous space observations. We also
  describe our participation in PBS's NOVA on the eclipse that was to be
  aired on public television on eclipse night. Our eclipse expedition is
  supported in large part by grants from the Solar Terrestrial Program
  of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of NSF and by the Committee for
  Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

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Title: Heliophysics at total solar eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2017NatAs...1E.190P    Altcode:
  Observations during total solar eclipses have revealed many secrets
  about the solar corona, from its discovery in the 17th century to
  the measurement of its million-kelvin temperature in the 19th and
  20th centuries, to details about its dynamics and its role in the
  solar-activity cycle in the 21st century. Today's heliophysicists
  benefit from continued instrumental and theoretical advances, but
  a solar eclipse still provides a unique occasion to study coronal
  science. In fact, the region of the corona best observed from the
  ground at total solar eclipses is not available for view from any
  space coronagraphs. In addition, eclipse views boast of much higher
  quality than those obtained with ground-based coronagraphs. On 21
  August 2017, the first total solar eclipse visible solely from what
  is now United States territory since long before George Washington's
  presidency will occur. This event, which will cross coast-to-coast
  for the first time in 99 years, will provide an opportunity not only
  for massive expeditions with state-of-the-art ground-based equipment,
  but also for observations from aloft in aeroplanes and balloons. This
  set of eclipse observations will again complement space observations,
  this time near the minimum of the solar activity cycle. This review
  explores the past decade of solar eclipse studies, including advances in
  our understanding of the corona and its coronal mass ejections as well
  as terrestrial effects. We also discuss some additional bonus effects
  of eclipse observations, such as recreating the original verification
  of the general theory of relativity.

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Title: Books and Other Resources for Education about the August 21,
    2017, Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew; Kentrianakis, Michael
2017AAS...23010804P    Altcode:
  As part of our work to reach and educate the 300+ million Americans
  of all ages about observing the August 21 solar eclipse, especially
  by being outdoors in the path of totality but also for those who will
  see only partial phases, we have compiled annotated lists of books,
  pamphlets, travel guides, websites, and other information useful for
  teachers, students, and the general public and made them available
  on the web, at conferences, and through webinars. Our list includes
  new eclipse books by David Barron, Anthony Aveni, Frank Close, Tyler
  Nordgren, John Dvorak, Michael Bakich, and others. We list websites
  accessible to the general public including those of the International
  Astronomical Union Working Group on Eclipses (http://eclipses.info,
  which has links to all the sites listed below); the AAS Eclipse
  2017 Task Force (http://eclipse2017.aas.org); NASA Heliophysics
  (http://eclipse.nasa.gov); Fred Espenak (the updated successor
  to his authoritative "NASA website": http://EclipseWise.com);
  Michael Zeiler (http://GreatAmericanEclipse.com); Xavier Jubier
  (http://xjubier.free.fr/en/site_pages/solar_eclipses/);
  Jay Anderson (meteorology: http://eclipsophile.com);
  NASA's Eyes (http://eyes.nasa.gov/eyes-on-eclipse.html
  and its related app); the Astronomical Society of
  the Pacific (http://www.astrosociety.org/eclipse);
  Dan McGlaun (http://eclipse2017.org/); Bill
  Kramer (http://eclipse-chasers.com). Specialized
  guides include Dennis Schatz and Andrew Fraknoi's
  Solar Science for teachers (from the National Science Teachers
  Association:http://www.nsta.org/publications/press/extras/files/solarscience/SolarScienceInsert.pdf),
  and a printing with expanded eclipse coverage of Jay Pasachoff's,
  Peterson Field Guide to the Stars and Planets (14th printing of the
  fourth edition, 2016: http://solarcorona.com).A version of our joint
  list is to be published in the July issue of the American Journal
  of Physics as a Resource Letter on Eclipses, adding to JMP's 2010,
  "Resource Letter SP-1 on Solar Physics," AJP, 78, September, 890-901.

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Title: Results from and Plans for the Two 2017 Solar Eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Seaton, Daniel; Kentrianakis, Michael;
   Fischer, Daniel
2017AAS...23030106P    Altcode:
  At this writing fresh from observing the 26 February 2017 annular solar
  eclipse in exceptionally clear sky from sites in Patagonia, Argentina,
  we show images from the centerline near Facundo showing Baily's beads
  and central annularity of the magnitude 99.3% eclipse. From close to the
  edge of the path from sites north of Facundo within the northern limit
  (images by Daniel Fischer) and north of Sarmiento at the southern limit
  (images by Jörg Schoppmeyer), we show unfiltered images that show
  substantial solar chromosphere with innermost corona above it. We
  also show SWAP and SDO eclipse images.For the 21 August 2017 total
  solar eclipse, we describe our plans for observing coronal structure
  above the limb from the ground in Oregon and for ultraviolet imaging
  on the solar disk at the time of the terrestrial eclipse through six
  filters using the new Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) on the National
  Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's GOES-16 spacecraft, planned
  along with three similar spacecraft for coronal coverage for the next
  two decades. SUVI has the biggest overlapping field of view, 53 arcmin
  square, of any multi-channel space-based EUV imager.Our research on
  the 2017 total solar eclipse is supported by grants from the Committee
  for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and
  from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace
  Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation. NOAA NCEI are
  the acronyms for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's
  National Centers for Environmental Information.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy: An all-American eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay
2017Natur.545..409P    Altcode:
  Jay Pasachoff enjoys four books heralding this summer's US total
  solar eclipse.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Educating the Public about the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2017AAS...22941103P    Altcode:
  On behalf of the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on
  Solar Eclipses, I have long worked to bring knowledge about eclipses
  and how to observe the safely to the people of the various countries
  from which partial, annular, or total solar eclipses are visible. In
  2017, we have first a chance to educate the people of South America on
  the occasion of the February 26 annular eclipse through southern Chile
  and Argentina that is partial throughout almost the entire continent
  (and an eclipse workshop will be held February 22-24 in Esquel,
  Argentina: http://sion.frm.utn.edu.ar/WDEAII) and then a chance to
  educate the 300 million people of the United States and others in
  adjacent countries as far south as northern South America about the
  glories of totality and how to observe partial phases. Our website,
  a compendium of links to information about maps, safe observing,
  science, and more is at http://eclipses.info. We link to important
  mapping sites at EclipseWise.com, GreatAmericanEclipse.com, and
  http://xjubier.free.fr/en/site_pages/solar_eclipses/xSE_GoogleMap3.php?Ecl=+20170821&amp;Acc=2&amp;Umb=1&amp;Lmt=1&amp;Mag=1&amp;Max=1,
  and information about cloudiness statistics at
  http://eclipsophile.com, as well as simulation sites at
  https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=4314 and
  http://eyes.jpl.nasa.gov. The American Astronomical Society's task
  force on the 2017 eclipse has a website at http://eclipse.aas.org. We
  are working to disseminate accurate information about how and why to
  observe the total solar eclipse, trying among other things to head
  off common misinformation about the hazards of looking at the sun
  at eclipses or otherwise. About 12 million Americans live within the
  70-mile-wide band of totality, and we encourage others to travel into
  it, trying to make clear the difference between even a 99% partial
  eclipse and a total eclipse, with its glorious Baily's beads, diamond
  rings, and totality that on this occasion lasts between 2 minutes and
  2 minutes 40 seconds on the centerline. Our research on the 2017 total
  solar eclipse is supported by grants from the Committee for Research
  and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and from the Solar
  Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division
  of the National Science Foundation.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The solar corona through the sunspot cycle: preparing for
    the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Seaton, Daniel; Rusin, Vojtech
2017AAS...22932502P    Altcode:
  We discuss the evolution of the solar corona as seen at eclipses through
  the solar-activity cycle. In particular, we discuss the variations
  of the overall shape of the corona through the relative proportions
  of coronal streamers at equatorial and other latitudes vs. polar
  plumes. We analyze the two coronal mass ejections that we observed
  from Gabon at the 2013 total solar eclipse and how they apparently
  arose from polar crown filaments, one at each pole. We describe the
  change in the Ludendorff flattening index from solar maximum in one
  hemisphere as of the 2013 eclipse through the 2015 totality's corona we
  observed from Svalbard and, with diminishing sunspot and other magnetic
  activity in each hemisphere, through the 2016 corona we observed from
  Ternate, Indonesia.We discuss our observational plans for the August
  21, 2017, total solar eclipse from our main site in Salem, Oregon,
  and subsidiary sites in Madras, OR; Carbondale, IL; and elsewhere,
  our main site chosen largely by its favorable rating in cloudiness
  statistics. We discuss the overlapping role of simultaneous spacecraft
  observations, including those expected not only from NASA's SDO,
  ESA's SWAP on PROBA2, and NRL/NASA/ESA's LASCO on SOHO but also from
  the new SUVI (Solar Ultraviolet Imager) aboard NOAA's GOES-R satellite,
  scheduled as of this writing to have been launched by the time of this
  January 2017 meeting.Our research on the 2013 and 2015 total solar
  eclipses was supported by grants from the Committee for Research and
  Exploration of the National Geographic Society (NG-CRE). Our research
  on the 2017 total solar eclipse is supported by both NG-CRE and the
  Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences
  Division of the National Science Foundation.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Astrophysics of the Solar Corona at the August 21, 2017,
    American Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay
2017APS..APR.Y3008P    Altcode:
  The first total solar eclipse to cross the United States from coast to
  coast in 99 years will occur on August 21, 2017, with a 70-mile-wide
  path of totality from Oregon to South Carolina, with cloudiness
  statistics more favorable in the northwest than in the southeast. I
  will discuss a series of observations of the solar corona made during
  recent solar eclipses and related spacecraft observations. I will
  further discuss plans for using the 2017 eclipse for furthering our
  studies of the heating of the solar corona to millions of kelvins,
  of the dynamics of coronal mass ejections and polar plumes, and of the
  response of the corona to the solar magnetic field. I will conclude by
  discussing public-education plans for the eclipse, during which the
  whole U.S., Mexico, Central America, and Canada will enjoy a partial
  eclipse. My work at solar eclipses has recently been supported by the
  NSF and the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National
  Geographic Society, and I thank them both for research grants for our
  scientific studies of the 2017 total eclipse, including AGS-1602461
  from the NSF and 987816 from National Geographic.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Simon Marius vs. Galileo: Who First Saw Moons of Jupiter?
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Van Helden, Albert
2016DPS....4831206P    Altcode:
  In his almanac for 1612 and book Mundus Iovalis of 1614, Simon Marius in
  Germany reported his discovery of moons around Jupiter, which he started
  writing down in late 1609 in the Julian calendar, which translated to 8
  January 1610 in the Gregorian calendar in use by Galileo in Italy. Is
  Marius to be believed? Galileo certainly did not. But a Dutch jury of
  experts about three hundred years later reported that they validated
  the claim that Marius independently discovered the moons of Jupiter one
  day after Galileo first both saw and wrote down his discovery! There is
  no doubt that the names Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto came from
  Marius (to whom they were suggested by Kepler). See JMP's Journal for
  the History of Astronomy article, 46(2), 218-234 (2015).Marius wrote
  that he had been observing the moons around Jupiter since November 1609
  (Julian), using a neighboring nobleman's telescope, which would mean
  that he actually saw the Jupiter satellites first (though publish
  or perish). Whether this feat was technically possible comes down
  to discussions of the capabilities of telescopes in the early 17th
  century.The quadricentennial of Marius's book was celebrated in
  Nuremberg with a symposium that is now in press in German with an
  English translation expected. One of us (AVH) has recently prepared
  a complete English translation of Marius's book, superseding the
  partial translation made 100 years ago. There is no evidence that,
  whether he saw what we now call the Galilean satellites first or not,
  Marius appreciated their cosmological significance the way that Galileo
  soon did. And Marius was certainly the first to publish tables of the
  moons of Jupiter.We thank the Chapin Library of Williams College and
  the Huntington Library for assistance with first editions of Marius's
  1614 book, and we thank Pierre Leich of the Simon Marius Gesellschaft
  for his consultations.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Implications of the Central Flash Analysis from the 2015
    Pluto Stellar Occultation
Authors: Person, Michael J.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Sickafoose, Amanda
   A.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Levine, Stephen; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock,
   Bryce A.; Dunham, Edward W.; McLean, Ian S.; Wolf, Juergen; Abe,
   F.; Becklin, Eric E.; Bida, Thomas A.; Bright, Leonard P.; Brothers,
   Tim; Christie, Grant; Collins, Peter; Durst, Rebecca; Gilmore, Alan;
   Hamilton, Ryan T.; Harris, Hugh C.; Johnson, Christian I.; Kilmartin,
   Pam; Kosiarek, Molly; Leppik, Karina; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Lucas, Robert;
   Mathers, Shevill; Morley, Caroline; Natusch, T.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.;
   Pfueller, E.; Roeser, H. -P.; Sallum, Stephanie; Savage, Maureen L.;
   Seeger, Christina; Chit Siu, Ho; Stockdale, Christopher; Suzuki, D.;
   Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristam, P. J.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey
   E.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, Luke; Widen, E.; Wiedemann, M.
2016DPS....4822404P    Altcode:
  Two weeks before the historic New Horizons flyby of Pluto, a stellar
  occultation was observed from Australia and New Zealand (Bosh et al.,
  2016, Pasachoff et al., 2016, Sicardy et al., 2016). Prior to these
  observations, an extensive astrometric campaign (Bosh et al., this
  meeting) was conducted to carefully place the SOFIA aircraft within the
  central flash region of the occultation shadow. Multiple central flash
  chords were obtained and initial analysis indicated global asymmetry
  of Pluto's atmosphere (Person et al., 2015).Further analysis of these
  chords reveals asymmetries in Pluto's atmosphere stronger than those
  previously observed by either central flash measurements or occultation
  shadow fitting (Person et al., 2006, Olkin et al., 2014). Here we
  will discuss this revealed atmospheric asymmetry in terms of the bulk
  atmospheric movements necessary to cause distortions of this order,
  given the extreme surface sphericity seen by New Horizons (Nimmo et al.,
  2016), and its implications for surface ice transport scenarios (Hansen
  et al., 2015), and Pluto's seasonal evolution (Earle et al., 2015).

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 2016 Transit of Mercury Observed from Major Solar
    Telescopes and Satellites
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, Glenn; Gary, Dale; Chen, Bin;
   Sterling, Alphonse C.; Reardon, Kevin P.; Dantowitz, Ronald; Kopp,
   Greg A.
2016DPS....4811705P    Altcode:
  We report observations from the ground and space of the 9 May 2016
  transit of Mercury. We build on our explanation of the black-drop
  effect in transits of Venus based on spacecraft observations of the 1999
  transit of Mercury (Schneider, Pasachoff, and Golub, Icarus 168, 249,
  2004). In 2016, we used the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear
  Solar Observatory with active optics to observe Mercury's transit at
  high spatial resolution. We again saw a small black-drop effect as 3rd
  contact neared, confirming the data that led to our earlier explanation
  as a confluence of the point-spread function and the extreme solar
  limb darkening (Pasachoff, Schneider, and Golub, in IAU Colloq. 196,
  2004). We again used IBIS on the Dunn Solar Telescope of the Sacramento
  Peak Observatory, as A. Potter continued his observations, previously
  made at the 2006 transit of Mercury, at both telescopes of the sodium
  exosphere of Mercury (Potter, Killen, Reardon, and Bida, Icarus 226,
  172, 2013). We imaged the transit with IBIS as well as with two RED
  Epic IMAX-quality cameras alongside it, one with a narrow passband. We
  show animations of our high-resolution ground-based observations along
  with observations from XRT on JAXA's Hinode and from NASA's Solar
  Dynamics Observatory. Further, we report on the limit of the transit
  change in the Total Solar Irradiance, continuing our interest from
  the transit of Venus TSI (Schneider, Pasachoff, and Willson, ApJ 641,
  565, 2006; Pasachoff, Schneider, and Willson, AAS 2005), using NASA's
  SORCE/TIM and the Air Force's TCTE/TIM. See http://transitofvenus.info
  and http://nicmosis.as.arizona.edu.Acknowledgments: We were glad for
  the collaboration at Big Bear of Claude Plymate and his colleagues of
  the staff of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. We also appreciate the
  collaboration on the transit studies of Robert Lucas (Sydney, Australia)
  and Evan Zucker (San Diego, California). JMP appreciates the sabbatical
  hospitality of the Division of Geosciences and Planetary Sciences of
  the California Institute of Technology, and of Prof. Andrew Ingersoll
  there. The solar observations lead into the 2017 eclipse studies,
  for which JMP is supported by grants from the NSF AGS and National
  Geographic CRE.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The thermal field of the terminator mesosphere of Venus using
    solar transit data
Authors: Tanga, Paolo; Widemann, Thomas; Pere, Christophe; Babcock,
   Brice A.; Berthier, Jerome; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Roos-Serote, Maarten
2016DPS....4811509T    Altcode:
  We exploit the solar transits of Venus in 2004 and 2012, to derive
  useful constraints on the mesosphere of the planet by the observation
  of the so-called "aureole" resulting from direct sunlight refraction. In
  2012 we organized an extensive campaign, involving observations through
  both space- and ground- based telescopes. A specific design adapted
  from the Lyot coronograph was developed and replicated in several
  copies to improve the SNR in proximity of the solar disk (Venus
  Twilight Experiment).we report on the different data sets collected
  during the 2012 transit, and present lightcurve analyses based on
  imaging from NASA's Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO), JAXA's Hinode,
  and by the instruments of the Venus Twilight Experiment.We explored
  different approaches to model the variation of the aureole brightness,
  ranging from simple isothermal modeling to multi-layer.Although less
  resolved than the local measurements obtained by Venus Express (SOIR
  experiment), aureole modeling has the advantage of being able to cover
  simultaneously a wide range of latitudes. We were able to compare the
  aureole-derived vertical refractivity profiles to density profiles
  obtained simultaneously by SOIR during the transit itself. Our inverse
  model, constraining the vertical temperature profiles at all latitudes,
  detects a cold layer (at ~86-94 km altitude on average) whose vertical
  extent depends on latitude (thicker towards the N pole than at the
  Equator), and a latitude-dependent aerosol slanted-opacity altitude
  (τ=1).Eventually our model shows that a relevant contribution to the
  aureole flux comes from deep layers where aerosol absorption cannot
  be neglected, allowing us to put some constraints on the scale height
  of aerosol dispersion.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Public Education Plans for the 2017 August 21 Total Solar
    Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2016AAS...22811201P    Altcode:
  A total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on
  2017 August 21, the first such in 99 years and the first whose path of
  totality on land is entirely in the United States since 1776. People in
  the rest of the United States-as well as in Canada, Central America, and
  northern South America-will have a partial solar eclipse. Totality will
  range up to about 70 km in diameter, and will be visible from a path
  that extends from Oregon to South Carolina. Cloudiness statistics
  based on decades on satellite infrared imaging are more favorable
  for western sites. The sun's diameter will be 80% covered in Miami
  (south of totality) and New York (north of totality), and 70% covered
  in Los Angeles (south of totality). For the Working Group on Solar
  Eclipses of the International Astronomical Union, I maintain a website
  at http://eclipses.info that provides links to a wide variety of
  eclipse-related material and to useful websites run by others.Prior to
  this total eclipse, annular eclipses will cross Africa (from Gabon to
  Tanzania and Madagascar) and Isle de la Réunion on 2016 September 1,
  and Chile and Argentina on 2017 February 26, at which time we plan
  an eclipse workshop in Esquel, Argentina.For the forthcoming 2017
  eclipse, we acknowledge grants to JMP and Williams College from the
  Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences
  Division of the National Science Foundation and from the Committee
  for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: First Report on the 2016 March 9 Total Solar Eclipse
    Observations
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2016AAS...22831105P    Altcode:
  Totality swept across Indonesia and into the Pacific on 2016 March 9,
  lasting up to 2 min 45 s on Ternate in the Spice Islands (Malukus). I
  provide a first report on our observations. Our scientific goal is
  to follow changes in the corona over the solar-activity cycle, now
  past its 2012 and 2014 double peak, and to measure temporal changes
  in the corona on the scale of minutes or hours by comparing eclipse
  observations made at several sites along the path. I also discuss the
  near-simultaneous coronal observations made with SOHO/LASCO, SDO/AIA,
  STEREO/SECCHI, PROBA2/SWAP, and Hinode XRT.For the forthcoming 2017
  eclipse, we acknowledge grants to JMP and Williams College from the
  Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences
  Division of the National Science Foundation and from the Committee
  for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Early Evaluation of the Corona at the 2016 March 9 Total
    Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Seaton, Daniel B.; Sterling, Alphonse C.
2016SPD....47.0326P    Altcode:
  We observed the corona on 2016 March 9 with a variety of assets on
  the ground and in space. The umbra of the total eclipse swept across
  Indonesia and into the Pacific, with totality at our Indonesian
  observation sites lasting 2 min 45 s at Ternate in the Spice Islands
  (Malukus) and 2 min 10 at Belitung. We compare our ground-based
  results with the coronal configurations observed with PROBA2/SWAP
  and Hinode XRT. One of our scientific goals is to follow the coronal
  configuration over the solar-activity cycle, with the sunspot number
  now half its maximum of either its 2012 or 2014 peak. We are evaluating
  temporal changes by comparing eclipse observations made at several
  ground-based sites along the path, with the longest span being 75 min
  from Belitung to the Woleia atoll in mid-Pacific, 1:25 UTC to 2:40 UTC;
  we are evaluating whether the airborne observations made at 3:35 UTC
  on March 8 (across the International Dateline) are of suitable quality
  to provide further comparison at high spatial resolution. We also
  compare our images with the near-simultaneous coronal observations
  made with SOHO/LASCO, SDO/AIA, STEREO-A/SECCHI, and the Mauna Loa
  Solar Observatory's K-cor coronagraph. ACS received support for image
  analysis from the Hinode project.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Trio of Stellar Occultations by Pluto One Year Prior to New
    Horizons' Arrival
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Bosh, Amanda S.;
   Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Kosiarek, Molly R.; Levine,
   Stephen E.; Osip, David J.; Schiff, Avery; Seeger, Christina H.;
   Babcock, Bryce A.; Rojo, Patricio; Servajean, Elise
2016AJ....151...97P    Altcode:
  We observed occultations by Pluto during a predicted series of events
  in 2014 July with the 1 m telescope of the Mt. John Observatory in New
  Zealand. The predictions were based on updated astrometry obtained in
  the previous months at the USNO, CTIO, and Lowell Observatories. We
  successfully detected occultations by Pluto of an R = 18 mag star on
  July 23 (14:23:32 ± 00:00:04 UTC to 14:25:30 ± 00:00:04 UTC), with a
  drop of 75% of the unocculted stellar signal, and of an R = 17 star on
  July 24 (11:41:30 ± 00:00:08 UTC to 11:43:28 ± 00:00:08 UTC), with a
  drop of 80% of the unocculted stellar signal, both with 20 s exposures
  with our frame-transfer Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit
  System. Since Pluto had a geocentric velocity of 22.51 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>
  on July 23 and 22.35 km s<SUP>-1</SUP> on July 24, these intervals yield
  limits on the chord lengths (surface and lower atmosphere) of 2700 ±
  130 km and 2640 ± 250 km, respectively, indicating that the events
  were near central, and therefore provide astrometric constraints on
  the prediction method. Our coordinated observations with the 4 m AAT
  in Australia on July 23 and the 6.5 m Magellan/Clay on Las Campanas,
  the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope on Cerro Pachön,
  the 2.5 m DuPont on Las Campanas (LCO), the 0.6 m SARA-South on Cerro
  Tololo of the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA),
  the MPI/ESO 2.2 m on La Silla, and the 0.45 m Cerro Calán telescope
  and 0.36 telescope in Constitución in Chile on July 27 and 31, which
  would have provided higher-cadence observations for studies of Pluto’s
  atmosphere, were largely foiled by clouds, but led to detection with
  the LCO Magellan/Clay and DuPont Telescopes on July 31 of the grazing
  occultation of a previously unknown 15th-magnitude star, completing the
  trio of occultations successfully observed and reported in this paper.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: C46 `ASTRONOMY Education and Development': a Peculiar
    Commission
Authors: de Greve, Jean-Pierre; García, Beatriz; Gerbaldi, Michèle;
   Ferlet, Roger; Guinan, Edward; Hearnshaw, John; Jones, Barrie;
   Marschall, Laurence; Miley, George; Pasachoff, Jay; Ros, Rosa;
   Stavinschi, Magda; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia
2016IAUTA..29..205D    Altcode:
  C46 was a Commission of the Executive Committee of the IAU under
  Division XII (Union-Wide Activities), then after 2012 under Division C
  (Education, Outreach, and Heritage). It was the only commission dealing
  exclusively with astronomy education; a previous Commission 38 (Exchange
  of Astronomers), which allocated travel grants to astronomers who needed
  them, and a Working Group on the Worldwide Development of Astronomy,
  have been absorbed by Commission 46.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Structure, Dynamics, and Spectra of the Solar Corona at the
    2013 and 2015 Total Eclipses and Plans for 2017's American Totality
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Dantowitz, Ronald; Voulgaris, Aristeidis
2016AAS...22712502P    Altcode:
  We observed the total solar eclipses of 3 November 2013 from Gabon and
  of 20 March 2015 from Svalbard in clear skies with cameras to image
  the solar corona at high resolution and with spectrographs for coronal
  emission lines. We report on the composite images showing coronal
  structure and (in comparison with other sites' images) dynamics, as
  well as the relation of our inner- and middle-corona composite images
  with surface EUV images from SDO and SWAP and with the outer-corona
  images from the coronagraphs on SOHO/LASCO. Our spectra show not only
  the common forbidden lines of Fe XIV (green line) and Fe X (red line)
  but also rarer species such as Ca XV. Finally, we describe our planned
  suite of observations for the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse, whose path
  of totality will cross the United States from Pacific to Atlantic,
  with more-favorable cloudiness statistics for western sites.Our Gabon
  and Svalbard expeditions were supported by grants from the Committee
  for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Solar Eclipse Mural Series by Howard Russell Butler
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.
2016ASPC..501...13P    Altcode:
  There is a rich trove of astronomical phenomena in works of art by
  artists from the greater New York area, a trend that is even more
  pronounced in the oeuvres of New York City residents through the present
  day. A case in point is the trio of oil paintings by artist (and former
  physics professor) Howard Russell Butler depicting total solar eclipses
  in 1918, 1923, and 1925 that are based on his own observations. They
  were long displayed in the former art-deco building of the Hayden
  Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History, the location of
  this conference. (The Museum also has nine other Butler paintings, none
  of which are currently exhibited.) Since the eclipse paintings have been
  in storage for many years, these once famous works are now virtually
  forgotten. Based on our research as an astronomer who has seen sixty-two
  solar eclipses and an art historian who has written extensively about
  astronomical imagery, we will discuss Butler's Solar Eclipse Triptych
  to explore its place in the history of astronomical imaging.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Occultation Evidence for Haze in Pluto's Atmosphere in 2015
    at the New Horizons Encounter
Authors: Bosh, A. S.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C.; Sickafoose, A. A.;
   Levine, S. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Dunham, E. W.;
   McLean, I.; Wolf, J.; Abe, F.; Becklin, E.; Bida, T. A.; Bright,
   L. P.; Brothers, T.; Christie, G.; Collins, P. L.; Durst, R. F.;
   Gilmore, A. C.; Hamilton, R.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, C.; Kilmartin,
   P. M.; Kosiarek, M. R.; Leppik, K.; Logsdon, S.; Lucas, R.; Mathers,
   S.; Morley, C. J. K.; Natusch, T.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.; Pfüller,
   E.; Röser, H. P.; Sallum, S.; Savage, M.; Seeger, C. H.; Siu, H.;
   Stockdale, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristram,
   P. J.; Van Cleve, J.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, L. W.; Widen, E.;
   Wiedemann, M.
2015AGUFM.P54A..07B    Altcode:
  On UT 29 June 2015, the occultation by Pluto of a bright star (r'=11.9)
  was observed from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy
  (SOFIA) as well as several ground-based stations in New Zealand and
  Australia. Pre-event astrometry allowed for an in-flight update to
  the SOFIA team with the result that SOFIA was deep within the central
  flash zone. Combined analysis of the data sets leads to the result that
  Pluto's middle atmosphere is essentially unchanged from 2011 and 2013
  (Person et al. 2013; Bosh et al. 2015); there has been no significant
  expansion or contraction of the atmosphere. Additionally, we find that
  a haze component in the atmosphere is required to reproduce the light
  curves obtained. This haze scenario has implications for understanding
  the photochemistry of Pluto's atmosphere. This work was supported
  by NASA grants NNX15AJ82G (Lowell Observatory), NNX10AB27G (MIT),
  and NNX12AJ29G (Williams), and by the National Research Foundation
  of South Africa. Co-authors were visiting observers on SOFIA, at the
  Keck Observatory, the Magellan Observatory, the SARA-CT Observatory,
  the Mt. John University Observatory, and the Auckland Observatory.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Ground-based Light Curves Two Pluto Days Before the New
    Horizons Passage
Authors: Bosh, A. S.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Durst, R. F.;
   Seeger, C. H.; Levine, S. E.; Abe, F.; Suzuki, D.; Nagakane, M.;
   Sickafoose, A. A.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C.; Kosiarek, M. R.
2015AGUFM.P51A2048B    Altcode:
  We observed the occultation of a 12th magnitude star, one of the two
  brightest occultation stars ever in our dozen years of continual
  monitoring of Pluto's atmosphere through such studies, on 29 June
  2015 UTC. At Canterbury University's Mt. John University Observatory
  on the south island of New Zealand, in clear sky, we used our POETS
  frame-transfer CCD at 10 Hz with GPS timing on the 1-m McLellan
  telescope as well as an infrared camera on an 0.6-m telescope
  and three-color photometry at a slower cadence on a second 0.6-m
  telescope. The light curves show a central flash, indicating that we
  were close to the center of the occultation path, and allowing us to
  explore Pluto's atmosphere lower than usual. The light curves show
  that Pluto's atmosphere remained robust. Observations from 0.5- and
  0.4-m telescopes at the Auckland Observatory gave the first half of
  the occultation before clouds came in. We coordinated our observations
  with aircraft observations with NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for
  Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and its High Speed Imaging Photometer for
  Occultations (HIPO). Our ground-based and airborne stellar-occultation
  effort came only just over two weeks of Earth days and two Pluto days
  (based on Pluto's rotational period) before the flyby of NASA's New
  Horizons spacecraft, meaning that the mission's exquisite snapshot
  of Pluto's atmosphere can be placed in the context of our series of
  ground-based occultation observations carried out on a regular basis
  since 2002 following a first Pluto occultation observed in 1988 from
  aloft. Our observations were supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy
  grants NNX12AJ29G to Williams College, NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory,
  and NNX10AB27G to MIT, and by the National Research Foundation of
  South Africa. We thank Alan Gilmore, Pam Kilmartin, Robert Lucas,
  Paul Tristam, and Carolle Varughese for assistance at Mt. John.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Lunar Profile and Baily's Beads at Solar Eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Wright, Ernest T.
2015DPS....4710707P    Altcode:
  The lunar mapping from NASA's Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter and JAXA's
  Kaguya has provided information that allows calculation of the lunar
  limb profile whose low points at total solar eclipses provides the
  Baily's Beads. Preparations for the forthcoming August 21, 2017, total
  solar eclipse (lunar occultation) whose totality crosses the continental
  United States from northwest to southeast (http://eclipses.info for
  the International Astronomical Union Working Group on Solar Eclipses)
  has led to new calculations of the Baily's Beads and of comparisons
  of the totality duration between predictions and observations for
  historical events.JMP's research on the annular and total solar eclipses
  of 2012 was supported in part by the Solar-Terrestrial Program of the
  Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of the National Science
  Foundation through grant AGS-1047726. His observations of the 2013 and
  2015 total solar eclipses were supported by grants 9327-13 and 9616-14,
  respectively, from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the
  National Geographic Society, with additional support from Williams
  College.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Preparing for and Observing the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J.
2015ASPC..500...43P    Altcode:
  I discuss ongoing plans and discussions for EPO and scientific observing
  of the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. I discuss aspects of EPO
  based on my experiences at the 60 solar eclipses I have seen. I share
  cloud statistics along the eclipse path compiled by Jay Anderson,
  the foremost eclipse meteorologist. I show some sample observations of
  composite imagery, of spectra, and of terrestrial temperature changes
  based on observations of recent eclipses, including 2012 from Australia
  and 2013 from Gabon. Links to various mapping sites of totality, partial
  phases, and other eclipse-related information, including that provided
  by Michael Zeiler, Fred Espenak (retired from NASA) and Xavier Jubier
  can be found on the website I run for the International Astronomical
  Union's Working Group on Eclipses at http://www.eclipses.info.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Central Flash Analysis of the 29 June 2015 Occultation
Authors: Person, Michael J.; Bosh, A. S.; Sickafoose, A. A.; Zuluaga,
   C. A.; Levine, S. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Dunham, E. W.;
   McLean, I.; Wolf, J.; Abe, F.; Becklin, E.; Bida, T. A.; Bright, L. P.;
   Brothers, T. C.; Christie, G.; Collins, P. L.; Durst, R. F.; Gilmore,
   A. C.; Hamilton, R.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, C.; Kilmartin, P. M.;
   Kosiarek, M. R.; Leppik, K.; Logsdon, S. E.; Lucas, R.; Mathers,
   S.; Morley, C. J. K.; Natusch, T.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.; Pfueller,
   E.; Roeser, H. -P.; Sallum, S.; Savage, M.; Seeger, C. H.; Siu, H.;
   Stockdale, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristram,
   P. J.; Van Cleeve, J.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, L. W.; Widen, E.;
   Wiedemann, M.
2015DPS....4710505P    Altcode:
  After an extensive prediction effort, the 29 June 2015 occultation
  by Pluto was observed from both airborne (Stratospheric Observatory
  for Infrared Astronomy - SOFIA) and numerous ground-based telescopes
  (Bosh et al. - this meeting). Real-time prediction updates allowed
  placement of the SOFIA telescope with its four detectors deep within the
  central-flash region of the atmospheric occultation. Fortuitously, the
  Mount John University Observatory (Lake Tekapo, New Zealand) was also
  within the central-flash region (Pasachoff et al. - this meeting). This
  happenstance resulted in multiple central-flash detections in several
  colors from each facility allowing direct comparison of different
  areas of the central-flash evolute.Here we examine and discuss the
  central-flash signatures from the highest signal-to-noise light curves
  from each facility. The relative orientations and asymmetries in the
  central flashes allow us to use them to tightly constrain the lower
  atmospheric ellipticity and orientation of likely winds with respect
  to Pluto’s figure. The ratio of the two separate central flashes
  is also a strong constraint on the geometric solution for the full
  occultation data set, and the absolute height of the central flashes
  with respect to those expected for a clear isothermal atmosphere places
  constraints on haze densities and thermal gradients in Pluto’s lower
  atmosphere. We can also compare the central-flash signatures in several
  colors (similar to Sickafoose et. al - this meeting) to establish
  bounds on haze-particle sizes in the lower atmosphere.SOFIA is jointly
  operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA),
  under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI)
  under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. Support
  for this work was provided, in part, by NASA grants SSO NNX15AJ82G
  (Lowell Observatory), PA NNX10AB27G (MIT), and PA NNX12AJ29G (Williams
  College), as well as the National Research Foundation of South Africa,
  and the NASA SOFIA Cycle 3 grant NAS2-97001 issued by USRA.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Investigation of particle sizes in Pluto's atmosphere from
    the 29 June 2015 occultation
Authors: Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Bosh, A. S.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga,
   C. A.; Levine, S. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Dunham,
   E. W.; McLean, I.; Wolf, J.; Abe, F.; Bida, T. A.; Bright, L. P.;
   Brothers, T.; Christie, G.; Collins, P. L.; Durst, R. F.; Gilmore,
   A. C.; Hamilton, R.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, C.; Kilmartin, P. M.;
   Kosiarek, M. R.; Leppik, K.; Logsdon, S.; Lucas, R.; Mathers, S.;
   Morley, C. J. K.; Natusch, T.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.; Pfüller, E.;
   de, H. -P.; Sallum, S.; Savage, M.; Seeger, C. H.; Siu, H.; Stockdale,
   C.; Suzuki, D.; Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristam, P. J.; Van
   Cleve, J.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, L. W.; Widen, E.; Wiedemann, M.
2015DPS....4710504S    Altcode:
  The 29 June 2015 observations of a stellar occultation by Pluto,
  from SOFIA and ground-based sites in New Zealand, indicate
  that haze was present in the lower atmosphere (Bosh et al., this
  conference). Previously, slope changes in the occultation light curve
  profile of Pluto’s lower atmosphere have been attributed to haze, a
  steep thermal gradient, and/or a combination of the two. The most useful
  diagnostic for differentiating between these effects has been observing
  occultations over a range of wavelengths: haze scattering and absorption
  are functions of particle size and are wavelength dependent, whereas
  effects due to a temperature gradient should be largely independent of
  observational wavelength. The SOFIA and Mt. John data from this event
  exhibit obvious central flashes, from multiple telescopes observing
  over a range of wavelengths at each site (Person et al. and Pasachoff
  et al., this conference). SOFIA data include Red and Blue observations
  from the High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO, at ~ 500
  and 850 nm), First Light Infrared Test Camera (FLITECAM, at ~1800 nm),
  and the Focal Plan Imager (FPI+, at ~ 600 nm). Mt. John data include
  open filter, g', r', i', and near infrared. Here, we analyze the
  flux at the bottom of the light curves versus observed wavelength. We
  find that there is a distinct trend in flux versus wavelength, and we
  discuss applicable Mie scattering models for different particle size
  distributions and compositions (as were used to characterize haze
  in Pluto's lower atmosphere in Gulbis et al. 2015).SOFIA is jointly
  operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA),
  under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI)
  under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. Support
  for this work was provided by the National Research Foundation of South
  Africa, NASA SSO grants NNX15AJ82G (Lowell Observatory), PA NNX10AB27G
  (MIT), and PA NNX12AJ29G (Williams College), and the NASA SOFIA Cycle
  3 grant NAS2-97001 issued by USRA.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Central Flash at an Occultation of a Bright Star by Pluto
    Soon Before New Horizons' Flyby
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Durst, Rebecca F.;
   Seeger, Christina H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Sickafoose,
   Amanda A.; Person, Michael J.; Abe, Fumio; Suzuki, Daisuke; Nagakane,
   Masayuki; Tristam, Paul J.
2015DPS....4721012P    Altcode:
  From the Mt. John Observatory, New Zealand, we were so close to
  the center of the occultation path on 29 June 2015 UTC that we
  observed a modest central flash from the focusing of starlight from
  a 12th-magnitude star. The star was one of the brightest ever in our
  years of continual monitoring that started in 2002. At the time of
  Pluto's perihelion in 1989, it was feared from models that Pluto's
  atmosphere might collapse by now, a motivation for the timely launch
  of New Horizons; some models now allow Pluto to retain its atmosphere
  throughout its orbit.We used our frame-transfer CCD at 10 Hz with
  GPS timing on the 1-m McLellan telescope of Canterbury U. We also
  observed with a Lowell Obs. infrared camera on the "AAVSO" 0.6-m Optical
  Craftsman telescope; and obtained 3-color photometry at a slower cadence
  on a second 0.6-m telescope. We coordinated with the overflight of SOFIA
  and its 2.5-m telescope, which benefited from last-minute astrometry,
  and the Auckland Observatory's and other ground-based telescopes.Our
  light curves show a modest central flash; our tentative geometrical
  solution shows that we were only about 50 km from the occultation path's
  centerline. The flash is from rays lower than otherwise accessible
  in Pluto's atmosphere. Our light curves, at such high cadence that we
  see spikes caused by atmospheric effects that we had not seen so well
  since our 2002 Mauna Kea occultation observations, show that Pluto's
  atmosphere had not changed drastically since our previous year's
  observations. Our data provide a long-term context for New Horizon's
  highly-detailed observations of Pluto's atmosphere in addition to
  providing a chord for the geometrical solution that includes SOFIA's
  observations.Our observations were supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy
  grants NNX12AJ29G to Williams College, NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory,
  and NNX10AB27G to MIT, and by the National Research Foundation of South
  Africa. We are grateful to Alan Gilmore, Pam Kilmartin, Robert Lucas,
  and Carolle Varughese for assistance at Mt. John. We thank the AAVSO
  for use of the AAVSOnet 0.6-m telescope and Arne Henden for assistance.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Haze in Pluto's atmosphere: Results from SOFIA and ground-based
    observations of the 2015 June 29 Pluto occultation
Authors: Bosh, A. S.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Sickafoose,
   A. A.; Levine, S. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Dunham, E. W.;
   McLean, I.; Wolf, J.; Abe, F.; Becklin, E.; Bida, T. A.; Bright, L. P.;
   Brothers, T.; Christie, G.; Collins, P. L.; Durst, R. F.; Gilmore,
   A. C.; Hamilton, R.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, C.; Kilmartin, P. M.;
   Kosiarek, M. R.; Leppik, K.; Logsdon, S. E.; Lucas, R.; Mathers,
   S.; Morley, C. J. K.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.; Pfüller, E.; Natusch,
   T.; Röser, H. -P.; Sallum, S.; Savage, M.; Seeger, C. H.; Siu, H.;
   Stockdale, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristram,
   P. J.; Van Cleve, J.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, L. W.; Widen, E.;
   Wiedemann, M.
2015DPS....4710503B    Altcode:
  We observed the 29 June 2015 occultation by Pluto from SOFIA and several
  ground-based sites in New Zealand. Pre-event astrometry (described
  in Zuluaga et al., this conference) allowed us to navigate SOFIA into
  Pluto's central flash (Person et al., this conference). Fortuitously,
  the central flash also fell over the Mt. John University Observatory
  (Pasachoff et al., this conference). We combine all of our airborne and
  ground-based data to produce a geometric solution for the occultation
  and to investigate the state of Pluto's atmosphere just two weeks
  before the New Horizons spacecraft's close encounter with Pluto. We
  find that the atmosphere parameters at half-light are unchanged
  from our observations in 2011 (Person et al. 2013) and 2013 (Bosh
  et al. 2015). By combining our light-curve inversion with recent
  radius measurements from New Horizons, we find strong evidence for
  an extended haze layer in Pluto's atmosphere. See also Sickafoose
  et al. (this conference) for an evaluation of the particle sizes
  and properties.SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space
  Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001,
  and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901
  to the University of Stuttgart. Support for this work was provided by
  NASA SSO grants NNX15AJ82G (Lowell Observatory), NNX10AB27G (MIT), and
  NNX12AJ29G (Williams College), and by the National Research Foundation
  of South Africa.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Aeolus: A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Code for Mapping Ultracool
    Atmospheres. An Application on Jupiter and Brown Dwarf HST Light
    Curves
Authors: Karalidi, Theodora; Apai, Dániel; Schneider, Glenn; Hanson,
   Jake R.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2015ApJ...814...65K    Altcode: 2015arXiv151004251K
  Deducing the cloud cover and its temporal evolution from the observed
  planetary spectra and phase curves can give us major insight into
  the atmospheric dynamics. In this paper, we present Aeolus, a Markov
  chain Monte Carlo code that maps the structure of brown dwarf and
  other ultracool atmospheres. We validated Aeolus on a set of unique
  Jupiter Hubble Space Telescope (HST) light curves. Aeolus accurately
  retrieves the properties of the major features of the Jovian atmosphere,
  such as the Great Red Spot and a major 5 μm hot spot. Aeolus is
  the first mapping code validated on actual observations of a giant
  planet over a full rotational period. For this study, we applied
  Aeolus to J- and H-band HST light curves of 2MASS J21392676+0220226
  and 2MASS J0136565+093347. Aeolus retrieves three spots at the top
  of the atmosphere (per observational wavelength) of these two brown
  dwarfs, with a surface coverage of 21% ± 3% and 20.3% ± 1.5%,
  respectively. The Jupiter HST light curves will be publicly available
  via ADS/VIZIR.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Cosmos: Astronomy in the New Millenium
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Filippenko, Alex; Labuschagne, Lia
2015MNSSA..74..240L    Altcode:
  Book review

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Report of the IAU Working Group on Solar Eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2015IAUGA..2254605P    Altcode:
  The Working Group on Solar Eclipses coordinates scientists and
  information in the study of the Sun and the heliosphere at solar
  eclipses. Our Website at http://eclipses.info has a wide variety
  of information, including links to maps and other websites dealing
  with solar eclipses, as well as information on how to observe the
  partial-phases of solar eclipses safely and why it is interesting
  for not only scientists but also for the public to observe eclipses
  and to see how we work to uncover the mysteries of the sun's upper
  atmosphere. In the last triennium, there were total eclipses in
  Australia and the Pacific in 2012; in an arc across Africa from Gabon
  to Uganda and Kenya in 2013; and in the Arctic, including Svalbard
  and the Faeroes plus many airplanes aloft, in 2015. In the coming
  triennium, there will be total solar eclipses in Indonesia and the
  Pacific in 2016 and then, on 21 August 2017, a total solar eclipse
  that will sweep across the Continental United States from northwest
  to southeast. Mapping websites, all linked to http://eclipses.info,
  include Fred Espenak's http://EclipseWise.com; Michael Zeiler's
  http://GreatAmericanEclipse.com and http://eclipse-maps.com; Xavier
  Jubier's http://xjubier.free.fr; and (with weather and cloudiness
  analysis) Jay Anderson's http://eclipser.ca. Members of the Working
  Group, chaired by Jay Pasachoff (U.S.), include Iraida Kim (Russia),
  Kiroki Kurokawa (Japan), Jagdev Singh (India), Vojtech Rusin (Slovakia),
  Zhongquan Qu (China), Fred Espenak (U.S.), Jay Anderson (Canada),
  Glenn Schneider (U.S.), Michael Gill (U.K.), Xavier Jubier (France),
  Michael Zeiler (U.S.), and Bill Kramer (U.S.).

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Public Education and Outreach for Observing Solar Eclipses
    and Transits
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2015IAUGA..2254684P    Altcode:
  The general public is often very interested in observing solar eclipses,
  with widespread attention from newspapers and other sources often
  available only days before the events. Recently, the 2012 eclipse's
  partial phases in Australia and the 2015 eclipse's partial phases
  throughout Europe as well as western Asia and northern Africa, were
  widely viewed. The 21 August 2017 eclipse, whose totality will sweep
  across the Continental United States from northwest to southeast,
  will have partial phases visible throughout the U.S., Canada, Mexico,
  Central America, and into South America. The 2019 and 2020 partial
  phases of total eclipses will be visible throughout South America,
  and partial phases from annular eclipses will be visible from other
  parts of the world. The 9 May 2016 transit of Mercury will be best
  visible from the Western Hemisphere, Europe, and Africa. Many myths and
  misunderstandings exist about the safety of observing partial phases,
  and it is our responsibility as astronomers and educators to transmit
  accurate information and to attempt the widest possible distribution
  of such information. The Working Group on Public Education at Eclipses
  and Transits, formerly of Commission 46 on Education and Development
  and now of New Commission 11, tries to coordinate the distribution of
  information. In collaboration with the Solar Division's Working Group
  on Solar Eclipses, their website at http://eclipses.info is a one-stop
  shop for accurate information on how to observe eclipses, why it is
  interesting to do so, where they will be visible (with links to online
  maps and weather statistics), and how encouraging students to observe
  eclipses can be inspirational for them, perhaps even leading them to
  realize that the Universe can be understood and therefore renewing
  the strength of their studies. Links to information about transits of
  Mercury and Venus are also included.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Division XII: Commission 46: Education &amp; Development
    of Astronomy
Authors: Ros, Rosa M.; Hearnshaw, John; Stavinschi, Magda; Garcia,
   Beatriz; Gerbaldi, Michele; de Greve, Jean-Pierre; Guinan, Edward;
   Haubold, Hans; Jones, Barrie; Marshall, Laurence A.; Pasachoff, Jay
2015IAUTB..28..137R    Altcode:
  C46 is a Commission of the Executive Committee of the IAU under Division
  XII Union-Wide Activities. Aiming at improvement of astronomy education
  and research at all levels worldwide (through the various projects it
  initiates),maintains, develops, as well as through the dissemination of
  information. C46 has 332 members and it was managed by the Organizing
  Committee, formed by the Commission President (Rosa M. Ros, from Spain),
  the Vice-Presiden (John Hearnshaw, from New Zealand), the Retiring
  President (Magda Stavinschi, from Romania), the Vice-President of the
  IAU (George Miley, from Netherland) and the PG chairs: ∙ Worldwide
  Development of Astronomy WWDA: John Hearnshaw ∙ Teaching Astronomy
  for Development TAD: Edward Guinan and Laurence A. Marshall ∙
  International Schools for Young Astronomers ISYA; chair: Jean-Pierre de
  Greve ∙ Network for Astronomy School Education NASE: Rosa M. Ros and
  Beatriz Garcia ∙ Public Understanding at the times of Solar Eclipses
  and transit Phenomena PUTSE: Jay Pasachoff ∙ National Liaison and
  Newsletter: Barrie Jones ∙ Collaborative Programs: Hans Haubold

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book review: Nearest Star: The surprising science of our Sun
    (Golub &amp; Pasachoff)
Authors: Smith, L.; Golub, L.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2015JBAA..125..183S    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Simon Marius's Mundus Iovialis: 400th Anniversary in Galileo's
    Shadow
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2015JHA....46..218P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Solar Corona at the 2015 Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Carter, Allison L.
2015TESS....120319P    Altcode:
  We report on our successful observations of the solar corona at the 20
  March 2015 total solar eclipse from our site at a latitude of about 78°
  on the Svalbard archipelago, and related observations by colleagues
  aloft. Our equipment included cameras for imaging at a variety of
  scales for use in making high-contrast composites, as reported our
  Astrophysical Journal article (2015) about our 2012 total solar eclipse
  observations and similar articles about the corona and changes in it
  at previous total eclipses. Our Svalbard equipment also included a
  spectrograph, with which we continued our monitoring of the ratio of
  the Fe XIV and Fe X coronal lines, which has recently been &gt;1 with
  the solar maximum, a reversal from &lt;1 at earlier eclipses closer to
  the last solar minimum. Our 2013 observations from Gabon showed two
  coronal mass ejections and an erupting prominence; the 2015 eclipse
  showed an erupting prominence and some unusual coronal structure in an
  overall coronal shape typical of solar maximum. We use our ground-based
  eclipse observations to fill the gap in imaging between the SDO and SWAP
  (17.4 nm) EUV observations on the solar disk and the inner location
  of the LASCO C2 occultation disk, with STEREO observations providing
  the possibility of three-dimensional interpretations. Our expedition
  was supported by a grant (9616-14) from the Committee for Research
  and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Air-cooling mathematical analysis as inferred from the
    air-temperature observation during the 1st total occultation of the
    Sun of the 21st century at Lusaka, Zambia
Authors: Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2015JASTP.125...59P    Altcode:
  We analyze mathematically air temperature measurements made near the
  ground by the Williams College expedition to observe the first total
  occultation of the Sun [TOS (commonly known as a total solar eclipse)]
  of the 21st century in Lusaka, Zambia, in the afternoon of June 21,
  2001. To do so, we have revisited some earlier and contemporary methods
  to test their usefulness for this analysis. Two of these methods, based
  on a radiative scheme for solar radiation modeling and that has been
  originally applied to a morning occultation, have successfully been
  combined to obtain the delay function for an afternoon occultation,
  via derivation of the so-called instantaneous temperature profiles. For
  this purpose, we have followed the suggestion given by the third of
  these previously applied methods to calculate this function, although by
  itself it failed to do so at least for this occultation. The analysis
  has taken into account the limb-darkening, occultation and obscuration
  functions. The delay function obtained describes quite fairly the lag
  between the solar radiation variation and the delayed air temperature
  measured. Also, in this investigation, a statistical study has been
  carried out to get information on the convection activity produced
  during this event. For that purpose, the fluctuations generated by
  turbulence has been studied by analyzing variance and residuals. The
  results, indicating an irreversible steady decrease of this activity,
  are consistent with those published by other studies. Finally, the air
  temperature drop due to this event is well estimated by applying the
  empirical scheme given by the fourth of the previously applied methods,
  based on the daily temperature amplitude and the standardized middle
  time of the occultation. It is demonstrated then that by using a simple
  set of air temperature measurements obtained during solar occultations,
  along with some supplementary data, a simple mathematical analysis
  can be achieved by applying of the four methods reviewed here.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: Eclipses, Transits, and Comets of the Nineteenth
Century: How America's Perceptions of the Skies Changed
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2015JAHH...18..112P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Structure and Dynamics of the 2012 November 13/14 Eclipse
    White-light Corona
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Saniga, M.; Babcock, B. A.;
   Lu, M.; Davis, A. B.; Dantowitz, R.; Gaintatzis, P.; Seiradakis,
   J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Seaton, D. B.; Shiota, K.
2015ApJ...800...90P    Altcode: 2014arXiv1412.1155P
  Continuing our series of observations of coronal motion and dynamics
  over the solar-activity cycle, we observed from sites in Queensland,
  Australia, during the 2012 November 13 (UT)/14 (local time) total solar
  eclipse. The corona took the low-ellipticity shape typical of solar
  maximum (flattening index ∊ = 0.01), a change from the composite
  coronal images we observed and analyzed in this journal and elsewhere
  for the 2006 and 2008-2010 eclipses. After crossing the northeast
  Australian coast, the path of totality was over the ocean, so further
  totality was seen only by shipborne observers. Our results include
  velocities of a coronal mass ejection (CME; during the 36 minutes of
  passage from the Queensland coast to a ship north of New Zealand, we
  measured 413 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>) and we analyze its dynamics. We discuss
  the shapes and positions of several types of coronal features seen on
  our higher-resolution composite Queensland coronal images, including
  many helmet streamers, very faint bright and dark loops at the bases
  of helmet streamers, voids, and radially oriented thin streamers. We
  compare our eclipse observations with models of the magnetic field,
  confirming the validity of the predictions, and relate the eclipse
  phenomenology seen with the near-simultaneous images from NASA's Solar
  Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA), NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Imager
  on Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, ESA/Royal Observatory
  of Belgium's Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing
  (SWAP) on PROBA2, and Naval Research Laboratory's Large Angle and
  Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment on ESA's Solar and Heliospheric
  Observatory. For example, the southeastern CME is related to the solar
  flare whose origin we trace with a SWAP series of images.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Observations of a successive stellar occultation by Charon
and graze by Pluto in 2011: Multiwavelength SpeX and MORIS data from
    the IRTF
Authors: Gulbis, A. A. S.; Emery, J. P.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.;
   Zuluaga, C. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.
2015Icar..246..226G    Altcode:
  Pluto's lower atmosphere has been observed to evolve since the
  first definitive occultation detection in 1988. Possibilities for
  explaining the lower atmospheric structure include a steep thermal
  gradient and/or extinction, the latter of which can be characterized
  as a dependence between occultation flux and wavelength. On 2011
  June 23, a 14.43 UCAC magnitude star (R = 13.64) was occulted by
  Pluto as observed from multiple sites. Observations made at NASA's 3-m
  Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, showed a full
  occultation of the star by Charon followed by an atmospheric graze by
  Pluto. Data were taken simultaneously in visible-wavelength images and
  low-resolution, near-infrared spectra. This dataset is unique in that
  (i) the double occultation allows astrometric measurements for Pluto
  and Charon as well as accurate calibration of the Pluto light curve,
  and (ii) the wavelength-resolved data serve as a test for atmospheric
  extinction. The graze reached a minimum normalized flux level of roughly
  0.35, serving primarily as a probe of Pluto's upper atmosphere (which
  is typically defined to be above half-light level in occultation light
  curves). However, the light curve is well fit by atmospheric models
  with a power-law thermal gradient, a clear upper atmosphere, and haze
  in the lower atmosphere. We find a negative dependence between flux
  and wavelength in the deepest part of Pluto's atmosphere probed by the
  graze and in a spike during emersion. A simple extinction model for
  spherical, μm-sized tholins matches the observed spectral trends. While
  the atmospheric fits cannot rule out a clear atmosphere having a steep
  thermal gradient at the bottom, the flux-wavelength dependence and the
  feasibility of our particle-scattering fits suggest that Pluto's lower
  atmosphere contained haze in 2011. These results provide an important
  link in monitoring Pluto's dynamic atmosphere.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Trio of stellar occultations by Pluto One Year Prior to New
    Horizons' Arrival
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Bosh, Amanda S.;
   Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Levine, Stephen; Osip,
   David J.; Schiff, Adam R.; Seeger, Christina H.; Babcock, Bryce A.;
   Rojo, Patricio; Kosiarek, Molly R.; Servajean, Elise
2015AAS...22513715P    Altcode:
  Our campaign in July 2014 yielded three successful stellar occultations
  (~m=15, 17, and 18) of Pluto (~m=14), observed from telescopes in New
  Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Telescopes involved included Chile:
  Magellan's Clay (6.5 m), SOAR (4.1 m), Carnegie's DuPont (2.4 m);
  Australia: AAT (4 m); and Canterbury's Mt. John McLellan (1-m); as well
  as various smaller telescopes in Australia and Chile. One of the events
  was also observed, with negative results, from GROND on La Silla (2.2
  m) and SMARTS's ANDICAM at CTIO (1.3 m). Though our observations were
  coordinated across continents, each successfully observed event was
  seen from only one site because of bad weather at the other sites. Two
  of the events were uniquely observed from Mt. John (Pasachoff et al.,
  DPS 2014) and one, with only Chile sites in the predicted path, from
  the Clay (Person et al., DPS 2014). This last event was expected to be
  of the brightest star with the largest telescope we have ever observed
  for a Pluto occultation, but clouds arrived at the 6.5-m Clay 90 s
  before the predicted time; a 1% occultation was nonetheless seen and
  eventually, confirmed by Keck AO observations, to be of a 15th magnitude
  star previously hidden in the brightness of the 12th mag star. Our
  scientific conclusion is that as of these observations, one year before
  New Horizons' passage of Pluto, the atmosphere of Pluto remained robust
  and of the same size. Details on our analysis of the three events will
  be presented.Acknowledgments: This work was supported in part by NASA
  Planetary Astronomy grants to Williams College (NNX12AJ29G) and to
  MIT (NNX10AB27G), as well as grants from USRA (#8500-98-003) and Ames
  Research (#NAS2-97-01) to Lowell Observatory. A.R.S. was supported by
  NSF grant AST-1005024 for the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium REU,
  with partial support from U.S. DoD's ASSURE program. P.R. acknowledges
  support from FONDECYT through grant 1120299. J.M.P. thanks Andrew
  Ingersoll and Caltech Planetary Astronomy for hospitality.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: 400th Anniversary of Marius's Book with the First Image of
    an Astronomical Telescope and of Orbits of Jovian Moons
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Leich, Pierre
2015AAS...22521505P    Altcode:
  Simon Mayr's (Marius's) Mundus Iovialis Anno M·DC·IX Detectus
  Ope Perspicilli Belgici (The World of Jupiter...) was published in
  Nuremberg in 1614; Marius was the Ansbach court mathematician. The
  frontispiece includes not only a portrait of Marius (1573-1624) himself
  but also, in the foreground, a long tube labelled "perspicillum,"
  the first known image of a telescopic device used for astronomy;
  the name "telescope" came later. A schematic diagram of Jupiter
  with four moons orbiting appears at upper left; Marius, following
  a suggestion from Kepler, gave these Galilean satellites the names
  now still in use: Io, Europa. Ganymede, and Callisto. The title
  continues Hoc est, Quatuor Joviali cum Planetarum, cum Theoria,
  tum Tabulae, Propriis Observationibus Maxime Fundate.... A pair
  of conferences was held in Germany in 2014 to commemorate the
  400th anniversary of Marius's book and to discuss Marius's work
  and its relation to Galileo's work (http://www.simon-marius.net;
  http://www.simon-marius.net/index.php?lang=en&amp;menu=1 28 languages
  are available). Marius (Mayr) had independently discovered the four
  satellites of Jupiter, apparently one day after Galileo, on December
  29 O.S., 1609; by the time he published his work four years later
  (a local-circulation publication had appeared in Nuremberg in 1611
  in Prognosticon Astrologicum auf das Jahr 1612), Galileo had gained
  fame and priority, and Galileo accused Marius of plagiarism in Il
  Saggiatore (1623). With his Belgian telescope, Marius also noted the
  tilt of the orbital plane of Jupiter's moons, sunspots (1611), and
  the Andromeda Nebula (1612). He claimed to have worked out a system of
  cosmology similar to the Tychonic system in 1596, contemporaneously to
  Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum. A crater, the Marius Hills, and the
  Rima Marius on the Moon are named for him by the I.A.U., as well as,
  to celebrate the quadricentennial, a main-belt asteroid, now (7984)
  Marius. Acknowledgment: JMP thanks Seth Fagen, PRPH Books in New York,
  for introducing him to Marius's book 18 years ago.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The state of Pluto's atmosphere in 2012-2013
Authors: Bosh, A. S.; Person, M. J.; Levine, S. E.; Zuluaga, C. A.;
   Zangari, A. M.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Schaefer, G. H.; Dunham, E. W.;
   Babcock, B. A.; Davis, A. B.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Rojo, P.; Servajean,
   E.; Förster, F.; Oswalt, T.; Batcheldor, D.; Bell, D.; Bird, P.; Fey,
   D.; Fulwider, T.; Geisert, E.; Hastings, D.; Keuhler, C.; Mizusawa,
   T.; Solenski, P.; Watson, B.
2015Icar..246..237B    Altcode:
  We observed two stellar occultations on UT 4 May 2013 and UT 9 September
  2012, with the aim of measuring Pluto's atmospheric parameters. Both
  of these events were observed by world-wide collaborations of many
  observers, and both occurred within 1 month of Pluto's stationary
  points. The PC20120909 event was observed at the McDonald Observatory
  (MONET 1.2-m), and Olin Observatory (the Ortega 0.8-m); the P20130504
  event was observed at the Las Campanas Observatory (du Pont 2.5-m),
  the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (SMARTS 1-m), and the Cerro
  Calán National Astronomical Observatory (Goto 0.45-m). Analysis of the
  data indicates an atmospheric state similar to that in June 2011. The
  shadow radius for the event is unchanged from recent events, indicating
  an atmosphere that is holding stable and not in the midst of global
  collapse. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of comparing
  various atmospheric parameters across events (the shadow radius vs. the
  pressure at a particular radius). These analyses suggest that Pluto
  will still have an atmosphere when the New Horizons spacecraft arrives
  in July 2015.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coronal Dynamics at Recent Total Solar Eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Lu, M.; Davis, A. B.; Demianski, M.; Rusin,
   V.; Saniga, M.; Seaton, D. B.; Lucas, R.; Babcock, B. A.; Dantowitz,
   R.; Gaintatzis, P.; Seeger, C. H.; Malamut, C.; Steele, A.
2014AGUFMSH41B4144P    Altcode:
  Our composite images of the solar corona based on extensive imaging at
  the total solar eclipses of 2010 (Easter Island), 2012 (Australia), and
  2013 (Gabon) reveal several coronal mass ejections and other changes in
  coronal streamers and in polar plumes. Our resultant spatial resolution
  is finer than that available in imaging from spacecraft, including
  that from SOHO/LASCO or STEREO. We trace the eruptions back to their
  footpoints on the sun using imaging from SDO and SWAP, and follow them
  upwards through the corona, measuring velocities. The high-resolution
  computer compositing by Miloslav Druckmüller and Hana Druckmüllerová
  (2010 and 2013) and Pavlos Gaintatzis (2012) allows comparison of our
  images with those taken at intervals of minutes or hours along the
  totality path. Williams College's 2013 eclipse expedition was supported
  in part by grant 9327-13 from National Geographic Society/Committee for
  Research and Exploration. Our work on the 2012 eclipse is supported
  in part by grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research/NSF
  AGS. V.R. and M.S. were partially supported by the VEGA grant agency
  project 2/0098/10 and 2/0003/13 (Slovak Academy of Sciences) and Grant
  0139-12 from NG/CRE, and Hana Druckmüllerová by grant 205/09/1469 of
  the Czech Science Foundation. M.L. was supported by Sigma Xi. C.M. was a
  Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow, supported at Williams
  College by REU/NSF grant AST-1005024. Partial support was provided by
  U.S. Department of Defense's ASSURE program. J.M.P. thanks Caltech's
  Planetary Sciences Department for hospitality. Support for D.B.S. and
  SWAP came from PRODEX grant C90345 managed by ESA in collaboration
  with the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in support
  of the PROBA2/SWAP mission, and from the EC's Seventh Framework
  Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant 218816 (SOTERIA project,
  www.soteria-space.eu). SWAP is a project of the Centre Spatial de
  Liège and the Royal Observatory of Belgium funded by BELSPO.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Venus' thermospheric temperature field using a refraction
model at terminator : comparison with 2012 transit observations
    using SDO/HMI, VEx/SPICAV/SOIR and NSO/DST/FIRS
Authors: Widemann, Thomas; Jaeggli, Sarah; Reardon, Kevin; Tanga,
   Paolo; Père, Christophe; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Vandaele, Ann Carine;
   Wilquet, Valerie; Mahieux, Arnaud; Wilson, Colin
2014DPS....4630206W    Altcode:
  The transit of Venus in June 2012 provided a unique case study of the
  Venus' atmosphere transiting in front of the Sun, while at the same time
  ESA's Venus Express orbiter observed the evening terminator at solar
  ingress and solar egress.We report on mesospheric temperature at Venus'
  morning terminator using SDO/HMI aureole photometry and comparison with
  Venus Express. Close to ingress and egress phases, we have shown that
  the aureole photometry reflects the local density scale height and the
  altitude of the refracting layer (Tanga et al. 2012). The lightcurve of
  each spatially resolved aureole element is fit to a two-parameter model
  to constrain the meridional temperature gradient at terminator. Our
  measurements are in agreement with the VEx/SOIR temperatures obtained
  during orbit 2238 at evening terminator during solar ingress (46.75N -
  LST = 6.075PM) and solar egress (31.30N - LST = 6.047PM) captured from
  the Venus Express orbiter at the time Venus transited the Sun.We also
  performed spectroscopy and polarimetry during the transit of Venus
  focusing on extracting signatures of CO2 absorption. Observations were
  taken during the first half of the transit using the Facility InfraRed
  Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) on the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Although
  the predicted CO2 transmission spectrum of Venus was not particularly
  strong at 1565 nm, this region of the H-band often used in magnetic
  field studies of the Sun's photosphere provides a particularly flat
  solar continuum with few atmospheric lines. Sun-subtracted Venus limb
  observations show intensity distribution of vibrational CO2 bands 221
  2v+2v2+v3 at 1.571μm and 141 v1+4v2+v3 at 1.606μm.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Recreating Galileo's 1609 Discovery of Lunar Mountains
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Needham, Paul S.; Wright, Ernest T.;
   Gingerich, Owen
2014DPS....4610606P    Altcode:
  The question of exactly which lunar features persuaded Galileo that
  there were mountains on the moon has not yet been definitively answered;
  Galileo was famously more interested in the concepts rather than the
  topographic mapping in his drawings and the eventual engravings. Since
  the pioneering work of Ewen Whitaker on trying to identify which
  specific lunar-terminator features were those that Galileo identified
  as mountains on the moon in his 1609 observations reported in his
  Sidereus Nuncius (Venice, 1610), and since the important work on the
  sequence of Galileo's observations by Owen Gingerich (see "The Mystery
  of the Missing 2" in Galilaeana IX, 2010, in which he concludes that
  "the Florentine bifolium sheet [with Galileo's watercolor images] is
  Galileo's source for the reworked lunar diagrams in Sidereus Nuncius"),
  there have been advances in lunar topographical measurements that
  should advance the discussion. In particular, one of us (E.T.W.) at the
  Scientific Visualization Studio of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
  has used laser-topography from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
  to recreate what Galileo would have seen over a sequence of dates in
  late November and early December 1609, and provided animations both
  at native resolution and at the degraded resolution that Galileo would
  have observed with his telescope. The Japanese Kaguya spacecraft also
  provides modern laser-mapped topographical maps.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Evidence of Haze in Pluto’s Lower Atmosphere in 2011
Authors: Gulbis, Amanda; Emery, Joshua P.; Person, Michael J.; Bosh,
   Amanda S.; Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2014DPS....4640101G    Altcode:
  Based on stellar occultation observations since 1988, Pluto’s
  lower atmosphere has been evolving (e.g., Elliot et al. 2007, AJ,
  134, 1; Young et al. 2008, AJ, 136, 1757; Bosh et al. 2014, Icarus,
  in press). The structure of the lower atmosphere is likely due to a
  steep thermal gradient and/or extinction, the latter of which can be
  characterized as a dependence between observed occultation flux and
  wavelength. On 2011 June 23, a 13.64 R-magnitude star was occulted by
  Pluto as observed from multiple sites (Person et al. 2013, AJ, 146,
  83). Observations made at NASA’s 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility
  (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawai’i, showed a full occultation of the
  star by Charon followed by an atmospheric graze by Pluto. Data were
  taken simultaneously in visible-wavelength images and low-resolution,
  near-infrared spectra. This unique, wavelength-resolved dataset serves
  as a test for atmospheric extinction. The graze primarily probed
  Pluto’s upper atmosphere. The upper atmosphere is typically defined
  to be above half-light level in occultation light curves (approximately
  three pressure scale heights above the surface), and the graze reached a
  minimum of roughly 0.35 flux. However, the light curve is well matched
  by an atmospheric model with a power-law thermal gradient, a clear
  upper atmosphere, and haze in the lower atmosphere. Furthermore,
  there is a negative dependence between flux and wavelength in the
  deepest part of the atmosphere probed by the graze, as well as in an
  emersion spike. We find that a simple extinction model for spherical,
  micron-sized tholins matches the observed spectral trends (Gulbis
  et al. 2014, Icarus, in press). While the atmospheric fits cannot
  rule out a clear atmosphere having a steep thermal gradient at the
  bottom, the flux-wavelength dependence and the feasibility of our
  particle-scattering fits suggest that Pluto’s lower atmosphere
  contained haze in 2011. These results provide an important link in
  monitoring Pluto’s dynamic atmosphere, especially placed in context
  of the imminent arrival of the New Horizons spacecraft.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Atmospheric state of Pluto from the 31 July 2014 stellar
    occultation
Authors: Person, Michael J.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Zuluaga, Carlos A.;
   Kosiarek, Molly; Osip, David J.; Levine, Stephen E.; Pasachoff,
   Jay M.; Schiff, Adam R.; Seegar, Christina H.; Babcock, Bryce A.;
   Gulbis, Amanda A.; Rojo, Patricio
2014DPS....4641909P    Altcode:
  On 31 July 2014 (UT), while observing a potential Pluto occultation
  (m=12, unfortunately obscured by clouds), we imaged a fortuitous
  occultation by Pluto of a small companion star (m=15) several minutes
  before the main event (and before the clouds came in) with the 6.5-m
  Clay telescope at Magellan. The main star’s resulting light curve
  (essentially flat until the weather intervened) was one of the highest
  signal-to-noise light curves yet obtained from a Pluto occultation
  observation. It will be analyzed for possible signatures of dust in the
  Pluto system (see Levine et al., this meeting). Given the lower signal
  to noise ratio provided by the secondary star, careful calibration is
  needed to analyze the atmospheric occultation itself. Several other
  attempts at observing Pluto occultations in July 2014 were unfortunately
  clouded out (see Levine et al., Pasachoff et al., this meeting).Using
  precise astrometry obtained with the 2.5-m DuPont telescope and the
  4.3-m Discovery Channel telescope before and after the event, while
  Pluto and the stars were well-separated, we are able to constrain
  the closest approach distance of the secondary star occultation
  event. Using the photometry from these same images, we are also able
  to characterize the relative brightness of both stars in relation to
  Pluto (taking care to account for the light from Charon as well). With
  these two constraints we can analyze the atmospheric signature of the
  occultation, and provide a current (July 2014) estimate of Pluto’s
  changing atmospheric diameter. Initial results indicate no large
  changes in the atmospheric scale height; complete results from the final
  analysis will be presented with this work.This work was supported in
  part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants to MIT (NNX10AB27G) and Williams
  College (NNX12AJ29G), as well as grants from USRA (#8500-98-003) and
  Ames Research (#NAS2-97-01) to Lowell Observatory. P.R. acknowledges
  support from FONDECYT through grant 1120299.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coordinated Occultation Observations for Pluto, Nix, and
    Quaoar in July 2014
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schiff, Adam R.; Seeger, Christina H.;
   Babcock, Bryce A.; Person, Michael J.; Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Bosh,
   Amanda S.; Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Levine, Stephen E.; Osip, David J.;
   Rojo, Patricio; Kosiarek, Molly
2014DPS....4641901P    Altcode:
  We observed Pluto, its moon Nix, and Quaoar during a predicted series
  of occultations in July 2014 with the 1-m telescope of the Mt. John
  University Observatory in New Zealand. The observations were based on
  new USNO photometry. We successfully detected occultations by Pluto
  of an R=18 mag star on 23 July (14:23:30 ± 00:00:10 UTC to 14:25:30
  ± 00:00:10 UTC), with a drop of 5%, and of an R=17 star on 24 July
  (11:41:30 ± 00:00:10 UTC to 11:43:30 ± 00:00:10 UTC), with a drop of
  3%, both with 20 s exposures with our frame-transfer POETS. Since Pluto
  had a geocentric velocity of 22.51 km/s on 23 July and 22.35 km/s on
  24 July, these intervals yield limits on the chord lengths (surface +
  lower atmosphere) of 2700 ± 130 km and 2640 ± 250 km respectively,
  indicating that the events were near central, and provide astrometric
  data. Our coordinated observations with the 4-m AAT in Australia
  on 23 July and the 6.5-m Magellan/Clay, the 4.1-m SOAR, the 2.5-m
  DuPont, the 0.6-m SARA South, and the 0.45-m Cerro Calán telescopes
  in Chile on July 27 and 31, which would have provided higher-cadence
  observations for studies of Pluto’s atmosphere, were largely foiled
  by clouds.This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy
  grants to Williams College (NNX12AJ29G) and to MIT (NNX10AB27G), as
  well as grants from USRA (#8500-98-003) and Ames Research (#NAS2-97-01)
  to Lowell Observatory. A.R.S. was supported by NSF grant AST-1005024
  for the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium REU, with partial support
  from U.S. DoD's ASSURE program. P.R. acknowledges support from FONDECYT
  through grant 1120299.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Howard Russell Butler's Oil Paintings of Solar Eclipses
    and Prominences
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.
2014AAS...22420306P    Altcode:
  Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) was invited to join the US Naval
  Observatory expedition to the total solar eclipse of 1918 because of
  his ability to paint astronomical phenomena based on quickly-made
  notes about spatial and color details. His giant triptych of the
  total eclipses of 1918, 1923, and 1925 was proposed for a never-built
  astronomical center at the American Museum of Natural History and
  wound up at their Hayden Planetarium when it was constructed in the
  mid-1930s. Half-size versions are installed at the Fels Planetarium
  at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and at the Firestone Library
  of Princeton University, whose newly conserved canvases were recently
  hung; the Buffalo Museum of Science has another half-size version in
  storage. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs but also the series
  of large oil paintings he made of solar prominences (in storage at the
  American Museum of Natural History) and of his 1932-eclipse and other
  relevant works.JMP was supported for this work in part by Division
  III Discretionary Funds and the Brandi Fund of Williams College. His
  current eclipse research is supported by grants AGS-1047726 from the
  Solar Research Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division
  of NSF and 9327-13 from the Committee for Research and Exploration of
  the National Geographic Society.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Imaging and Spectra of the Chromosphere and Corona at the
    2013 Total Eclipse in Gabon
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Davis, Allen B.; Demianski, Marek;
   Rusin, Vojtech; Saniga, Metod; Seaton, Daniel B; Gaintatzis, Pavlos;
   Voulgaris, Aristeidis; Lucas, Robert; Edwards, Zophia; Zeiler, Michael;
   Kentrianakis, Michael
2014AAS...22432316P    Altcode:
  We successfully observed the 3 November 2013 eclipse's 59 s of totality
  in clear sky from the centerline of totality where it exited La Lope
  National Park in Gabon, close to the maximum totality available
  on land. Our wide-field imaging showed two CMEs and an erupting
  prominence. We compare our images with those obtained elsewhere in
  totality to assess motion and dynamics. Our imaging observations are
  also compared with near-simultaneous observations from SDO/AIA, SDO/HMI,
  Hinode/XRT, SOHO/LASCO, SOHO/EIT, PROBA2/SWAP, and STEREO/SECCHI. We
  also have flash and coronal spectra, which continue to show overall
  warming of the corona in 2012 and 2013 through studies we have made over
  the solar cycle that include the ratio of intensities of the coronal
  red (Fe X 637.4 nm) and green (Fe XIV 530.3 nm) forbidden lines.The
  Williams College 2013 total-eclipse expedition was supported in part
  by grant 9327-13 from the Committee for Research and Exploration
  of the National Geographic Society. Our continued work on the 2012
  eclipse results is supported in part by grant AGS-1047726 from Solar
  Terrestrial Research/NSF AGS.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: A History of Telescopes
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2014JHA....45..256P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Venus' thermospheric temperature field using a refraction
model at terminator : comparison with 2012 transit observations
    using SDO/HMI and NSO/DST/FIRS
Authors: Widemann, Thomas; Tanga, Paolo; Père, Christophe; Jaeggli,
   Sarah; Reardon, Kevin; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2014EGUGA..1612916W    Altcode:
  The transit of Venus in June 2012 provided a unique case study of an
  Earth-size planet's atmosphere transiting in front of its parent star
  at 0.7AU, while at the same time ESA's Venus Express orbiter observed
  the evening terminator at solar ingress and solar egress. We report
  on mesospheric temperature at Venus' morning terminator using SDO/HMI
  aureole photometry and comparison with Venus Express. Close to ingress
  and egress phases, we have shown that the aureole photometry reflects
  the local density scale height and the altitude of the refracting layer
  (Tanga et al. 2012). The lightcurve of each spatial resolution element
  of the aureole is compared to a two-parameter model to constrain the
  meridional temperature gradient along the terminator. Our measurements
  are in agreement with the VEx/SOIR temperatures obtained during
  orbit 2238 at evening terminator during solar ingress (46.75N - LST
  = 6.075PM) and solar egress (31.30N - LST = 6.047PM) captured from
  the Venus Express orbiter at the time Venus transited the Sun for
  Earth-based observers. We also performed spectroscopy and polarimetry
  during the transit of Venus focusing on extracting signatures of
  CO2 absorption. Observations were taken during the first half of the
  transit using the Facility InfraRed Spectropolarimeter on the Dunn
  Solar Telescope. Although the predicted CO2 transmission spectrum
  of Venus was not particularly strong at 1565 nm, this region of the
  H-band often used in magnetic field studies of the Sun's photosphere
  provides a particularly flat solar continuum with few atmospheric and
  molecular lines. Sun-subtracted Venus limb observations show intensity
  distribution of vibrational CO2 bands 221 2v + 2ν2 + ν3 at 1.571um and
  141 ν1 + 4ν2 + ν3 at 1.606um. Data independently allow to constrain
  temperature as well as cross-terminator thermospheric winds.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy: Art of the eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.
2014Natur.508..314P    Altcode:
  As the next solar eclipse approaches, Jay M. Pasachoff and Roberta
  J. M. Olson ponder how artists from the early Renaissance onwards have
  interpreted the phenomenon.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Nearest Star
Authors: Golub, Leon; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2014nest.book.....G    Altcode:
  Preface; Acknowledgments; 1. The Sun; 2. The once and future Sun;
  3. What we see: the solar disk; 4. What we don't see; 5. Eclipses;
  6. Space missions; 7. Between fire and ice; 8. Space weather;
  Bibliography; Glossary; Index.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Messier, Copernicus, Flamsteed: The SAF Rare-Book Collection
    in Paris
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2014AAS...22310707P    Altcode:
  The historic books belonging to the Société Astronomique de France,
  founded by Camille Flammarion in 1887, are located partly in Paris
  and partly at the Flammarion site in Juvisy, a Paris suburb. Their
  holdings include first editions of Copernicus's De Revolutionibus and
  of Flamsteed's star atlas, as well as Messier's own copy of his 1783
  and 1784 papers with his handwritten comments and additions. I will
  describe the fruitless search for a Bevis atlas and the circumstances
  that led me to inspect these treasures. I thank David Valls-Gabaud
  and Philippe Morel of the Société Astronomique de France for their
  hospitality in Paris, Jean-Claude Pecker, and Owen Gingerich for his
  prior work on Messier's catalogue.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Observations of the Black-Drop Effect at the 2012 Transit
    of Venus
Authors: Rogoszinski, Zeeve; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.;
   Schneider, G.; Reardon, K. P.
2014AAS...22324716R    Altcode:
  We observed the 2012 transit of Venus from several locations,
  including the Mees Solar Observatory of the University of Hawaii on
  Maui; the Dunn Solar Telescope at the Sacramento Peak Observatory of
  the National Solar Observatory in Sunspot, NM; and the Big Bear Solar
  Observatory of the New Jersey Institute of Technology in California. Our
  observations, mainly directed at the study of Venus's atmosphere, also
  included high-resolution views of the black-drop effect. Historically,
  the black-drop effect proved to be a daunting anomaly for measuring
  the path length of Venus across the Sun’s surface with sufficient
  time accuracy to allow satisfactory measurement of the astronomical
  unit. Therefore, this phenomenon set back the accurate calculations
  for centuries of the size and scale of the solar system. In this
  paper, we discuss data taken with the New Solar Telescope at the Big
  Bear Observatory and with the IBIS on the Dunn Solar Telescope. We
  show the evolution of isophotes as a function of time to demonstrate
  various limb effects during second and third contacts. Schneider,
  Pasachoff, and Golub (Icarus 168. 249-256, 2004) have shown that the
  black-drop effect as seen in a transit of Mercury resulted from both the
  point-spread function of the telescope and the extreme limb-darkening
  effect at the region of the solar limb where the black-drop effect is
  demonstrated, and the current paper extends the analysis to the recent
  transit of Venus. As they showed, and as is verified here, Venus's
  atmosphere plays no role in the black-drop effect. ZR (Vassar '14)
  was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow at Williams
  College, supported by an NSF/REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy
  Consortium. This research used the following tools: IDL/IDP3, ImageJ,
  and DS9. For obtaining the data at the Big Bear Solar Observatory,
  we thank Vasyl Yurchyshyn. Special thanks goes to Dr. Steven Souza
  for his support. The 2012 observations were obtained with a grant from
  the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic
  Society.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Observation and Analysis of a Single-Chord Stellar Occultation
    by Kuiper Belt Object (50000) Quaoar
Authors: Davis, Allen B.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Person,
   M. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S.; Naranjo, O. A.; Navas,
   G. R.; Gulbis, A.; Winters, J. G.; Bianco, F.
2014AAS...22324708D    Altcode:
  The Williams-MIT collaboration (www.stellaroccultations.info)
  predicted and observed a stellar occultation of 2UCAC 26260847 (mag
  14.35) by KBO 50000 Quaoar (mag 18.9) on 8/9 July 2013. Observations
  were attempted from a total of five sites in Chile, Venezuela, and
  Massachusetts. Only one site, Llano del Hato National Astronomical
  Observatory in Venezuela, had a positive detection of the occultation,
  giving us a single chord on Quaoar. All other sites were cloudy. The
  light curve from the 8/9 July 2013 event has been analyzed with the
  assumption that Quaoar is ellipsoidal or spherical, placing bounds
  on some of Quaoar’s properties: diameter (&gt; 1138 ± 25 km),
  density (&lt; 1.82 ± 0.28 g cm<SUB>-3</SUB>), and albedo (&lt; 0.14 ±
  0.10). An independent prediction of the occultation’s shadow path by
  Fraser, Gwyn, et al. (2013) suggests that the chord is near-equatorial,
  which means that our bounds on Quaoar’s properties are closer to
  estimates. We will compare our result with that of the 11 February
  2011 single-chord occultation detected by Sallum et al. (2011) and
  Person et al. (2011). A subsequent attempt to observe a second Quaoar
  occultation, that of 12/13 July 2013 in South Africa, failed because
  of cloudy weather. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary
  Astronomy grants NNX08AO50G and NNH11ZDA001N to Williams College,
  NNX10AB27G to MIT, and USRA grant #8500-98-003 to Lowell Observatory. We
  thank Steven P. Souza at Williams, and other collaborators in planning
  and carrying out the various observations: including Libardo Zerpa,
  Joresly Villarreal, Richard Rojas, and Jorge Moreno at Llano del Hato,
  and Patricio Rojo and Matias Jones at Cerro Calan/U. Chile.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Solar Activity and Motions in the Solar Chromosphere and
    Corona at the 2012 and 2013 Total and Annular Eclipses in the U.S.,
    Australia, and Africa
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Davis, A. B.; Demianski,
   M.; Lucas, R.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Seaton,
   D. B.; Gaintatzis, P.; Voulgaris, A.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Gary, D. E.;
   Shaik, S. B.
2014AAS...22311801P    Altcode:
  Our studies of the solar chromosphere and corona at the 2012 and
  2013 eclipses shortly after cycle maximum 24 (2011/2012) of solar
  activity (see: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/SolarCycle/) involved radio
  observations of the 2012 annular eclipse with the Jansky Very Large
  Array, optical observations of the 2012 total eclipse from Australia,
  optical observations of the 2013 annular eclipse from Tennant Creek,
  Australia, and the 3 November 2013 total solar eclipse from Gabon. Our
  observations are coordinated with those from solar spacecraft: Solar
  Dynamics Observatory AIA and HMI, Hinode XRT and SOT, SOHO LASCO and
  EIT, PROBA2 SWAP, and STEREO SECCHI. Our 2012 totality observations
  include a CME whose motion was observed with a 37-minute interval. We
  include first results from the expedition to Gabon for the 3 November
  2013 eclipse, a summary of eclipse results from along the path of
  totality across Africa, and a summary of the concomitant spacecraft
  observations. The Williams College 2012 expeditions were supported in
  part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research/NSF AGS,
  and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams. The
  JVLA is supported by the NSF. The Williams College 2013 total-eclipse
  expedition was supported in part by grant 9327-13 from the Committee
  for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. ML was
  also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National
  Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research
  Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS acknowledge support
  for 2012 from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of the National
  Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan) for kindly
  providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images. We thank
  Alec Engell (Montana State U) for assistance on site, and Terry Cuttle
  (Queensland Amateur Astronomers) for help with site arrangements. We
  thank Aram Friedman (Ansible Technologies), Michael Kentrianakis,
  and Nicholas Weber (Dexter Southfield School) for collaboration on
  imaging at the Australian total eclipse.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Planetary and Eclipse Oil Paintings of Howard Russell
    Butler
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. M.
2013DPS....4510803P    Altcode:
  The physics-trained artist Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) has
  inspired many astronomy students through his planetary and eclipse
  paintings that were long displayed at the Hayden Planetarium in New
  York, the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia,
  and the Buffalo Museum of Science. We discuss not only the eclipse
  triptychs (1918, 1923, and 1925) at each of those institutions but
  also his paintings of Mars as seen from Phobos and from Deimos (with
  landscapes of those moons in the foreground depicted in additional
  oils hung at Princeton University) and the Earth from our Moon. We also
  describe his involvement with astronomy and his unique methodology that
  allowed him to surpass the effects then obtainable with photography,
  as well as his inclusion in a U.S. Naval Observatory eclipse expedition
  in 1918, as well as his auroral, solar-prominence, and 1932-eclipse
  paintings.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Cosmos
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Filippenko, Alex
2013cosm.book.....P    Altcode:
  Preface; About the authors; 1. A grand tour of the heavens; 2. Light,
  matter and energy: powering the Universe; 3. Light and telescopes:
  extending our senses; 4. Observing the stars and planets: clockwork of
  the Universe; 5. Gravitation and motion: the early history of astronomy;
  6. The terrestrial planets: Earth, Moon, and their relatives; 7. The
  Jovian planets: windswept giants; 8. Pluto, comets, and space debris;
  9. Our Solar System and others; 10. Our star: the Sun; 11. Stars:
  distant suns; 12. How the stars shine: cosmic furnaces; 13. The
  death of stars: recycling; 14. Black holes: the end of space and time;
  15. The Milky Way: our home in the Universe; 16. A Universe of galaxies;
  17. Quasars and active galaxies; 18. Cosmology: the birth and life of
  the cosmos; 19. In the beginning; 20. Life in the Universe; Epilogue;
  Appendices; Selected readings; Glossary; Index.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Characterization of a transiting exo-Venus : lessons from
    the 2012 Transit
Authors: Widemann, Thomas; Jaeggli, S. A.; Reardon, K. P.; Tanga,
   P.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Schneider, G.
2013DPS....4511811W    Altcode:
  The transit of Venus in June 2012 provided a unique chance to
  view a well studied planetary atmosphere as we might see that of a
  transiting exoplanet, through scattered and refracted illumination
  of its parent star. We report on mesospheric temperature at Venus'
  morning terminator using SDO/HMI aureole photometry and comparison with
  Venus Express. Close to ingress and egress phases, we have shown that
  the aureole photometry reflects the local density scale height and the
  altitude of the refracting layer (Tanga et al. 2012). The lightcurve
  of each spatial resolution element of the aureole is compared to a
  two-parameter model to constrain the meridional temperature gradient
  along the terminator. Our measurements are in agreement with the
  VEx/SOIR temperatures obtained during orbit 2238 at evening terminator
  during solar ingress (46.75N - LST = 6.075PM) and solar egress (31.30N -
  LST = 6.047PM) as seen from the orbiter. Imaging data using IBIS/ROSA on
  the Dunn Solar Telescope in the G-band (430 nm) are also presented. We
  also performed spectroscopy and polarimetry during the transit of Venus
  focusing on extracting signatures of CO2 absorption. Observations were
  taken during the first half of the transit using the Facility InfraRed
  Spectropolarimeter on the Dunn Solar Telescope. Although the predicted
  CO2 transmission spectrum of Venus was not particularly strong at 1565
  nm, this region of the H-band often used in magnetic field studies of
  the Sun's photosphere provides a particularly flat solar continuum
  with few atmospheric and molecular lines. Sun-subtracted Venus limb
  observations show intensity distribution of vibro-rotational CO2 band
  221 2ν + 2ν2 + ν3 at 1.571μm allowing for an additional constraint
  on Venus' thermospheric temperature.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The State of Pluto's Atmosphere in 2012-2013
Authors: Bosh, Amanda S.; Person, M. J.; Levine, S. E.; Zuluaga, C. A.;
   Zangari, A. M.; Ruprecht, J. D.; Bowens-Rubin, R.; Brothers, T. C.;
   Berry, K. L.; Babcock, B. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Rojo, P.; Servajean,
   E.; Förster, F.; Naranjo, O. A.; Taylor, B. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Oswalt,
   T.; Batcheldor, D.; Murison, M.; Tilleman, T.; Harris, H. C.; Bright,
   L. P.; Schaefer, G.; Sallum, S.; Midkiff, A. H.; Mailhot, E. A.;
   Miller, C.; Morris, D.; Wodaski, R.; Bell, D.; Bird, P.; Fey, D.;
   Geisert, E.; Hastings, D.; Mizusawa, T.; Solenski, P.; Watson, B.
2013DPS....4540401B    Altcode:
  We observed two stellar occultations on UT 4 May 2013 and UT 9 September
  2012, with the aim of measuring Pluto's atmospheric parameters. Both
  of these events were a world-wide collaboration of many observers,
  and both occurred within one month of Pluto's stationary point. For
  the May 2013 occultation of an R=14.0 star, observations were
  attempted from several sites in Chile, Venezuela, Arizona, and
  Massachusetts. Positive detections were made from the DuPont 2.5-m at
  Las Campanas, the SMARTS 1-m at Cerro Tololo, and the 0.45-m telescope
  at Cerro Calan, all in Chile. For the September 2012 occultation of an
  R=15.2 star, observations were attempted from many sites along the east
  coast of the U.S., and in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. Successful
  atmosphere occultation light curves were obtained from the MONET 1.2-m
  at the McDonald Observatory and the FIT Ortega 0.8-m in Melbourne,
  Florida. From these data, we find that Pluto's atmosphere has maintained
  the basic parameters of the 2011 measurement (Person, et al., in press)
  with some small but significant structural changes. The atmospheric
  temperature and pressure are similar to 2011 values, while the "knee"
  structure at half-light has continued to evolve and has been further
  modified since 2011. This light curve evolution maps to changes in the
  temperature structure and/or haze distribution in the lower atmosphere
  approximately 1-2 scale heights above the surface. We will present
  these recent data and discuss their implications for atmospheric
  change on Pluto as well as extrapolations toward the New Horizons
  encounter in 2015. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary
  Astronomy grants to MIT (NNX10AB27G) and Williams College (NNX08AO50G,
  NNH11ZDA001N), as well as grants from USRA (#8500-98-003) and Ames
  Research (#NAS2-97-01) to Lowell Observatory. The observations made
  at FIT were partially supported by the James and Sara Ortega Endowment.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Recent KBO (Pluto/Charon and beyond, including Quaoar)
    Occultation Observations by the Williams College Team as part of
    the Williams-MIT Collaboration
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Davis, A. B.; Pandey, S.;
   Lu, M.; Rogosinski, Z.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Zangari, A. M.;
   Zuluaga, C. A.; Gulbis, A. S.; Naranjo, O.; Navas, G.; Zerpa, L.;
   Villarreal, J.; Rojo, P.; Förster, F.; Servajean, E.
2013DPS....4531001P    Altcode:
  The Williams College-MIT collaboration has observed numerous
  occultations of stars by Pluto/Charon and other Kuiper-belt objects
  (www.stellaroccultations.info), since its establishment three decades
  ago with an attempted discovery of Neptune's rings in 1983. In this
  paper, we describe several recent occultation observations, both
  successful and (for reasons of path uncertainties and/or weather)
  unsuccessful. Light curves made or arranged by Williams College faculty
  and students were used together with light curves by MIT colleagues and
  others to study Pluto's atmosphere and Charon's size, to discover one of
  the highest-known solar-system albedos (KBO 55636), and to attempt to
  study 1000-km-diameter Quaoar. Observations discussed include light
  curves for KBO 55636 on 9 October 2009 from Hawaii; Pluto on 3/4
  July 2010 from Chile, 22 May 2011 from Williamstown, Massachusetts,
  23 June 2011 from Hawaii (in support of SOFIA observations of Pluto's
  atmosphere, discussed in an article in press in AJ and of the pair of
  Pluto/Charon occultations of the same star), and 4 May 2013 (Bosh et
  al., this conference) and 15 July 2013 from Williamstown; Charon on 15
  June 2013 from Williamstown; Quaoar from a picket fence ranging from
  Chile through Venezuela (with a detection there) to Massachusetts on
  July 8/9 and in South Africa on 12 July 2013. This work was supported
  in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNX08AO50G and NNH11ZDA001N
  to Williams College, NNX10AB27G to MIT, and USRA grant #8500-98-003 to
  Lowell Observatory. We thank Steven P. Souza at Williams; Steven Levine
  at Lowell Obs.; Jennifer G. Winters (GSU) in Chile; Richard Rojas/Jorge
  Moreno in Venezuela; Scott Sheppard; Federica Bianco; David Osip;
  and others. ZR (Vassar '14) was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium
  Summer Fellow at Williams College, supported by an NSF/REU grant to the
  Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. ES: partial support from Programa
  Nacional de Becas de Postgrado (CONICYT Grant 21110496). FF: support
  from FONDECYT through grant 3110042 and by the Millennium Center for
  Supernova Science, grant P10-064-F. funded by Programa Bicentenario de
  Ciencia y Tecnología de CONICYT and Programa Iniciativa Científíca
  Milenio de MIDEPLAN.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 2011 June 23 Stellar Occultation by Pluto: Airborne and
    Ground Observations
Authors: Person, M. J.; Dunham, E. W.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S. E.;
   Gulbis, A. A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.;
   Babcock, B. A.; Pandey, S.; Amrhein, D.; Sallum, S.; Tholen, D. J.;
   Collins, P.; Bida, T.; Taylor, B.; Bright, L.; Wolf, J.; Meyer, A.;
   Pfueller, E.; Wiedemann, M.; Roeser, H. -P.; Lucas, R.; Kakkala,
   M.; Ciotti, J.; Plunkett, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Best, W.; Pilger, E. J.;
   Micheli, M.; Springmann, A.; Hicks, M.; Thackeray, B.; Emery, J. P.;
   Tilleman, T.; Harris, H.; Sheppard, S.; Rapoport, S.; Ritchie, I.;
   Pearson, M.; Mattingly, A.; Brimacombe, J.; Gault, D.; Jones, R.;
   Nolthenius, R.; Broughton, J.; Barry, T.
2013AJ....146...83P    Altcode:
  On 2011 June 23, stellar occultations by both Pluto (this work) and
  Charon (future analysis) were observed from numerous ground stations
  as well as the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy
  (SOFIA). This first airborne occultation observation since 1995 with
  the Kuiper Airborne Observatory resulted in the best occultation
  chords recorded for the event, in three visible wavelength bands. The
  data obtained from SOFIA are combined with chords obtained from the
  ground at the IRTF, the U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station,
  and Leeward Community College to give the detailed state of the
  Pluto-Charon system at the time of the event with a focus on Pluto's
  atmosphere. The data show a return to the distinct upper and lower
  atmospheric regions with a knee or kink in the light curve separating
  them as was observed in 1988, rather than the smoothly transitioning
  bowl-shaped light curves of recent years. The upper atmosphere is
  analyzed by fitting a model to all of the light curves, resulting in
  a half-light radius of 1288 ± 1 km. The lower atmosphere is analyzed
  using two different methods to provide results under the differing
  assumptions of particulate haze and a strong thermal gradient as
  causes for the lower atmospheric diminution of flux. These results
  are compared with those from past occultations to provide a picture
  of Pluto's evolving atmosphere. Regardless of which lower atmospheric
  structure is assumed, results indicate that this part of the atmosphere
  evolves on short timescales with results changing the light curve
  structures between 1988 and 2006, and then reverting these changes
  in 2011 though at significantly higher pressures. Throughout these
  changes, the upper atmosphere remains remarkably stable in structure,
  again except for the overall pressure changes. No evidence of onset
  of atmospheric collapse predicted by frost migration models is seen,
  and the atmosphere appears to be remaining at a stable pressure level,
  suggesting it should persist at this full level through New Horizon's
  flyby in 2015.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Letters to the Editor
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
2013JRASC.107..179P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Observations and Modeling of Solar Coronal Structures Using
    High-Resolution Eclipse Images and Space-based Telescopes with Wide
    Field of View
Authors: Lu, Muzhou; Pasachoff, J. M.; Su, Y.; Van Ballegooijen,
   A. A.; Seaton, D. B.; West, M.
2013SPD....44...25L    Altcode:
  We present a comparison of the solar corona observed during the total
  solar eclipses on 2010 July 11 and on 2012 November 13. The white
  light images were taken at Easter Island in 2010 and at Northeast
  Queensland, Australia, in 2012; while the concurrent EUV images were
  take with SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP. The 2010 eclipse was observed at
  the beginning of Sunspot Cycle 24 [1], which peaked near our 2012
  observation. We compare a plethora of corona features in the white
  light images and reveal some interesting differences in the enhanced EUV
  images taken by SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP. We construct potential field
  models using our newly refined Coronal Modeling System (CMS2) software
  with line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms from SDO/HMI. The source
  surface heights derived from detailed comparison between our models
  and observations are compared to the standard source-surface model. We
  also compare the dynamics of the two eclipse observations. Similar to
  the 2010 eclipse, a CME was observed using temporally spaced eclipse
  images. We address unresolved problems in the models and observations
  with the hope of correcting them for future eclipse observations, such
  as the 2017 total solar eclipse across the continental U.S. References
  [1] Pasachoff, J. M., Rusin, V., Druckmüllerová, H., Saniga, M.,
  Lu, M., Malamut, C., Seaton, D. B., Golub, L., Engell, A. J., Hill,
  S. W., Lucas, R., 2011, ApJ, 734, 114

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: 1565 nm Observations of the transit of Venus, Proxy for a
    Transiting Exoplanet
Authors: Jaeggli, Sarah A.; Reardon, K. P.; Pasachoff, J. M.;
   Schneider, G.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.
2013SPD....44..150J    Altcode:
  The transit of Venus in June 2012 provided a unique chance to view its
  atmosphere as we might see that of a transiting Cytherean exoplanet,
  through scattered and refracted illumination from its parent star. We
  performed spectroscopy and polarimetry during the transit of Venus
  focusing on extracting signatures of CO2 absorption of Venus from the
  solar spectrum. Although the predicted CO2 transmission spectrum of
  Venus was not particularly strong at 1565 nm, this region of the H-band
  often used in magnetic-field studies of the Sun's photosphere provides
  a particularly flat solar continuum with few atmospheric and molecular
  lines. Observations of Venus were taken throughout first contact
  and on the solar disk using the Facility InfraRed Spectropolarimeter
  on the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory. The
  transit also provided a unique opportunity to investigate instrumental
  effects. In this poster we discuss initial results from the transit,
  including estimates for an exoplanet detection of this kind, preliminary
  comparison with atmospheric models, and the stray light properties
  of the instrument. This work was performed in collaboration with the
  Williams College Venus transit expedition, which was sponsored by Natl
  Geog/Comm for Research and Exploration.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 2012 Total Eclipse Expeditions in Queensland
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.;
   Lucas, R.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Gaintatzis, P.; Steele,
   A.; Sterling, A. C.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.
2013SPD....44...51P    Altcode:
  A total eclipse swept across Queensland and other sites in northeastern
  Australia on the early morning of 14 November 2012, local time. We
  mounted equipment to observe coronal images and spectra during the
  approximately 2 minutes of totality, the former for comparison with
  spacecraft images and to fill in the doughnut of imaging not well
  covered with space coronagraphs. Matching weather statistics, viewing
  was spotty, and our best observations were from a last-minute inland
  site on the Tablelands, with some observations from a helicopter at 9000
  feet altitude over our original viewing site at Miallo. Only glimpses of
  the corona were visible at our Port Douglas and Trinity Beach, Cairns,
  locations, with totality obscured from our sites at Newell and Miallo,
  though some holes in the clouds provided coronal views from Palm Cove
  and elsewhere along the coast. Preliminary analysis of the spectra
  again shows Fe XIV stronger than Fe X, as in 2010 but not earlier,
  a sign of solar maximum, as was the coronal shape. An intriguing CME
  is discernible in the SE. Acknowledgments: We thank Terry Cuttle, Aram
  Friedman, Michael Kentrianakis, and Nicholas Weber for assistance and
  collaboration in Australia and Wendy Carlos for image processing. Our
  expedition was supported in part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar
  Terrestrial Research of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division,
  and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams
  College. ML was also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research
  from the National Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The
  Scientific Research Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS
  acknowledge support from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of
  the National Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan)
  for kindly providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Transit Observations of Venus's Atmosphere in 2012 from
    Terrestrial and Space Telescopes as Exoplanet Analogs
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.;
   Penn, M. J.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Galayda, E.; Reardon, K. P.; Widemann,
   T.; Tanga, P.; Ehrenreich, D.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Nicholson, P. D.;
   Dantowitz, R.
2013AAS...22221701P    Altcode:
  We extensively observed the 8 June 2012 transit of Venus from several
  sites on Earth; we provide this interim status report about this and
  about two subsequent ToVs observed from space. From Haleakala Obs., we
  observed the entire June transit over almost 7 h with a coronagraph of
  the Venus Twilight Experiment B filter) and with a RED Epic camera to
  compare with simultaneous data from ESA's Venus Express, to study the
  Cytherean mesosphere; from Kitt Peak, we have near-IR spectropolarimetry
  at 1.6 µm from the aureole and during the disk crossing that compare
  well with carbon dioxide spectral models; from Sac Peak/IBIS we have
  high-resolution imaging of the Cytherean aureole for 22 min, starting
  even before 1st contact; from Big Bear, we have high-resolution imaging
  of Venus's atmosphere and the black-drop effect through 2nd contact;
  and we had 8 other coronagraphs around the world. For the Sept 21 ToV
  as seen from Jupiter, we had 14 orbits of HST to use Jupiter's clouds
  as a reflecting surface to search for an 0.01% diminution in light and a
  differential drop that would result from Venus's atmosphere by observing
  in both IR/UV, for which we have 170 HST exposures. As of this writing,
  preliminary data reduction indicates that variations in Jovian clouds
  and the two periods of Jupiter's rotation will be too great to allow
  extraction of the transit signal. For the December 20 ToV as seen from
  Saturn, we had 22 hours of observing time with VIMS on Cassini, for
  which we are looking for a signal of the 10-hr transit in total solar
  irradiance and of Venus's atmosphere in IR as an exoplanet-transit
  analog. Our Maui &amp; Sac Peak expedition was sponsored by National
  Geographic Society's Committee for Research and Exploration; HST data
  reduction by NASA: HST-GO-13067. Some of the funds for the carbon
  dioxide filter for Sac Peak provided by NASA through AAS's Small
  Research Grant Program. We thank Rob Ratkowski of Haleakala Amateur
  Astronomers; Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, Eric Pilger, Stan Truitt,
  and Steve Bisque/Software Bisque for Haleakala support/operations;
  Vasyl Yurchyshyn and Joseph Gangestad '06 of The Aerospace Corp. at
  Big Bear Solar Obs; LMSAL and Hinode science/operations team.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Standardizing the astronomical unit
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2013PhTea..51..260P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pen &amp; Pixel NGC 1055 and M77 / Comet Hergenrother /
    Milky Way / IC 342 / November Eclipse / The Crab Nebula / Milky Way
    with Trees
Authors: Hilborn, Lynn; Paquette, Andre; Brasch, Klaus; Pasachoff,
   Jay; Hilborn, Lynn; Wilson, Dalton; Wiwchar, Sheila
2013JRASC.107...25H    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Solar Eclipses Observed from Antarctica
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2013IAUS..288..313P    Altcode:
  Aspects of the solar corona are still best observed during totality of
  solar eclipses, and other high-resolution observations of coronal active
  regions can be observed with radio telescopes by differentiation of
  occultation observations, as we did with the Jansky Very Large Array
  for the annular solar eclipse of 2012 May 20 in the US. Totality
  crossing Antarctica included the eclipse of 2003 November 23, and
  will next occur on 2021 December 4; annularity crossing Antarctica
  included the eclipse of 2008 February 7, and will next occur on 2014
  April 29. Partial phases as high as 87% coverage were visible and
  were imaged in Antarctica on 2011 November 25, and in addition to
  partial phases of the total and annular eclipses listed above, partial
  phases were visible in Antarctica on 2001 July 2011, 2002 December 4,
  2004 April 19, 2006 September 22, 2007 September 11, and 2009 January
  26, and will be visible on 2015 September 13, 2016 September 1, 2017
  February 26, 2018 February 15, and 2020 December 14. On behalf of the
  Working Group on Solar Eclipses of the IAU, the poster showed the solar
  eclipses visible from Antarctica and this article shows a subset (see
  www.eclipses.info for the full set). A variety of investigations of the
  Sun and of the response of the terrestrial atmosphere and ionosphere
  to the abrupt solar cutoff can be carried out at the future eclipses,
  making the Antarctic observations scientifically useful.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Innovation in Astronomy Education
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi
2013iae..book.....P    Altcode:
  Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching:
  Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy
  by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth
  in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to
  pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy;
  7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational
  opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy
  to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of
  stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts
  of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture;
  13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by
  distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur
  astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate
  around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and
  sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and
  the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a
  general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy
  with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division
  XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting;
  24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and
  the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a
  word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy;
  26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing
  astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster
  abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information
  Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program;
  29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects;
  30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student
  research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian
  study; 32. Visualizing large astronomical data holdings; Poster
  abstracts; Part IV. Practical Issues Connected with the Implementation
  of the 2003 IAU Resolution: Introduction; 33. Stellar evolution for
  students of Moscow University; 34. Astronomy for everybody: An approach
  from the CASAO/NAUH view; 35. Toward a new program in astronomy
  education in secondary schools in Turkey; 36. Universe awareness
  for young children; 37. Education in Egypt and Egyptian responses to
  eclipses; 38. Astronomy in the cultural heritage of African societies;
  39. Education at the Pierre Auger Observatory: the cinema as a tool in
  science education; 40. Freshman seminars: interdisciplinary engagements
  in astronomy; 41. Astronomy for teachers; Poster abstracts; Conclusion.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Syzygy x 3
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2013obha.book....9P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Three 2012 Transits of Venus: From Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.;
   Edelman, E.; Reardon, K.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Dantowitz, R.;
   Silverstone, M. D.; Ehrenreich, D.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Nicholson,
   P. D.; Willson, R. C.; Kopp, G. A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Sterling,
   A. C.; Scherrer, P. H.; Schou, J.; Golub, L.; McCauley, P.; Reeves, K.
2013AAS...22131506P    Altcode:
  We observed the 2012 June 6/5 transit seen from Earth (E/ToV),
  simultaneously with Venus Express and several other spacecraft
  not only to study the Cytherean atmosphere but also to provide an
  exoplanet-transit analog. From Haleakala, the whole transit was visible
  in coronal skies; among our instruments was one of the world-wide Venus
  Twilight Experiment's nine coronagraphs. Venus's atmosphere became
  visible before first contact. SacPeak/IBIS provided high-resolution
  images at Hα/carbon-dioxide. Big Bear's NST also provided
  high-resolution observations of the Cytherean atmosphere and black-drop
  evolution. Our liaison with UH's Mees Solar Observatory scientists
  provided magneto-optical imaging at calcium and potassium. Solar
  Dynamics Observatory's AIA and HMI, and the Solar Optical Telescope
  (SOT) and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode, and total-solar-irradiance
  measurements with ACRIMSAT and SORCE/TIM, were used to observe the
  event as an exoplanet-transit analog. On September 20, we imaged
  Jupiter for 14 Hubble Space Telescope orbits, centered on a 10-hour
  ToV visible from Jupiter (J/ToV), as an exoplanet-transit analog in
  our own solar system, using Jupiter as an integrating sphere. Imaging
  was good, although much work remains to determine if we can detect
  the expected 0.01% solar irradiance decrease at Jupiter and the even
  slighter differential effect between our violet and near-infrared
  filters caused by Venus's atmosphere. We also give a first report on our
  currently planned December 21 Cassini UVIS observations of a transit of
  Venus from Saturn (S/ToV). Our E/ToV expedition was sponsored by the
  Committee for Research and Exploration/National Geographic Society;
  supplemented: NASA/AAS's Small Research Grant Program. We thank Rob
  Ratkowski, Stan Truitt, Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, and Eric Pilger
  '82 at Haleakala, and Joseph Gangestad '06 at Big Bear for assistance,
  and Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab and Hinode science and
  operations teams for support for coordinated observations with NASA
  satellites. Our J/ToV observations were based on observations made
  with HST, operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555;
  these observations are associated with program #13067.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph
    Namesake
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2013AAS...22113003P    Altcode:
  The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been
  honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope
  array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new
  Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station,
  in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the
  National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It
  currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator
  from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by
  the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about
  halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming
  a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something
  colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array,
  taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20
  May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue
  ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears
  a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing
  the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese
  observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping,
  mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He
  is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40%
  describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts
  of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room
  contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph,
  flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other
  contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large
  transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at
  http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically
  Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua
  Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying
  us. My solar research is supported by grant 1047726 from the Solar
  Research Program/Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division/NSF. I am
  also grateful for a NSF travel grant through AAS.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 2012 Transit of Venus: A Closer Look at the Cytherean
    Aureole
Authors: Edelman, Eric; Pasachoff, J. M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock,
   B. A.; Lu, M.; Reardon, K.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Dantowitz, R.
2013AAS...22135304E    Altcode:
  The 2012 Transit of Venus provided a new opportunity to study the
  events that occur during the ingress and egress of transit in greater
  detail. The Venus Twilight Experiment is a group that was formed to
  analyze the twilight phenomena of Venus through close and careful
  observation of planet’s 21st century transits. One particular object
  of interest to this group is the Cytherean aureole, or the arc of light
  caused by refraction of the Sun’s light through Venus’s upper
  atmosphere. A goal associated with the study of this aureole is to
  measure how the brightness of the atmosphere changes over time and as
  a function of latitude on Venus with the use of the multitude of images
  taken of the planet near the beginning and end of the transit. In order
  to further along this goal, I was tasked with sorting, processing,
  and aligning the images taken by the coronagraph used on the 2012
  Williams College Transit of Venus Expedition at Haleakala, Hawaii. Our
  observations through a B filter will be compared with observations
  through VRI-filter observations from other coronagraphs in the set. This
  was research was performed with the support of the Keck Northeast
  Astronomy Consortium, sponsored by the NSF and the Keck foundation. The
  expedition to Haleakala and Sac Peak was sponsored by the Committee
  for Research and Exploration/National Geographic Society. Some funds
  for the IBIS carbon-dioxide filter came from NASA/AAS's Small Research
  Grant Program. We thank Rob Ratkowski, Stan Truitt, Rob Lucas, Aram
  Friedman, and Eric Pilger '82 for assistance with Haleakala observing.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Coral Sea Rehearsal for the Eclipse Megamovie
Authors: Hudson, H. S.; Davey, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Jones, L.; Mcintosh,
   S. W.; Paglierani, R.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Russell,
   R. M.; Suarez Sola, F. I.; Sutherland, L.; Thompson, M. J.
2012AGUFMSH11C..06H    Altcode:
  The "Eclipse on the Coral Sea" - 13/14 November 2012 (GMT/Australia)
  - will have happened already. Our intention is to have used this
  opportunity as a trial run for the eclipse in 2017, which features
  1.5 hours of totality across the whole width of the continental
  US. Conceived first and foremost as an education and public outreach
  activity, the plan is to engage the public in solar science and
  technology by providing a way for them to include images they have taken
  of the solar eclipse, into a movie representation of coronal evolution
  in time. This project will assimilate as much eclipse photography as
  possible from the public. The resulting movie(s) will cover all ranges
  of expertise, and at the basic smartphone or hand-held digital camera
  level, we expect to have obtained a huge number of images in the case
  of good weather conditions. The capability of modern digital technology
  to handle such a data flow is new. The basic purpose of this and the
  2017 Megamovie observations is to explore this capability and its
  ability to engage people from many different communities in the solar
  science, astronomy, mathematics, and technology. The movie in 2017,
  especially, may also have important science impact because of the
  uniqueness of the corona as seen under eclipse conditions. In this
  presentation we will describe our smartphone application development
  (see the "Transit of Venus" app for a role model here). We will also
  summarize data acquisition via both the app and more traditional web
  interfaces. Although for the Coral Sea eclipse event we don't expect to
  have a movie product by the time of the AGU, for the 2017 event we do
  intend to assemble the heterogenous data into beautiful movies within a
  short space of time after the eclipse. These movies may have relatively
  low resolution but would extend to the base of the corona. We encourage
  participation in the 2012 observations, noting that no total eclipse,
  prior to 2017, will occur in a region with good infrastructure for
  extended observations. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is
  sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The Megamovie project
  is supported by NSF grant AGS-1247226, and JMP's eclipse work about
  the eclipses of 2012 is supported by NSF grant AGS-1047726.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Comets of Caroline Herschel (1750-1848), Sleuth of the
    Skies at Slough
Authors: Olson, Roberta J. M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2012arXiv1212.0809O    Altcode:
  In this paper, we discuss the work on comets of Caroline Herschel,
  the first female comet-hunter. After leaving Bath for the environs
  of Windsor Castle and eventually Slough, she discovered at least
  eight comets, five of which were reported in the Philosophical
  Transactions of the Royal Society. We consider her public image,
  astronomers' perceptions of her contributions, and the style of her
  astronomical drawings that changed with the technological developments
  in astronomical illustration.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Assymetry in the Polar Mesosphere Revealed by the 2012 Venus
    Transit Aureole
Authors: Widemann, Thomas; Tanga, P.; Reardon, K. P.; Limaye, S.;
   Wilson, C.; Vandaele, A.; Wilquet, V.; Mahieux, A.; Robert, S.;
   Pasachoff, J. M.; Schneider, G.
2012DPS....4450808W    Altcode:
  Close to ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk projected
  outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by an irregular thin
  arc of light called the "aureole." We have shown that the deviation
  due to refraction and the aureole intensity are related to the local
  density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer (Tanga
  et al. 2012). Since the aureole brightness is the quantity that can be
  measured during the transit, an appropriate model allows us to determine
  both parameters. We now compare this model developed for the 2004
  data to the first results of 2012 campaign. Ingress pictures of NASA's
  SDO/HMI observations, OP-OCA/VTE coronagraph observations at Haleakala
  and Lowell stations, and Dunn/IBIS observations at Sacramento Peak, NM,
  show latitudinal structure of the aureole during the ingress phase of
  the Venus transit. For the HMI data, the temporal cadence is 3.75 sec
  and the pixel scale is 0.5 arcsec/pixel. The polar region, significantly
  brighter in initial phases due to the larger scale height of the polar
  mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by
  about 15 deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result
  reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in
  temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Relation with ESA / Venus
  Express / SOIR simultaneous measurements and dynamical interpretation
  will be discussed at the meeting. Tanga et al. 2012, Icarus 218, 207-219

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Print, Web, And Podcast Tov Public Outreach
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2012DPS....4441110P    Altcode:
  As part of alerting the general public to the subtly spectacular
  transit of Venus as an intellectual marvel not available to us
  from Earth until AD 2117/2125, in addition to our scientific plans
  (Pasachoff et al., this meeting), I provided: (1) an article in
  the children's magazine Odyssey (May/June 2011); (2) a discussion
  in National Geographic Society's BreakingOrbit blog (March 1,
  2011); (3) and a year's advance notice as "June 5: Transit of
  Venus," 365daysofastronomy.org. (4) Nantes DPS: I participated in
  "Transits of Venus in Public Education and Contemporary Research"
  (http://transitofvenus.nl/wp/2011/10/16/four-giants-talk-about-transits).
  (5) 22-minute lecture on the Phi Beta Kappa website:
  http://www.pbk.org/home/playpodcast.aspx?id=772. (6) E/PO summary
  at Historical Astronomy Division News, #79, October. Closer
  to the event, I had a (7) Comment in Nature ("Transit of
  Venus: Last Chance to See," Nature 485, 303-304) and (8, 9)
  articles in Physics World, 25, 36-41; and Scientific American,
  http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=transit-venus-june-5).
  The day before the transit, (10) I had a radio/podcast Academic Minute
  (http://www.wamc.org/post/dr-jay-pasachoff-williams-college). (11)
  On transit day, I had an Op-Ed piece in The
  New York Times ("Learning from Celestial Beauty,"
  http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/05/opinion/learning-from-celestial-beauty.html)
  that was seen by largely a non-scientific audience. Subsequently,
  (12) I gave a Keck-Observatory-sponsored Waimea general-public lecture
  (http://keckobservatory.org/news/video_venus_transits_past_present_future),
  and (13) an invited public lecture at the AAS meeting in Anchorage
  (http://aas.org/meetings/aas220/video_session_127). I had a podcast on
  (14) 365daysofastronomy.org (June 29). (15) My article for Sky &amp;
  Telescope appeared in its October issue. (16) My editorial "Syzygy
  x 3" will be in RASC Observer's Handbook 2013. (16) These efforts
  as well as links to history and science of transits of Mercury and
  Venus are at http://sites.williams.edu/transitofvenus2012/links/ as
  part of my website http://www.transitofvenus.info. Acknowledgments:
  My expeditions to the 2004 and 2012 transits of were supported by
  grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National
  Geographic Society.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 2012 Transit of Venus for Cytherean Atmospheric Studies
    and as an Exoplanet Analog
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.;
   Reardon, K. P.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Dantowitz, R.; Willson,
   R.; Kopp, G.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Sterling, A.; Scherrer, P.; Schou, J.;
   Golub, L.; Reeves, K.
2012DPS....4450806P    Altcode:
  We worked to assemble as complete a dataset as possible for the
  Cytherean atmosphere in collaboration with Venus Express in situ
  and to provide an analog of spectral and total irradiance exoplanet
  measurements. From Haleakala, the whole transit was visible in
  coronal skies; our B images showed the evolution of the visibility
  of Venus's atmosphere and of the black-drop effect, as part of the
  Venus Twilight Experiment's 9 coronagraphs distributed worldwide
  with BVRI. We imaged the Cytherean atmosphere over two minutes before
  first contact, with subarcsecond resolution, with the coronagraph and
  a separate refractor. The IBIS imaging spectrometer at Sacramento
  Peak Observatory at H-alpha and carbon-dioxide also provided us
  high-resolution imaging. The NST of Big Bear Solar Observatory
  also provided high-resolution vacuum observations of the Cytherean
  atmosphere and black drop evolution. Our liaison with UH's Mees Solar
  Observatory scientists provided magneto-optical imaging at calcium
  and potassium. Spaceborne observations included the Solar Dynamics
  Observatory's AIA and HMI, and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT)
  and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode, and total-solar-irradiance
  measurements with ACRIMSAT and SORCE/TIM, to characterize the
  event as an exoplanet-transit analog. Our expedition was sponsored
  by the Committee for Research and Exploration/National Geographic
  Society. Some of the funds for the carbon-dioxide filter for IBIS were
  provided by NASA through AAS's Small Research Grant Program. We thank
  Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, and Eric Pilger '82 for assistance with
  Haleakala observing, Rob Ratkowski of Haleakala Amateur Astronomers
  for assistance with equipment and with the site, Stan Truitt for the
  loan of his Paramount ME, and Steve Bisque/Software Bisque for TheSky
  X controller. We thank Joseph Gangestad '06 of Aerospace Corp., a
  veteran of our 2004 expedition, for assistance at Big Bear. We thank
  the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory and Hinode
  science and operations teams for planning and support.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Probing Pluto’s Upper Atmosphere: a 2011 Occultation Graze
    in Visible Images and Infrared Spectra
Authors: Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Emery, J. P.; Person, M. J.; Bosh,
   A. S.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.
2012DPS....4430403G    Altcode:
  On 2011 June 23, a 14.43 UCAC2 magnitude star was occulted by Pluto
  as observed from multiple sites. Observations made at NASA’s 3-m
  Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, detected a
  full occultation of the star by Charon followed by an atmospheric graze
  by Pluto. Data were taken simultaneously with MORIS (the MIT Optical
  Rapid Imaging System; Gulbis et al. 2011, PASP, 123, 461) and SpeX
  (Rayner et al. 2003, PASP, 115, 362). MORIS recorded visible images
  of a 1 arcmin by 1 arcmin field of view, with an effective central
  wavelength of 0.74 microns, at a cadence of 0.3 seconds and negligible
  deadtime. Low-resolution spectral IR data of the occultation star and
  a comparison were taken with SpeX, using the 1.6 arcsec slit, over
  the range of 0.9-2.5 microns, at a cadence of 1.5 seconds including
  approximately 0.75 seconds deadtime. Pluto’s lower atmosphere has been
  evolving since the first definitive detection in 1988 (e.g., Elliot et
  al. 2007, AJ, 134,1; Young et al. 2008, AJ, 136, 1757). Possibilities
  for explaining the lower atmospheric structure include a steep thermal
  gradient and/or extinction, the latter of which can be characterized as
  a dependence between occultation flux and wavelength. This graze reached
  a minimum normalized flux level of roughly 0.35, serving primarily as
  a probe of Pluto’s upper atmosphere. However, there appears to be
  a slight dependence of flux with wavelength in the minimum portion
  of the graze. We will present the IRTF lightcurves and an analysis
  of the wavelength-resolved data. Funding for this work was provided
  in part by the South African National Research Foundation and NASA
  grants NNX08AO50G &amp; NNH11ZDA001N (Williams), NNX10AB27G (MIT),
  and NNX10AB23G (UT).

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pluto’s Atmosphere from the 23 June 2011 Stellar Occultation:
    Airborne and Ground Observations
Authors: Person, Michael J.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S. E.; Gulbis,
   A. A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Dunham, E. W.; Pasachoff,
   J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Pandey, S.; Armhein, D.; Sallum, S.; Tholen,
   D. J.; Collins, P.; Bida, T.; Taylor, B.; Wolf, J.; Meyer, A.;
   Pfueller, E.; Wiedermann, M.; Roesser, H.; Lucas, R.; Kakkala, M.;
   Ciotti, J.; Plunkett, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Best, W.; Pilger, E. L.;
   Miceli, M.; Springmann, A.; Hicks, M.; Thackeray, B.; Emery, J.;
   Rapoport, S.; Ritchie, I.
2012DPS....4430402P    Altcode:
  The double stellar occultation by Pluto and Charon of 2011 June 23 was
  observed from numerous ground stations as well as the Stratospheric
  Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This first airborne
  occultation observation since 1995 resulted in the best occultation
  chords recorded for the event, in three optical wavelength bands. The
  data obtained from SOFIA were combined with chords obtained from
  the ground at the IRTF (including a full spectral light curve),
  the USNO--Flagstaff Station, and Leeward Community College to give a
  detailed profile of Pluto’s atmosphere. The data show a return to
  the distinct upper and lower atmospheric regions with a knee, or kink
  in the light curves separating them as was observed in 1988 (Millis et
  al. 1993), rather than the smoothly transitioning bowl-shaped light
  curves of recent years (Elliot et al. 2007). We analyze the upper
  atmosphere by fitting a model to all of the light curves obtained,
  resulting in a half-light radius of 1288 ± 1 km. We analyze the
  lower atmosphere with two different methods to provide results under
  the separate assumptions of particulate haze and a strong thermal
  gradient. Results indicate that the lower atmosphere evolves on short
  seasonal timescales, changing between 1988 and 2006, and then returning
  to approximately the 1988 state in 2011, though at significantly higher
  pressures. Throughout these changes, the upper atmosphere remains
  remarkably stable in structure, again excepting the overall pressure
  changes. No evidence of the onset of atmospheric collapse predicted by
  frost migration models is yet seen, and the atmosphere appears to be
  remaining at a stable pressure level. This work was supported in part by
  NASA Planetary Astronomy grants to MIT (NNX10AB27G) and Williams College
  (NNX08AO50G, NNH11ZDA001N), as well as grants from USRA (#8500-98-003)
  and Ames Research (#NAS2-97-01) to Lowell Observatory.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Venus Twilight Experiment: Probing The Mesosphere In 2004
    And 2012
Authors: Tanga, Paolo; Widemann, T.; Ambastha, A.; Babcock, B. A.;
   Berthier, J.; Bouley, S.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Brasch, K.; Burke, W.;
   Colas, F.; Fukuhara, T.; Fulham, L.; Imai, M.; Lu, M.; Machado, P.;
   Maquet, L.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Roberts, J.; Schneider, G.; Sheehan,
   W.; Sigismondi, C.; Thouvenin, N.; Vachier, F.; Veillet, C.; Wang, X.
2012DPS....4450807T    Altcode:
  During the Venus transit in 2004 several observers collected data
  useful to the characterization of the mesosphere of the planet, by
  observing the solar light refracted at the corresponding altitude
  range. The "aureole" thus formed, is observable during the ingress
  and egress phases of the transit, when Venus is crossing the solar
  limb. For the 2012 opportunity we prepared a set of coronagraphs
  to obtain multi-wavelength, space- and time-resolved photometry of
  the aureole, in collaboration with other space- and ground-based
  campaigns. The coronagraphs were distributed in the visibility area
  around the Pacific, over eight sites where local logistic support and
  scientific expertise were present. Several sites obtained useful data
  at frame rates of several images/sec. We will give an account of the
  campaign presenting first results obtained at 450, 535, 607 and 760 nm
  (FWHM 10 nm). A comparison with data collected at the 2004 transit shows
  that variations in the aspects of the aureole are present. These can
  be linked to variations in the vertical distribution of the absorbers
  (aerosols and cloud-top level). A common feature in both the recent
  transits is the presence of a brightness peak at high latitude, which
  was imaged several minutes before and after first and last contact,
  respectively. The historical record of the aureole contains hints of
  varying features and a constant polar-spot presence, which can now be
  interpreted in the light of the measurements obtained in 2004 and 2012.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Venus Twilight Experiment : Observation and analysis of the
    aureole during the 2012 transit
Authors: Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Sicardy, B.; Machado, P.;
   Braga-Ribas, F.; Veillet, C.; Pasachoff, J.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.;
   Bouley, S.; Maquet, L.; Berthier, J.; Fukuhara, T.; Luz, D.
2012epsc.conf..412W    Altcode: 2012espc.conf..412W
  On 5-6 June 2012, Venus will be transiting the Sun for the last
  time in this century. This unique opportunity, besides offering
  the opportunity of investigating the mesosphere of the planet, also
  provides a significant nearby analog of exoplanet transits. Several
  studies using the transmission spectroscopy technique have provided
  significant insights into the atmospheric composition, structure,
  and dynamics of hot giant exoplanets. In this context, Venus is our
  closest model for a telluric exoplanet.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Expeditions to Death and Disaster: Chappe d'Auteroche and
    Charles Green at the 1769 Transit of Venus
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2012icha.book...24P    Altcode:
  Scientific expeditions usually bring back information or specimens
  that forward human knowledge. We also prefer them to bring back the
  humans in good shape, but that does not always occur. I discuss the
  expeditions to Siberia in 1761 and to Baja California in 1769 by the
  French abbé Jean Chappe d'Auteroche and to Tahiti in 1769 by the
  English astronomer Charles Green, accompanying Captain James Cook,
  to observe the transits of Venus. Neither Chappe d'Auteroche nor
  Green survived their expeditions. Chappe managed to hang on after
  the transit to see an eclipse of the Moon about two weeks later, and
  it is said that since “the intent of his voyage was fulfilled, and
  the fruit of his observations secured,” he “died content,” since
  “he saw nothing more to wish for.” Green died of dysentery caught
  in Batavia (now in Indonesia) on the continuation of his expedition
  with Capt. Cook on the ship Endeavour after the transit.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: New Obituary Policy for the American Astronomical Society
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2012opsa.book..319P    Altcode:
  The American Astronomical Society has a permanent website with
  obituaries of nearly all its members who have died since 1990.The
  Vice Chair of the Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) is tasked with
  selecting authors and editing the obituaries, which are posted by the
  AAS headquarters staff on a site; an alphabetical index appears at
  the Historical Astronomy Division's site, which is linked from their
  top-level page. The HAD was asked to be in charge of obituaries by the
  AAS Council in 1990.Most obituaries are in the vicinity of 800 words,
  but longer essays are allowable for selected individuals.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Transits of Venus and Mercury: Exoplanet Analogs in Our
    Solar System
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2012AAS...22012701P    Altcode:
  Since Johannes Kepler's predictions of transits of Mercury and Venus
  in 1631, and observations by Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree
  of the 1639 transit of Venus, only 5 other transits of Venus have
  been observed: in 1761 and 1769, 1874 and 1882, and 2004. Expeditions
  were sent all over the world for the 18th and 19th century transits to
  follow the methods of Halley and others to determine the Astronomical
  Unit, giving the size and scale of the solar system, arguably the most
  important problem in astronomy for centuries. I will discuss how the
  infamous black-drop effect bedeviled astronomers in that quest for
  an accurate A.U., and how Glenn Schneider and I explained the effect
  through satellite observations of transits of Mercury, showing that
  it was not simply caused by the Cytherean atmosphere. During the 2004
  transit, we worked with Richard Willson of ACRIMsat to detect the 0.1%
  drop in the Total Solar Irradiance, showing the effect of solar limb
  darkening, positioning such observations of transits of Venus and
  of Mercury as analogs to exoplanet transits. Our observations of the
  atmosphere of Venus with NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer
  in 2004 led us to plan extensive observations of Venus's atmosphere
  and other phenomena during the June 5, 2012, transit of Venus, the
  last to be visible from Earth until 2117. We will have used NASA's
  Solar Dynamics Observatory, Hinode, ACRIMsat, and other spacecraft,
  and ground-based solar telescopes at Sacramento Peak, Kitt Peak, Big
  Bear, and Haleakala to observe the transit; I hope to give preliminary
  reports on these observations during this talk. Further, I will discuss
  the plans of Ehrenreich and colleagues for Hubble observations of this
  transit and our hopes of detecting transits of Venus and Earth as seen
  from Jupiter and Saturn over the next few years.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Transit of Venus: Last chance to see
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2012Natur.485..303P    Altcode:
  The June 2012 transit of Venus across the Sun offers an opportunity to
  check our methods for spotting distant planets crossing far-away stars,
  says Jay M. Pasachoff.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Spectroscopic Coronal Observations During the Total Solar
    Eclipse of 11 July 2010
Authors: Voulgaris, A. G.; Gaintatzis, P. S.; Seiradakis, J. H.;
   Pasachoff, J. M.; Economou, T. E.
2012SoPh..278..187V    Altcode: 2012arXiv1202.1535V
  The flash spectra of the solar chromosphere and corona were measured
  with a slitless spectrograph before, after, and during the totality
  of the solar eclipse of 11 July 2010, at Easter Island, Chile. This
  eclipse took place at the beginning of Solar Cycle 24, after an extended
  minimum of solar activity. The spectra taken during the eclipse show a
  different intensity ratio of the red and green coronal lines compared
  with those taken during the total solar eclipse of 1 August 2008,
  which took place toward the end of Solar Cycle 23. The characteristic
  coronal emission line of forbidden Fe xiv (5303 Å) was observed on
  the east and west solar limbs in four areas relatively symmetrically
  located with respect to the solar rotation axis. Subtraction of
  the continuum flash-spectrum background led to the identification
  of several extremely weak emission lines, including forbidden Ca xv
  (5694 Å), which is normally detected only in regions of very high
  excitation, e.g., during flares or above large sunspots. The height of
  the chromosphere was measured spectrophotometrically, using spectral
  lines from light elements and compared with the equivalent height of the
  lower chromosphere measured using spectral lines from heavy elements.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Sunlight refraction in the mesosphere of Venus during the
    transit on June 8th, 2004
Authors: Tanga, P.; Widemann, T.; Sicardy, B.; Pasachoff, J. M.;
   Arnaud, J.; Comolli, L.; Rondi, A.; Rondi, S.; Sütterlin, P.
2012Icar..218..207T    Altcode: 2011arXiv1112.3136T
  Many observers in the past gave detailed descriptions of the telescopic
  aspect of Venus during its extremely rare transits across the Solar
  disk. In particular, at the ingress and egress, the portion of the
  planet’s disk outside the Solar photosphere has been repeatedly
  perceived as outlined by a thin, bright arc (“aureole”). Those
  historical visual observations allowed inferring the existence of
  Venus’ atmosphere, the bright arc being correctly ascribed to the
  refraction of light by the outer layers of a dense atmosphere. On June
  8th, 2004, fast photometry based on electronic imaging devices allowed
  the first quantitative analysis of the phenomenon. Several observers
  used a variety of acquisition systems to image the event - ranging from
  amateur-sized to professional telescopes and cameras - thus collecting
  for the first time a large amount of quantitative information on this
  atmospheric phenomenon. In this paper, after reviewing some elements
  brought by the historical records, we give a detailed report of the
  ground based observations of the 2004 transit. Besides confirming the
  historical descriptions, we perform the first photometric analysis of
  the aureole using various acquisition systems. The spatially resolved
  data provide measurements of the aureole flux as a function of the
  planetocentric latitude along the limb. A new differential refraction
  model of solar disk through the upper atmosphere allows us to relate
  the variable photometry to the latitudinal dependency of scale-height
  with temperature in the South polar region, as well as the latitudinal
  variation of the cloud-top layer altitude. We compare our measurements
  to recent analysis of the Venus Express VIRTIS-M, VMC and SPICAV/SOIR
  thermal field and aerosol distribution. Our results can be used a
  starting point for new, more optimized experiments during the 2012
  transit event.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Lomonosov, the discovery of Venus's atmosphere, and the
    eighteenth-century transits of Venus
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Sheehan, William
2012JAHH...15....3P    Altcode:
  The discovery of Venus's atmosphere has been widely attributed to
  the Russian academician M.V. Lomonosov from his observations of the
  1761 transit of Venus from St. Petersburg. Other observers at the
  time also made observations that have been ascribed to the effects
  of the atmosphere of Venus. Though Venus does have an atmosphere one
  hundred times denser than the Earth's and refracts sunlight so as to
  produce an 'aureole' around the planet's disk when it is ingressing
  and egressing the solar limb, many eighteenth century observers also
  upheld the doctrine of cosmic pluralism: believing that the planets
  were inhabited, they had a preconceived bias for believing that
  the other planets must have atmospheres. A careful re-examination of
  several of the most important accounts of eighteenth century observers
  and comparisons with the observations of the nineteenth century and
  2004 transits shows that Lomonosov inferred the existence of Venus's
  atmosphere from observations related to the 'black drop', which has
  nothing to do with the atmosphere of Venus. Several observers of the
  eighteenth-century transits, includ-ing Chappe d'Auteroche, Bergman,
  and Wargentin in 1761 and Wales, Dymond, and Rittenhouse in 1769,
  may have made bona fide observations of the aureole produced by the
  atmosphere of Venus. Therefore, it appears that several observers-but
  not Lomonosov-should receive credit for first detecting the aureole
  due to refraction of sunlight by the atmosphere of Venus during
  a transit. This crucial observation occurred almost three decades
  before Johann Schroeter independently demonstrated the existence of the
  atmosphere of Venus from his analysis of extensions of the semicircle
  of light of the planet near inferior conjunction, which are produced
  by back-scattering of light by aerosol-sized particles.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Transits Of Venus: 1639, 1761, 1769, 1874, 1882, 2004, And 2012
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2012AAS...219.9001P    Altcode:
  Transits of Venus are exceedingly rare predictable astronomical events,
  with only six having been observed since Jeremiah Horrox corrected
  Johannes Kepler's Rudolphine Tables and observed the transit of
  1639. Edmond Halley's 1716 method of finding the size and scale of the
  Solar System and thus of the Universe led to hundreds of 18th-century
  and 19th-century transit-of-Venus expeditions for each event. I
  discuss the history and importance of the transit observations,
  and how spacecraft observations of the 1999 transit of Mercury,
  repeated at the 2003 and 2006 transits, led to the solution of the
  black-drop effect problem that had prevented Halley's method from
  reaching its desired accuracy and thus solution of the noble problem
  of astronomy to find the size and scale of the solar system. Other
  spacecraft observations of the 2004 transit of Venus have led to
  an analysis of how Venus's atmosphere becomes visible for about 25
  minutes before second contact and after third contact, and links with
  prior historical claims, mostly invalid, to have discovered Venus's
  atmosphere at transits. Total-solar-irradiance spacecraft observations
  at the 2004 Venus transit link to exoplanet discoveries with NASA's
  aptly named Kepler Mission and ESA's CoRoT. I further link previous
  transit observations to planned observations for the June 5/6, 2012,
  Venus transit and the May 9, 2016, Mercury transit, together providing
  a historical basis for 22nd-century astronomers preparing to observe
  the December 10, 2117, Venus transit. My observations at the 2004
  and 2012 transits of Venus were and will be supported in large part
  by grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the
  National Geographic Society. My solar observations were supported in
  part by NASA grant NNG04GK44G for work with the TRACE spacecraft and
  NASA Marshall grant NNX10AK47A and planetary work supported in part
  by NNX08AO50G from NASA Planetary Astronomy.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Ten years of the high-resolution imaging process of the
    eclipse white-light corona
Authors: Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Pasachoff, J.; Druckmuller, M.;
   Belik, M.
2011AGUFMSH33A2031R    Altcode:
  The corona is the uppermost part of the Sun's atmosphere and, up to
  now, total solar eclipses provide the best conditions for observing it
  from Earth's surface. The white-light corona (WLC) is the scattered
  light of the photosphere off free electrons and it dominates in the
  regions up to 2-3 solar radii. As the motion of electrons is governed
  by magnetic fields of the corona, and these fields are sensitive to the
  phase of the solar cycle, the WLC exhibits many faces and a variety of
  fine structures throughout a cycle. When observing the WLC, one faces
  problems due to a steep gradient of its brightness and difficulties in
  discerning individual structures. Our contribution presents a set of
  unique eclipse pictures of the WLC that were processed by Druckmüller's
  method; they cover the period from 2001 to 2010 and thus give a fairly
  good idea about the changes in both the shape and the fine structure
  of the WLC over a whole solar cycle.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Structure and Dynamics of the 2009 July 22 Eclipse White-light
    Corona
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Saniga, M.; Druckmüllerová,
   H.; Babcock, B. A.
2011ApJ...742...29P    Altcode:
  The white-light corona (WLC) during the total solar eclipse of 2009
  July 22 was observed by several teams in the Moon's shadow stretching
  from India and China across the Pacific Ocean with its many isolated
  islands. We present a comparison of the WLC as observed by eclipse
  teams located in China (Shanghai region) and on the Enewetak Atoll
  in the Marshall Islands, with observations taken 112 minutes apart,
  combined with near-simultaneous space observations. The eclipse was
  observed at the beginning of solar cycle 24, during a deep solar minimum
  (officially estimated as 2008 December according to the smoothed sunspot
  number, but very extended). The solar corona shows several different
  types of features (coronal holes, polar rays, helmet streamers, faint
  loops, voids, etc.), though it was extremely sparse in streamers as
  shown from Large-Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph data. No large-scale
  dynamical phenomena were seen when comparing the observations from
  the two sites, confirming that the corona was quiescent. We measure
  a Ludendorff flattening coefficient of 0.238, typical of solar minimum.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Transits of Venus in Public Education and Contemporary Research
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
2011epsc.conf.1773P    Altcode: 2011DPS....43.1773P
  Transits of Venus are among the rarest predictable astronomical event
  that humans can enjoy, and the 2012 transit will be visible by almost
  all the people on Earth. It is our job as educators to bring out the
  thrill of being able to see the tiny dot of Venus silhouetted against
  the solar disk even with just a simple eye-protection filter. My Website
  at http://www.transitofvenus.info brings together not only historical
  information about the five previous transits of Venus that were observed
  through the 20th century--1639, 1761, 1769, 1874, and 1882--but also
  the scientific work carried out at the 2004 transit and at recent
  transits of Mercury. Based on space observations of the 1999 transit
  of Mercury with NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE),
  Glenn Schneider and I provided proof of the contemporary explanation of
  the black-drop effect as an amalgam of instrumental point-spread and
  solar limb-darkening [1]. Based on observations of the changes in the
  total solar irradiance during the transit, we provided an analysis of
  this solar-system analogue to exoplanet transits [2]. High-resolution
  (0.5 arcsec pixels) observations of ingress and egress with TRACE
  during the 2004 transit provided information about the visibility of
  Venus's atmosphere through its refraction of sunlight, interpreted
  with Venus Express observations [3]. We anticipate observing the 2012
  transit with groundbased facilities of the University of Hawaii at
  Haleakala, and of the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak,
  and Kitt Peak, as well as with NASA and JAXA spacecraft, including Solar
  Dynamics Observatory, ACRIMsat, and Hinode. The Program Group on Public
  Education on the Occasions of Eclipses and Transits of Commission 46
  on Education and Development of the International Astronomical Union,
  which I chair, looks forward to participating in Education and Public
  Outreach efforts related to the 2012 transit.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Double-Double Pluto-Charon and Pluto-Hydra Predicted
    Stellar Occultations of June 2011
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Pandey, S.; Amrhein, D.;
   Person, M. J.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Bosh, A. S.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Sallum,
   S.; Tholen, D. J.; Lucas, R.; Kakkala, M.; Ciotti, J.; Plunkett, S.;
   Hiraoka, N.; Best, W.; Pilger, E. J.; Miceli, M.; Levine, S.
2011epsc.conf.1821P    Altcode: 2011DPS....43.1821P
  MIT astrometry predicted an occultation of Pluto and Charon within
  11 minutes of each other on 23 June 2011 and an occultation of Pluto
  on 27 June 2011 with an occultation of Hydra following in a narrow
  shadow-path 33 minutes later. Our Williams-MIT team organized a
  network of telescopes around the Pacific-Asia region, including use
  of two telescopes in Hawaii, on which we report here. On 23 June,
  we successfully observed a 49 s occultation of Charon at 2 Hz with
  our Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System, POETS, from
  Leeward Community College's 0.5-m telescope in Pearl City. Our site at
  Windward Community College in Kaneohe with its 0.4-m telescope and a
  POETS was cloudy for both events, as was the Leeward Community College
  site for the second event with a 0.3-m telescope, used because the event
  was only 16° above the horizon, too low for their larger telescope,
  and a POETS. We place our successful Charon occultation in the context
  of observations by others, including our collaborators on SOFIA and
  observing with IRTF, and we discuss the predictions, observations, and
  prospective scientific value of the predicted double events with Pluto
  (radius 1400 km) and Charon (radius 605 km) prospectively occulting
  the same star on 23 June 23 UT and Pluto and Hydra (possibly only 50
  km in radius) prospectively occulting a different star on 27 June UT.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Measured Pluto-Charon Offset from the Stellar Occultations
    of 23 June 2011
Authors: Zuluaga, C. A.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Levine, S. E.;
   Gulbis, A. A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.;
   Pandey, S.; Amrhein, D.; Sallum, S.; Dunham, E. W.; Tholen, D. J.;
   Collins, P.; Bida, T.; Taylor, B.; Lucas, R.; Kakkala, M.; Ciotti,
   J.; Plunkett, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Best, W.; Pilger, E. J.; Miceli, M.;
   Springmann, A.; Hicks, M.; Thackeray, B.; Emery, J.; Rapoport, S.;
   Ritchie, I.; Pearson, M.; Mattingly, A.; Brimacombe, J.; Gault, D.;
   Jones, R.; Nolthenius, R.; Broughton, J.; Barry, T.
2011epsc.conf.1866Z    Altcode: 2011DPS....43.1866Z
  We report on our Charon results from the double occultation observed
  on 23 June 2011 [1,2,3]. Our group successfully observed the
  occultation of the same star, 2UCAC 24677089, by Pluto and Charon
  shown in Figure 1. Charon occulted the star first, and its shadow
  was offset from that of Pluto by about 1200 km to the north. Thus,
  observers on the big island of Hawaii and along most of Baja were
  in the double-occultation zone, where occultations by both Pluto
  and Charon could be observed. Observers were located around the
  globe for this event. In Table 1 we list the sites and instruments
  used. Using GPStriggered instrument MORIS [4] at the NASA Infrared
  Telescope Facility (IRTF), we were able to record both occultations
  within approximately 11 minutes of each other. We obtained Charon-only
  light curves at an additional three sites. Observations at Leeward
  Community College on Oahu were made using a GPS-triggered Portable
  Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System (POETS [5]). Observers
  at Table Mountain Observatory (CA) used a GPS-triggered Portable
  Instrument for Capturing Occultations (PICO [6]). Data were acquired
  at the U. S. Naval Observatory - Flagstaff Station (AZ) with the USNO
  Array Camera, an array of six 2k by 4k chips by e2v. We will analyze
  these data to solve for the shape and size of Charon as well as to
  how its position relative to Pluto compares to the JPL PLU017 ephemeris.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 22 May 2011 Pluto occultation - observed
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.; Babcock, B. A.; Pandey, S.;
   Hosek, M. W.; Person, M. J.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Bosh, A. S.; Zuluaga,
   C. A.; Ryan, E. V.; Ryan, W. H.; Briggs, J. W.; Winkler, P. F.;
   Hoette, V.; Haislip, J.
2011epsc.conf.1784P    Altcode: 2011DPS....43.1784P
  Based on a prediction from MIT with astrometric observations from the
  USNO and Lowell Observatory, we observed the 22 May 2011 UT 06:22
  occultation of a star by Pluto (www.stellaroccultations.info and
  occult.mit.edu), predicted time. The star occulted was UCAC2 magnitude
  15.3, and the event's geocentric velocity was 18.2 km s-1. We used
  the 0.6-m telescope of Williams College's Hopkins Observatory in
  Williamstown, MA, and one of our Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and
  Transit System (POETS) CCD/GPS. The centerline of the predicted path
  was just above the north pole, with the southern limit passing through
  the U.S. mid-Atlantic, so telescopes in the northeast were potentially
  in the path, though at high air mass. An occultation of approximately
  100 s was clearly detected after calibrating on a nearby comparison
  star (and barely visible on the CCD monitoring screen in real time),
  given the relatively cloudy and variable nature of the observing
  conditions. We used the observation to refine the prediction model that
  is crucial for the 23/27 June occultations of Pluto-Charon/Pluto-Hydra,
  respectively. Observations in clear conditions with the Magdalena
  Ridge Observatory's 2.4-m telescope in New Mexico and another of our
  POETS did not show an occultation to better than 1%. This nondetection
  provides a constraint for a Pluto atmospheric graze or the potential
  shift of the path of Charon sufficiently far north to that site from
  the predicted path in northernmost South America.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy: Supernova century
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2011Natur.476..280P    Altcode:
  Jay Pasachoff relishes a novel that brings to life the scientific
  stars of the 1600s.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The U.S. Eclipse Megamovie in 2017: a white paper on a unique
    outreach event
Authors: Hudson, Hugh S.; McIntosh, Scott W.; Habbal, Shadia R.;
   Pasachoff, Jay M.; Peticolas, Laura
2011arXiv1108.3486H    Altcode:
  Totality during the solar eclipse of 2017 traverses the entire breadth
  of the continental United States, from Oregon to South Carolina. It thus
  provides the opportunity to assemble a very large number of images,
  obtained by amateur observers all along the path, into a continuous
  record of coronal evolution in time; totality lasts for an hour and
  a half over the continental U.S. While we describe this event here as
  an opportunity for public education and outreach, such a movie -with
  very high time resolution and extending to the chromosphere - will also
  contain unprecedented information about the physics of the solar corona.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Solar System in the Age of Space Exploration
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2011mtpr.conf....3P    Altcode:
  We are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik, which
  began the space age. Though the manned exploration of the solar system
  has been limited to the Moon, in NASA's Apollo Program that ended over
  35 years ago, robotic exploration of the solar system continues to be
  very successful. This paper explores the latest space mission and other
  observations of each planet and of each type of solar-system object,
  including dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, as well as the sun.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Blinded by the Light: Solar Eclipses in Art-Science, Symbolism,
    and Spectacle
Authors: Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2011ASPC..441..205O    Altcode:
  After a short discussion of the history of astronomical
  representations-beginning with Giotto's Scrovegni Chapel-this paper
  briefly surveys highlights of solar eclipses portrayed by western
  artists, considering the impact of astronomical discoveries on them.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Structure and Dynamics of the 2010 July 11 Eclipse White-light
    Corona
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Druckmüllerová, H.; Saniga,
   M.; Lu, M.; Malamut, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Golub, L.; Engell, A. J.;
   Hill, S. W.; Lucas, R.
2011ApJ...734..114P    Altcode:
  The white-light corona (WLC) during the total solar eclipse on 2010
  July 11 was observed by several teams in the Moon's shadow stretching
  across the Pacific Ocean and a number of isolated islands. We present
  a comparison of the WLC as observed by eclipse teams located on the
  Tatakoto Atoll in French Polynesia and on Easter Island, 83 minutes
  later, combined with near-simultaneous space observations. The eclipse
  was observed at the beginning of the solar cycle, not long after solar
  minimum. Nevertheless, the solar corona shows a plethora of different
  features (coronal holes, helmet streamers, polar rays, very faint
  loops and radial-oriented thin streamers, a coronal mass ejection,
  and a puzzling "curtain-like" object above the north pole). Comparing
  the observations from the two sites enables us to detect some dynamic
  phenomena. The eclipse observations are further compared with a
  hairy-ball model of the magnetic field and near-simultaneous images from
  the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory,
  the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations
  Observatory, the Sun Watcher, using Active Pixel System Detector and
  Image Processing on ESA's PRoject for Onboard Autonomy, and the Naval
  Research Laboratory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph on
  ESA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. The Ludendorff flattening
  coefficient is 0.156, matching the expected ellipticity of coronal
  isophotes at 2 R <SUB>sun</SUB>, for this rising phase of the
  solar-activity cycle.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Attempted Stellar-Occultation Observations for KBO (20000)
    Varuna on 10 February 2011
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Elliot, J. L.; Person,
   M. J.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Zuluaga, C.; Zangari, A.; Rosing, W.; Bianco,
   F. B.; Ciotti, J. E.; Kessler, M. R.; Plunkett, S. W. L., Jr.; Hiraoka,
   N. D.; Mohanan, K.; Pilger, E.; George, T.; Breit, D.; Preston, S.;
   Lonergan, K.; Menaker, S.; Egger, J.; Lockhart, M.; Gutoski, M.;
   Rulon, P.; Hampton, D.; Jiang, X.; Bai, J.; Chen, W. P.; Lehner, M.;
   Wang, J. H.; Zhang, Z. W.; Tokimasa, N.
2011AAS...21822411P    Altcode: 2011BAAS..43G22411P
  We attempted to observe the 10 February 2011 occultation of a star
  of UCAC2 magnitude 15.5 by the Kuiper-belt object (20000) Varuna
  (visual magnitude 20.2), to determine its size, albedo, and other
  basic properties. Our original predictions showed the path going
  between Hawaii and Alaska, but SMARTS astrometry a month before the
  event moved the prediction 1,646 km north, so we added sites in the
  northwestern continental US and Alaska. We had clear weather at
  several sites in the predicted path (Alaska, Pacific Northwest),
  another site in the 1-sigma path (California), and several sites
  near the 3-sigma path (Hawaii, China, Taiwan, Japan), though
  no occultation was detected. Clouds or other problems prevented
  observations at several other sites. The appulse observations will
  be used to improve the ephemeris for future Varuna observations. See
  http://occult.mit.edu/research/occultations/kbo/Varuna/Varuna.20110210/index.html
  and stellaroccultations.info. This work was supported, in part,
  by grants NNX10AB27G to MIT and NNX08AO50G to Williams College from
  NASA's Planetary Astronomy Division. We thank Don Hampton of the Poker
  Flat Research Range, Alaska, for his assistance.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Solar Corona and a CME at the 2010 Total Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Rusin, V.; Druckmüllerová, H.; Saniga,
   M.; Lu, M.; Malamut, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Golub, L.; Engell, A. J.;
   Hill, S. W.; Lucas, R.
2011SPD....42.1813P    Altcode: 2011BAAS..43S.1813P
  The 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse was observed on the ground
  from French Polynesia and, 83 minutes later, from Easter Island,
  and near-simultaneous images were made with spacecraft instruments
  including AIA/SDO, HMI/SDO, EUVI/STEREO, SWAP/PROBA2, EIT/SOHO,
  and LASCO/SOHO. We report on changes in the corona detectable with
  high-resolution image processing of the ground-based eclipse coronal
  imaging, including two CME's that were seen to evolve. We compare with
  the spacecraft images to give a complete depiction of coronal structure
  at the time of the eclipse, which corresponded to a low but rising phase
  of the solar-activity cycle. We acknowledge the support of NASA's MSFC
  NNX10AK47A, NSF REU AST-1005024 with DoD ASSURE, VEGA 2/0098/10 of the
  Slovak Acad. Sci, 205/09/1469 of the Czech Science Foundation, PRODEX
  C90345 of ESA/BELSPO, FP7/2007-2013/218816 SOTERIA, Lockheed Martin;
  for equipment: Nikon Professional Services, ASTELCO Systems GmbH
  (Germany), and National Geographic Society's Photographic Division;
  and colleagues Y.-M. Wang (NRL), S. Habbal (U. Hawaii), H. Lanteires
  (Tatakoto), and J. Kern (Carnegie Obs.).

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: High-resolution Satellite Imaging of the 2004 Transit of
    Venus and Asymmetries in the Cytherean Atmosphere
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, Glenn; Widemann, Thomas
2011AJ....141..112P    Altcode:
  This paper presents the only space-borne optical-imaging observations
  of the 2004 June 8 transit of Venus, the first such transit visible from
  Earth since AD 1882. The high-resolution, high-cadence satellite images
  we arranged from NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE)
  reveal the onset of visibility of Venus's atmosphere and give further
  information about the black-drop effect, whose causes we previously
  demonstrated from TRACE observations of a transit of Mercury. The
  atmosphere is gradually revealed before second contact and after
  third contact, resulting from the changing depth of atmospheric layers
  refracting the photospheric surface into the observer's direction. We
  use Venus Express observations to relate the atmospheric arcs seen
  during the transit to the atmospheric structure of Venus. Finally, we
  relate the transit images to current and future exoplanet observations,
  providing a sort of ground truth showing an analog in our solar system
  to effects observable only with light curves in other solar systems
  with the Kepler and CoRoT missions and ground-based exoplanet-transit
  observations.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Making of History's Greatest Star Map and A Grand and
Bold Thing: An Extraordinary New Map of the Universe Ushering in a
    New Era of Discovery
Authors: Perryman, Michael; Finkbeiner, Ann; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2011PhT....64e..45P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Report of Some Comets: The Discovery of Uranus and Comets by
    William, Caroline, and John Herschel
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. J. M.
2011AAS...21711101P    Altcode: 2011BAAS...4311101P
  We report on the discovery and drawings of comets by William, Caroline,
  and John Herschel. The first discovery, by William Herschel, in 1781
  from Bath, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
  Society with the title "Report of a Comet," turned out to be Uranus,
  the first planet ever discovered, Mercury through Saturn having been
  known since antiquity. William's sister Caroline was given duties of
  sweeping the skies and turned out to be a discoverer of 8 comets in her
  own right, in addition to keeping William's notes. Caroline's comets
  were discovered from Slough between 1786 and 1797. In the process, we
  also discuss original documents from the archives of the Royal Society
  and of the Royal Astronomical Society. We conclude by showing comet
  drawings that we have recently attributed to John Herschel, including
  Halley's Comet from 1836, recently located in the Ransom Center of the
  University of Texas at Austin. Acknowledgments: Planetary astronomy
  at Williams College is supported in part by grant NNX08AO50G from NASA
  Planetary Astronomy. We thank Peter Hingley of the Royal Astronomical
  Society and Richard Oram of the Harry Ransom Center of The University
  of Texas at Austin for their assistance.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Search for Satellites of Kuiper Belt Object 55636 from the
    2009 October 9 Occultation
Authors: Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga,
   C. A.; Bosh, A. S.; Adams, E. R.; Brothers, T. C.; Gulbis, A. A. S.;
   Levine, S. E.; Lockhart, M.; Zangari, A. M.; Babcock, B. A.; DuPre, K.;
   Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.; Rosing, W.; Secrest, N.; Bright, L.;
   Dunham, E. W.; Kakkala, M.; Tilleman, T.; Rapoport, S.; Zambrano-Marin,
   L.; Wolf, J.; Morzinski, K.
2011AAS...21730605J    Altcode: 2011BAAS...4330605J
  A world-wide observing campaign of 21 telescopes at 18 sites was
  organized by Elliot et al. (2010 Nature 465, 897) to observe the 2009
  Oct. 9 stellar occultation of 2UCAC 41650964 (UCAC2 magnitude 13.1)
  by the Kuiper Belt object 55636 (visual magnitude 19.6). Integration
  times varied between 0.05 seconds at the Vatican Advanced Technology
  Telescope and 5 seconds at Mauna Kea mid-level. Data from the two sites
  that successfully observed the occultation (Haleakala and the Mauna
  Kea mid-level) were analyzed by Elliot et al. (2010) to determine the
  diameter and albedo of 55636. In this study, we use the entire data
  set to search for signatures of occultations by nearby satellites. One
  satellite previously discovered with occultation data is Neptune's
  moon Larissa, which was detected during Neptune's close approach to a
  star in 1982 (Reitsema et al. 1982). No satellites are found in this
  study, and upper limits will be reported on satellite radii within
  the volume probed (2 x 10<SUP>-8</SUP> of the Hill Sphere). This work
  was supported, in part, by NASA Grants NNX10AB27G (MIT), NNX08AO50G
  (Williams College), and NNH08AI17I (USNO-FS) and NSF Grant AST-0406493
  (MIT). Student participation was supported in part by NSF's REU program
  and NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Simultaneous Observations of the Chromosphere with TRACE
    and SUMER
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Tingle, Evan D.; Dammasch, Ingolf E.;
   Sterling, Alphonse C.
2011SoPh..268..151P    Altcode: 2010SoPh..tmp..209P; 2010SoPh..tmp..233P; 2010arXiv1010.4814P
  Using mainly the 1600 Å continuum channel and also the 1216 Å Lyman-
  α channel (which includes some UV continuum and C iv emission) aboard
  the TRACE satellite, we observed the complete lifetime of a transient,
  bright chromospheric loop. Simultaneous observations with the SUMER
  instrument aboard the SOHO spacecraft revealed interesting material
  velocities through the Doppler effect existing above the chromospheric
  loop imaged with TRACE, possibly corresponding to extended nonvisible
  loops, or the base of an X-ray jet.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Solar Eclipses for Science and for Public Education
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay
2010AIPC.1283...40P    Altcode:
  On the rare occurrences of total solar eclipses, about 350 years
  apart at a given terrestrial location and 18 months apart in the
  world, people in the zone of totality are dazzled and impressed by the
  spectacular phenomena that become visible in the midst of atmospheric
  darkening. I describe a selection of scientific results about the
  solar chromosphere corona that are obtained at eclipses, from the
  historic discovery of helium to present-day investigations of how the
  corona gets to be 2,000,000 K. I also describe how the attention to the
  eclipse, to astronomy, and to science in general that often accompanies
  eclipse day in not only the zone of totality but also to thousands
  of kilometers to either side, can lead to teaching opportunities not
  only for students participating in the scientific observing but also
  to all students and the general public.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 3/4 July 2010 Pluto Stellar-Occultation Observations
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Elliot, J. L.; Souza, S. P.; Person, M. J.;
   Zuluaga, C.; Bosh, A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Jensen-Clem, R.; Lockhart,
   M.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Rojo, P.; Lu, M.; Malamut, C.; Levine, S. E.;
   Ivarsen, K. M.; Reichart, D. E.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Nysewander, M. C.;
   Haislip, J. B.; MacDonald, R. K. D.; Bailyn, C. D.; Emilio, M.; Jehin,
   E.; Gillon, M.; Manfroid, J.; Chantry, V.; Magain, P.; Hutsemekers,
   D.; Queloz, D.
2010DPS....42.2002P    Altcode: 2010BAAS...42Q.983P
  Continuing our monitoring of Pluto's atmospheric temperature and
  pressure, previously shown by us to be increasing (Elliot et al.,
  Nature 424, 165, 2003; Pasachoff et al., AJ 129, 1718, 2005)
  and subsequently found by us to be leveling off (Elliot et al.,
  AJ 134, 1, 2007), we report on a stellar occultation by Pluto of
  UCAC2 mag=15.3, observed from South America and Africa on 4 July
  2010 UT. Success was achieved with a 0.45 m at Cerro Calan using
  one of our POETS (Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System;
  Souza et al. PASP 118, 1550, 2006), a 1.0 SMARTS (Small and Medium
  Aperture Research Telescope System) at Cerro Tololo, four 0.6 m
  telescopes of PROMPT (Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and
  Polarimetry Telescopes) on Cerro Tololo, and TRAPPIST's (TRansiting
  Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope) 0.6-m telescope on La
  Silla in Chile; the 0.35 m telescope of U. Ponta Grossa, Brazil;
  and the 0.75-m ATOM (Automatic Telescope for Optical Monitoring),
  Namibia, using POETS. Winds prevented opening the 6.5 m Magellan/Clay
  telescope on Las Campanas, Chile, with its own frame-transfer camera,
  and clouds obscured the 1.9 m telescope at Sutherland, South Africa,
  which had POETS. With shadow velocity 23.6 km/s, it was a rapid event:
  maximum occultation &lt;2 minutes. The observations were supported
  in part by grants NNX08AO50G to Williams College and NNX10AB27G to
  MIT from NASA's Planetary Astronomy Division, and NNH08AI17I to USNO
  for astrometry. Student participation was supported in part by NASA's
  Massachusetts Space Grant and NSF's REU. Japan's government donated
  U. Chile's Cerro Calan Goto telescope. PROMPT observations were made
  possible by the Robert Martin Ayers Science Fund. TRAPPIST is a project
  driven by the University of Liège, in close collaboration with the
  Observatory of Geneva, supported by the Belgian Fund for Scientific
  Research and the Swiss National Science Foundation.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Size and Albedo of the Kuiper Belt Object 55636
Authors: Elliot, James L.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Bosh,
   A. S.; Adams, E. R.; Brothers, T. C.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Levine, S. E.;
   Lockhart, M.; Zangari, A. M.; Babcock, B. A.; DuPré, K.; Pasachoff,
   J. M.; Souza, S. P.; Rosing, W.; Secrest, N.
2010DPS....42.2302E    Altcode: 2010BAAS...42..991E
  Due to the small sizes and great distances of Kuiper belt objects
  (KBOs), it is difficult to determine their diameters. We report
  multi-chord observations of a KBO stellar occultation, which occurred
  on 2009 October 9 (Elliot, J. L., et al. 2010, Nature, 465, 897). We
  set up a network of 21 telescopes at 18 stations, spanning a distance
  of 5920 km perpendicular to the predicted shadow path for the 2009
  October 9 stellar occultation by the KBO 55636. Of these stations,
  seven could not observe due to weather, nine reported non-detections,
  and two observed an occultation, both in Hawai'i: the 2.0-m Faulkes
  North telescope at Haleakala and a 0.36-m portable telescope at the
  Visitor Information Station at the Onizuka Center for International
  Astronomy on Mauna Kea (located at the Mauna Kea Mid Level). We find
  that 55636 (2002 TX300), which is a member of the water-ice rich Haumea
  KBO collisional family (Brown, M. E., et al. 2007, Nature, 446, 294),
  has a mean radius of 143 ± 5 km (for a circular solution). Allowing
  for possible elliptical shapes we find a geometric albedo of 0.88
  +0.15/-0.06 in the V photometric band. This firmly establishes that
  55636 is smaller than previously thought and like its parent body,
  Haumea, is among the most highly reflective objects in the Solar
  System. Dynamical calculations by two groups indicate that the
  collision that created 55636 occurred at least 1 Gyr ago (Ragozzine,
  D., &amp; Brown, M. E. 2007, AJ, 134, 2160; Schlichting, H. E., &amp;
  Sari, R. 2009, ApJ, 700, 1242), which implies either that 55636 has
  an active resurfacing mechanism, or that fresh water ice in the outer
  solar system can persist for Gyr timescales. This work was supported,
  in part by NASA Grants NNX10AB27G (MIT), NNX08AO50G (Williams College),
  and NNH08AI17I (USNO-FS).

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pluto's Atmosphere from the July 2010 Stellar Occultation
Authors: Person, Michael J.; Elliot, J. L.; Bosh, A. S.; Gulbis,
   A. A. S.; Jensen-Clem, R.; Lockhart, M. F.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga,
   C. A.; Levine, S. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.; Lu, M.; Malamut,
   C.; Rojo, P.; Bailyn, C. D.; MacDonald, R. K. D.; Ivarsen, K. M.;
   Reichart, D. E.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Nysewander, M. C.; Haislip, J. B.
2010DPS....42.2003P    Altcode: 2010BAAS...42R.983P
  We have observed the 4 July 2010 stellar occultation by Pluto as part
  of our program of monitoring Pluto's atmospheric changes over the
  last decade. Successful observations were obtained from three sites:
  Cerro Calan and Cerro Tololo, Chile, as well as the HESS-project site
  (High Energy Stereoscopic System) in southwestern Namibia. Successful
  telescope apertures ranged from 0.45 m to 1.0 m and resulted in
  seven occultation light curves for the event from among the three
  sites. Simultaneous analysis of the seven light curves indicates
  that Pluto's atmosphere continues to be stable, as the calculated
  atmospheric radii are consistent with those detected in 2006 (Elliot
  et al., AJ 134, 1, 2007) and 2007 (Person et al., AJ 136, 1510, 2008),
  continuing the stability that followed the large pressure increase
  detected between 1988 (Millis et al., Icarus 105, 282, 1993) and 2002
  (Elliot et al., Nature 424, 165, 2003). We will present the overall
  astrometric solution as well as current profiles for Pluto's upper
  atmospheric temperature and pressure obtained from inversion of the
  light curves (Elliot, Person, and Qu, AJ 126, 1041, 2003). This work
  was supported, in part, by grants NNX10AB27G to MIT, NNX08AO50G to
  Williams College, and NNH08AI17I to the USNO from NASA's Planetary
  Astronomy Division. The 0.75-m ATOM (Automatic Telescope for Optical
  Monitoring) light curve was obtained with the generous assistance of
  the HESS-project staff, arranged by Stefan Wagner and Marcus Hauser
  of the University of Heidelberg. The 0.45-m Goto telescope at Cerro
  Calán National Astronomical Observatory, Universidad de Chile, was
  donated by the Government of Japan. PROMPT (Panchromatic Robotic Optical
  Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes) observations at Cerro Tololo
  were made possible by the Robert Martin Ayers Science Fund. Student
  participation was supported in part by NSF's REU program and NASA's
  Massachusetts Space Grant.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pluto and Beyond: Stellar-Occultation Web Pages for Education
    and Observation Planning
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Brown, M. E.; Person, M. J.; Tam, Y. H. Ng
2010DPS....42.0701P    Altcode: 2010BAAS...42..953P
  The method of stellar occultation is a powerful way to investigate
  objects in the outer solar system, including their sizes, their
  shapes, their atmospheres, and, when present, rings. Following series
  of observations of outer-solar-system objects, including the dwarf
  planets Pluto and Haumea, satellites Charon and Nix, additional
  Kuiper-belt object 55636, and Triton, we have prepared web pages
  at Williams College describing the results and linking published
  papers and meeting abstracts as well as light curves, images, and
  expedition photographs. Brown's pages at Caltech (www.gps.caltech.edu/
  mbrown/2003EL61/) discuss the mutual occultation and transit events
  of Haumea and its moon Namaka, showing predictions over the last
  couple of years, though no observations of the mutual events (from
  the Hale 5-m telescope at the Palomar Observatory on down) have yet
  been successful. This paper will include Haumea/Namaka predictions
  for the coming observation season. The MIT Planetary Astronomy
  Lab's web pages (occult.mit.edu) are more technical in nature,
  providing information useful for planning observations, which are
  usually made simultaneously with multiple telescopes to provide
  a variety of chords across the objects. For overall access to our
  occultation information, go to http://www.stellaroccultations.info or
  http://www.williams.edu/Astronomy/research/occultations. Observations
  have been supported in part by grants NNX08AO50G to Williams College,
  NNX10AB27G to MIT, and NNG05GI02G to Caltech from NASA's Planetary
  Astronomy Division. Student participation was supported in part by
  NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Resource Letter SPh-1: Solar Physics
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2010AmJPh..78..890P    Altcode:
  This Resource Letter provides a guide to printed literature, listing
  selected books and articles and online resources about scientific
  and cultural references to the Sun and the related topics of solar
  spectroscopy and space weather. Topics include helioseismology,
  the chromosphere and corona at solar eclipses, sunspots and other
  solar activity, and total solar irradiance, as well as instrumental
  references including spectroheliographs, coelostats, and observatories
  on the ground and in space. References to general works on heliophysics
  and plasma physics are minimized.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The origin and diffusion of the H and K notation
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Suer, Terry-Ann
2010JAHH...13..120P    Altcode:
  Though many or most astronomers and astronomy students may think
  that H and K, as in the Ca II ‘H and K lines’, were named by
  Fraunhofer, actually only the H line was in Fraunhofer's original
  notation. He also used ‘I’ to indicate the end of the spectrum in
  his widely-reproduced 1814 drawing, of which an engraved version was
  published in 1817. We have searched references from nineteenth-century
  books and journals to find the first use of ‘K’ to indicate the
  ionized-calcium spectral line at 393.3 nm and located the probable
  first use and eventually the reuse of the notation.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Comparison of the Red and Green Coronal Line Intensities
at the 29 March 2006 and the 1 August 2008 Total Solar Eclipses:
    Considerations of the Temperature of the Solar Corona
Authors: Voulgaris, A.; Athanasiadis, T.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Pasachoff,
   J. M.
2010SoPh..264...45V    Altcode: 2010SoPh..tmp...98V; 2009arXiv0911.0325V
  During the total solar eclipse at Akademgorodok, Siberia, Russia,
  on 1 August 2008, we imaged the flash spectrum with a slitless
  spectrograph. We have spectroscopically determined the duration of
  totality, the epoch of the second and third contacts and the duration
  of the flash spectrum. Here we compare the 2008 flash spectra with
  those that we similarly obtained from the total solar eclipse of 29
  March 2006, at Kastellorizo, Greece. Any changes of the intensity
  of the coronal emission lines, in particularly those of Fe x and Fe
  xiv, could give us valuable information about the temperature of the
  corona. The results show that the ionization state of the corona,
  as manifested especially by the Fe xiv emission line, was much weaker
  during the 2008 eclipse, indicating that following the long, inactive
  period during the solar minimum, there was a drop in the overall
  temperature of the solar corona.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar
    occultation
Authors: Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Bosh, A. S.;
   Adams, E. R.; Brothers, T. C.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Levine, S. E.;
   Lockhart, M.; Zangari, A. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Dupré, K.; Pasachoff,
   J. M.; Souza, S. P.; Rosing, W.; Secrest, N.; Bright, L.; Dunham,
   E. W.; Sheppard, S. S.; Kakkala, M.; Tilleman, T.; Berger, B.; Briggs,
   J. W.; Jacobson, G.; Valleli, P.; Volz, B.; Rapoport, S.; Hart, R.;
   Brucker, M.; Michel, R.; Mattingly, A.; Zambrano-Marin, L.; Meyer,
   A. W.; Wolf, J.; Ryan, E. V.; Ryan, W. H.; Morzinski, K.; Grigsby,
   B.; Brimacombe, J.; Ragozzine, D.; Montano, H. G.; Gilmore, A.
2010Natur.465..897E    Altcode:
  The Kuiper belt is a collection of small bodies (Kuiper belt objects,
  KBOs) that lie beyond the orbit of Neptune and which are believed
  to have formed contemporaneously with the planets. Their small
  size and great distance make them difficult to study. KBO 55636
  (2002 TX<SUB>300</SUB>) is a member of the water-ice-rich Haumea
  KBO collisional family. The Haumea family are among the most highly
  reflective objects in the Solar System. Dynamical calculations indicate
  that the collision that created KBO 55636 occurred at least 1Gyr
  ago. Here we report observations of a multi-chord stellar occultation
  by KBO 55636, which occurred on 9 October 2009 UT. We find that it has
  a mean radius of 143+/-5km (assuming a circular solution). Allowing
  for possible elliptical shapes, we find a geometric albedo of in
  the V photometric band, which establishes that KBO 55636 is smaller
  than previously thought and that, like its parent body, it is highly
  reflective. The dynamical age implies either that KBO 55636 has an
  active resurfacing mechanism, or that fresh water-ice in the outer
  Solar System can persist for gigayear timescales.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Search for 1-Hz Coronal-Loop Oscillations at the 2008 and
    2009 Total Eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; DuPré, K.; Kern, J.;
   Nesterenko, A.; Nesterenko, I.
2010AAS...21640716P    Altcode: 2010BAAS...41..862P
  We report observations through narrow-band filters at total solar
  eclipses at high cadence to search for Fourier power 1 Hz, a prediction
  of certain classes of coronal heating through MHD waves, such as
  surface Alfvén waves. We previous reported such power at the 1999
  eclipse (Pasachoff, Babcock, Russell, Seaton, Solar Phys. 207, 241-257,
  2002). We observed at 10 Hz for 2 min 20 sec in Siberia in 2008 with
  the coronal red line at 637.4 nm and the coronal green line at 530.3 nm,
  and at 6 Hz for 5 min 50 sec at Tianhuangping, China, in 2009 with the
  coronal green line and a nearby continuum, using 20-cm telescopes. The
  sky was clear in 2008 while the eclipse was observed through moving
  clouds in 2009. The weakening corona gave few features on which to make
  a fine alignment, and much time has been spent on details of aligning
  the series of images. We report on the status of the alignment and
  the resulting transforms, and place the results in the context of the
  solar-activity cycle, which we show through a series of radial-filter
  images made as part of our expeditions in 1999, 2001, 2006, 2008,
  and 2009, spanning the most recent sunspot cycle. Acknowledgments:
  We thank C. Alex Young, Daniel B. Seaton. Yihua Yan, Jin Zhu, Lin
  Lan and Chenying Lai. Williams collaborators were Jianjun Wang,
  Marek Demianski, Huajai Cao, Sara Dwyer, and Rachel Wagner-Kaiser
  in 2009 and Marcus Freeman, William G. Wagner, and Marek Demianski
  in 2008. Our expeditions were supported in part by grants from the
  Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic
  Society. We thank the NSF Heliospheric Program for 2006 suppport and
  the Planetary Astronomy division of NASA for imaging-system support.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Commission 46: Astronomy Education and Development
Authors: Stavinschi, Magda D.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.;
   Andersen, Johannes; Deustua, Susana; De Greve, Jean-Pierre; Guinan,
   Edward F.; Haubold, Hans J.; Earnshaw, John B.; Jones, Barrie W.;
   Kochhar, Rajesh K.; Leung, Kam-Ching; Marschall, Laurence A.; Percy,
   John R.; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia
2010IAUTB..27..270S    Altcode:
  Commission 46 had held two sessions of business meetings during the
  General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro. Both of them were chaired by
  Magda Stavinschi.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Galactic deuterium gradient
Authors: Lubowich, Donald; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2010IAUS..268..179L    Altcode:
  The Galactic deuterium abundance gradient has been determined from
  observations of DCN in Galactic molecular clouds. This is the only
  way to observe D throughout the Galaxy because the molecular clouds
  are not limited to the 2 kpc region around the Sun observed with FUSE
  and from DI. We used an astrochemistry model and the DCN/HCN ratios to
  estimate the underlying D/H ratios in 16 molecular clouds including five
  in the Galactic Center. The resulting positive Galactic D gradient and
  reduced Galactic Center D/H ratio imply that there are no significant
  Galactic sources of D, there is continuous infall of low-metallicity
  gas into the Galaxy, and that deuterium is cosmological.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Origin and Diffusion of the H and K Notation
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Suer, T. A.
2010AAS...21530403P    Altcode: 2010BAAS...42..301P
  Though many or most astronomers and astronomy students may think that
  H and K, as in the Ca II "H and K lines," were named by Fraunhofer,
  actually only the H line was in Fraunhofer's original notation. He also
  used "I" to indicate the end of the spectrum in his widely reproduced
  1814 drawing, published in 1817. We have searched references from
  19th-century books and journals to find the first use of "K" to indicate
  the ionized-calcium spectral line at 383.3 nm and located the probable
  first use and eventually the reuse of the notation.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Attempted Observations of the 2009 Occultation of a Star by Nix
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Widemann, T.; Sicardy, B.; Lister, T.;
   Tholen, D. J.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Adams, E. R.
2009AAS...21460601P    Altcode:
  We attempted to observe the predicted 4 March 2009, 13:56 UT,
  approximately 6-second-long occultation of an 11th magnitude star
  by Pluto's small moon Nix, which is fainter than 23rd magnitude. In
  parallel starlight, the path was 88 km in width with a one-sigma
  range from 44 km to 110 km. The Tycho star is at 18 12 09.86 17 42 03.3
  (J2000.0), and has R=11.8 and K=10.4. The occultation path was predicted
  to cross the Hawaiian islands, with a southern boundary cutting through
  Maui and missing the telescopes on Mauna Kea, but the uncertainty in
  the prediction (1 sigma) was about 500 km (though only 5 minutes in
  time). The path's speed was 15 km/s. In the event, we obtained data
  only from the 2-m Faulkes telescope on Maui, with uneven skies. Our
  trailed images did not show evidence of the occultation, which would
  have dropped the observed intensity at the merged star/Nix position
  by about 12 magnitudes or, more likely, if Nix and Pluto were merged
  by about 3 magnitudes. Weather prevented observations with MegaCam
  on the CFHT, with a MIT POETS on the IRTF, with PanSTARRS on Maui,
  as well as with an 0.4-m telescope at Windward Community College on
  Oahu. For administrative reasons, we did not succeed in obtaining data
  with the 3.7-m AEOS telescope on Maui. In any case, the event was at
  low altitude, only 21°, so pointing was at the limits for several of
  the telescopes. Our collaboration between Williams College and MIT
  is with J. L. Elliot and M. J. Person at MIT and B. A. Babcock and
  S. P. Souza at Williams. We thank C. Veillet in Paris, J. Ciotti,
  M. Kessler, and G. T. Elliott on Oahu, and L. Young and M. Buie in
  Boulder for their collaboration. JMP's work on Pluto is supported in
  part by grant NNX08AO50G from NASA's Planetary Science Division and
  MIT's by NNX07AN63G.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coronal Observations at the Siberian 2008 Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Freeman, M. J.; DuPré,
   K. M.; Demianski, M.; Nesterenko, A.; Nesterenko, I.; Schneider, G.
2009AAS...21360003P    Altcode:
  We successfully observed the 1 August 2008 total solar eclipse from
  the rooftop observatory of the State University of Novosibirsk in
  Akademgorodok, Siberia, latitude 55° N at 10:45 UT in clear skies
  and also from an airplane at 83° N latitude north of Svalbard at 9:43
  UT. Our prime experiment in Akademgorodok was a set of high-cadence,
  10 Hz, observations in the coronal green line at 530.3 nm from [Fe
  XIV] to verify and extend our previous findings of excess power in
  the 0.5 Hz to 1 Hz region as predicted by a subset of coronal-heating
  theories. We used twin 0.2-m telescopes with narrow-band interference
  filters and our POETS frame-transfer CCD's on the university's Paramount
  ME. Additional photography included graded-exposure sets of images
  meant for post-processing to compare with images taken earlier from the
  airplane and later from the ground in Mongolia and China to provide
  time differences of over 90 minutes. We also obtained HD video. Our
  comparison of the images from the airplane and from Siberia will be
  used to search for coronal motions.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Limb Spicules from the Ground and from Space
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Jacobson, William A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.
2009SoPh..260...59P    Altcode: 2009arXiv0909.0027P
  We amassed statistics for quiet-sun chromosphere spicules at the limb
  using ground-based observations from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope
  on La Palma and simultaneously from NASA’s Transition Region and
  Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft. The observations were obtained in
  July 2006. With the 0.2 arcsecond resolution obtained after maximizing
  the ground-based resolution with the Multi-Object Multi-Frame Blind
  Deconvolution (MOMFBD) program, we obtained specific statistics for
  sizes and motions of over two dozen individual spicules, based on
  movies compiled at 50-second cadence for the series of five wavelengths
  observed in a very narrow band at Hα, on-band and at ± 0.035 nm
  and ± 0.070 nm (10 s at each wavelength) using the SOUP filter,
  and had simultaneous observations in the 160 nm EUV continuum from
  TRACE. The MOMFBD restoration also automatically aligned the images,
  facilitating the making of Dopplergrams at each off-band pair. We
  studied 40 Hα spicules, and 14 EUV spicules that overlapped Hα
  spicules; we found that their dynamical and morphological properties
  fit into the framework of several previous studies. From a preliminary
  comparison with spicule theories, our observations are consistent with
  a reconnection mechanism for spicule generation, and with UV spicules
  being a sheath region surrounding the Hα spicules.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Solar Corona
Authors: Golub, Leon; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2009soco.book.....G    Altcode:
  1. Introduction; 2. Brief history of coronal studies; 3. The
  coronal spectrum; 4. The solar cycle; 5. Ground-based observations;
  6. Observations from space: I. The first 4 decades; 7. Activity of
  the inner corona; 8. Observations from space: II. Recent missions;
  9. The solar wind; 10. Solar flares and coronal mass ejections; Notes;
  References; Index.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The MIT Program for Predicting Stellar Occultations by Kuiper
    Belt Objects
Authors: Elliot, James L.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Person, M. J.; Adams,
   E. R.; Lockhart, M. F.; Zangari, A. M.; Bosh, A. S.; Gulbis, A. A. S.;
   Levine, S. E.; Sheppard, S. S.; Dunham, E. W.; Bright, L.; Souza,
   S. P.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Ryan, W. H.; Ryan, E. V.
2009DPS....41.6209E    Altcode:
  With observations of a stellar occultation by a Kuiper belt object
  (KBO) from multiple stations, one could establish its radius with an
  accuracy of a few kilometers. Combining this radius with photometry
  would establish an accurate geometric albedo. For those KBOs with
  orbiting companions, these data will further provide highly accurate
  densities constraining material composition. Stellar occultation data
  also establish stringent upper limits on any atmospheres and probe for
  small, nearby companions. The difficulty in observing a KBO occultation
  has been in generating an accurate prediction so that observers can be
  deployed within the occultation shadow path. Current KBO ephemerides
  are at best accurate to a few tenths of an arcsecond, while angular
  radii of the largest bodies are less than 0.02 arcsec. To improve the
  ephemerides of the KBOs most promising for stellar occultations, we
  conduct astrometric observations of KBOs selected (i) for large angular
  radii, and (ii) in sky regions with large star densities. We have made
  bi-monthly observations with the Lowell 42-inch Hall telescope since
  Dec. 2004 and monthly to bi-monthly observations with the SMARTS 0.9 m
  at CTIO since May 2005. Approximately 1200 KBO astrometric measurements
  have been submitted to the Minor Planet Center. We use these data to
  establish ephemeris correction models with which we predict appulses
  by target KBOs. We observed three of these appulses to test our
  accuracy. The difference between the predicted and observed closeest
  approach agrees within the formal error for two of the three appulses,
  but the errors are somewhat larger than the body's radius. Hence our
  predictions are almost accurate enough to reliably place observers
  within the shadow path of a KBO occultation, and improving with each
  astrometric observation. This work is supported, in part, by USRA
  subcontract 8500-98-03 (Lowell Observatory) and NASA Grant NNX07AK73G
  (MIT).

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 2008 August 1 Eclipse Solar-Minimum Corona Unraveled
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Druckmüller, M.; Aniol, P.;
   Saniga, M.; Minarovjech, M.
2009ApJ...702.1297P    Altcode: 2009arXiv0907.1643P
  We discuss the results stemming from observations of the white-light and
  [Fe XIV] emission corona during the total eclipse of the Sun of 2008
  August 1, in Mongolia (Altaj region) and in Russia (Akademgorodok,
  Novosibirsk, Siberia). Corresponding to the current extreme solar
  minimum, the white-light corona, visible up to 20 solar radii, was of
  a transient type with well pronounced helmet streamers situated above a
  chain of prominences at position angles 48°, 130°, 241°, and 322°. A
  variety of coronal holes, filled with a number of thin polar plumes,
  were seen around the poles. Furthering an original method of image
  processing, stars up to 12 mag, a Kreutz-group comet (C/2008 O1) and
  a coronal mass ejection (CME) were also detected, with the smallest
  resolvable structures being of, and at some places even less than, 1
  arcsec. Differences, presumably motions, in the corona and prominences
  are seen even with the 19 minutes time difference between our sites. In
  addition to the high-resolution coronal images, which show the continuum
  corona (K-corona) that results from electron scattering of photospheric
  light, images of the overlapping green-emission-line (530.3 nm, [Fe
  XIV]) corona were obtained with the help of two narrow-passband filters
  (centered on the line itself and for the continuum in the vicinity
  of 529.1 nm, respectively), each with an FWHM of 0.15 nm. Through
  solar observations, on whose scheduling and details we consulted,
  with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Hinode's XRT and SOT,
  Transition Region and Coronal Explorer, and STEREO, as well as Wilcox
  Solar Observatory and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson
  Doppler Imager magnetograms, we set our eclipse observations in the
  context of the current unusually low and prolonged solar minimum.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Teaching and Learning Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John
2009tla..book.....P    Altcode:
  Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World:
  Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in
  the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics
  education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the
  world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert
  Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the
  world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy
  education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns;
  7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle
  M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education
  research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a
  new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights:
  astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface;
  11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet
  astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with
  robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating
  students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service
  astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service
  education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights:
  educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface;
  18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar;
  19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay
  M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching
  astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster
  highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing
  Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries
  Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing
  countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy:
  Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide
  Craig and Isabel Hawkins; 25. The role of science centers and
  planetariums Nick Lomb; 26. Science education for the new century -
  a European perspective Claus Madsen; 27. Communicating astronomy to
  the public Charles Blue; 28. Poster highlights: public outreach in
  astronomy; Part IX. The Education Programs of the IAU: Preface; 29. A
  short overview of astronomical education carried out by the IAU Syuzo
  Isobe; Part X. Discussion; Index.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Scientific observations at total solar eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2009RAA.....9..613P    Altcode:
  The occasion of the longest totality of an eclipse in the 18 yr
  11⅓ d saros cycle leads to taking stock of the scientific value of
  ground-based eclipse observations in this space age. Though a number
  of space satellites from the U.S., Europe, Japan, and Russia study the
  Sun, scientists at eclipses can observe the solar chromosphere and
  corona at higher spatial resolution, at higher temporal resolution,
  and at higher spectral resolution than are possible aloft. Furthermore,
  eclipse expeditions can transport a wide variety of state-of-the-art
  equipment to the path of totality. Thus, for at least some years
  to come, solar eclipse observations will remain both scientifically
  valuable and cost-effective ways to study the outer solar atmosphere.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Solar eclipses as an astrophysical laboratory
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2009Natur.459..789P    Altcode:
  Observations of the Sun during total eclipses have led to major
  discoveries, such as the existence of helium (from its spectrum),
  the high temperature of the corona (though the reason for the high
  temperature remains controversial), and the role of magnetic fields
  in injecting energy into-and trapping ionized gases within-stellar
  atmospheres. A new generation of ground-based eclipse observations
  reaches spatial, temporal and spectral-resolution domains that are
  inaccessible from space and therefore complement satellite studies.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Solar Eclipses and the International Year of Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2009AAS...21440101P    Altcode:
  Solar eclipses capture the attention of millions of people in the
  countries from which they are visible and provide a major opportunity
  for public education, in addition to the scientific research and
  student training that they provide. The 2009 International Year of
  Astronomy began with an annular eclipse visible from Indonesia on 26
  January, with partial phases visible also in other parts of southeast
  Asia. On 22 July, a major and unusually long total solar eclipse
  will begin at dawn in India and travel across China, with almost six
  minutes of totality visible near Shanghai and somewhat more visible
  from Japanese islands and from ships at sea in the Pacific. Partial
  phases will be visible from most of eastern Asia, from mid-Sumatra
  and Borneo northward to mid-Siberia. Eclipse activities include many
  scientific expeditions and much ecotourism to Shanghai, Hangzhou,
  and vicinity. My review article on "Eclipses as an Astrophysical
  Laboratory" will appear in Nature as part of their IYA coverage. Our
  planetarium presented teacher workshops and we made a film about solar
  research. Several new books about the corona or eclipses are appearing
  or have appeared. Many articles are appearing in astronomy magazines
  and other outlets. Eclipse interviews are appearing on the Planetary
  Society's podcast "365 Days of Astronomy" and on National Geographic
  Radio. Information about the eclipse and safe observation of the partial
  phases are available at http://www.eclipses.info, the Website of the
  International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses
  and of its Program Group on Public Education at the Times of Eclipses
  of its Commission on Education and Development. The Williams College
  Expedition to the 2009 Eclipse in the mountains near Hangzhou, China,
  is supported in part by a grant from the Committee for Research and
  Exploration of the National Geographic Society. E/PO workshops were
  supported by NASA.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The X-Ray Environment During the Epoch of Terrestrial Planet
Formation: Chandra Observations of h Persei
Authors: Currie, Thayne; Evans, Nancy Remage; Spitzbart, Brad D.;
   Irwin, Jonathan; Wolk, Scott J.; Hernandez, Jesus; Kenyon, Scott J.;
   Pasachoff, Jay M.
2009AJ....137.3210C    Altcode: 2008arXiv0811.1753C
  We describe Chandra/ACIS-I observations of the massive ~ 13-14 Myr-old
  cluster, h Persei, part of the famous Double Cluster (h and χ Persei)
  in Perseus. Combining the list of Chandra-detected sources with new
  optical/IR photometry and optical spectroscopy reveals ~ 165 X-ray
  bright stars with V lsim 23. Roughly 142 have optical magnitudes and
  colors consistent with cluster membership. The observed distribution
  of L<SUB>x</SUB> peaks at L<SUB>x</SUB> ~ 10<SUP>30.3</SUP> erg
  s<SUP>-1</SUP> and likely traces the bright edge of a far larger
  population of ≈ 0.4-2 M <SUB>sun</SUB> X-ray active stars. From a
  short list of X-ray active stars with IRAC 8 μm excess from warm,
  terrestrial zone dust, we derive a maximum X-ray flux incident on
  forming terrestrial planets. Although there is no correlation between
  X-ray activity and IRAC excess, the fractional X-ray luminosity
  correlates with optical colors and spectral type. By comparing the
  distribution of L<SUB>x</SUB> /L <SUB>sstarf</SUB> versus spectral
  type and V - I in h Per with results for other 1-100 Myr-old clusters,
  we show that stars slightly more massive than the Sun (gsim 1.5 M
  <SUB>sun</SUB>) fall out of X-ray saturation by ≈ 10-15 Myr. Changes
  in stellar structure for gsim 1.5 M <SUB>sun</SUB> stars likely play
  an important role in this decline of X-ray emission.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Comets, Charisma, and Celebrity: Reflections on Their Deep
    Impact
Authors: Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2009diwo.conf...41O    Altcode:
  In celebration of the Deep Impact Mission, this essay explores the
  influence of comets on the arts and sciences since the beginning of
  recorded time. Through images, ranging from the sublime to the humorous,
  it probes the reasons why comets are among the most charismatic visual
  spectacles in the universe and why, even as scientific missions unmask
  their mysteries, they remain iconic symbols and harbingers of change.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Division XII / Commission 46 / Program Group World-Wide
    Development of Astronomy
Authors: Hearnshaw, John B.; Batten, Alan H.; Alsabti, A. Athem;
   Fierro, Julieta; Guinan, Edward F.; Kozai, Yoshihide; Levato, Hugo;
   Malasan, Hakim L.; Marschall, Laurence A.; Martinez, Peter; Narlikar,
   Jayant V.; Osório, J. Pereira; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Perkins, D. Kala;
   Zhu, Jin
2009IAUTA..27..429H    Altcode:
  The Program Group for World-wide Development of Astronomy (PG-WWDA) is
  one of nine Commission 46 program groups engaged with various aspects
  of astronomical education or development of astronomy education and
  research in the developing world. In the case of PG-WWDA, its goals
  are to promote astronomy education and research in the developing
  world through a variety of activities, including visiting astronomers
  in developing countries and interacting with them by way of giving
  encouragement and support.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pluto Stellar Occultation on 2008 Aug 25
Authors: Buie, Marc W.; Young, L. A.; Young, E. F.; Olkin, C. B.;
   Terrell, D.; Parker, J. W.; Durda, D.; Stansberry, J. A.; Reitsema,
   H.; French, R. G.; Shoemaker, K.; Brown, M. E.; Schaller, E. L.;
   Bauer, J. M.; Young, J. W.; Wasserman, L. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Lust,
   N.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Dellinger, J. A.; Garossino, P. G. A.; Grigsby,
   B.; Stone, R. P. S.; Dillon, W. G.; Mezzalira, F.; Ryan, E. V.; Ryan,
   W.; Souza, S. P.; Williams, R.; Sexton, C.
2009DPS....40.4805B    Altcode: 2009BAAS...41..562B
  We report on a successful occultation of a star by Pluto that was
  observable over much of the south and western United States. The
  centerline was close to WIRO. We will present seven complete
  lightcurves from Crossley/Lick, WIRO, SBO/CU, Palomar, JPL/TMO,
  Sierra Stars Obs., and Magdalena Ridge Observatory. We have 2
  partial lightcurves from Lowell Obs. and McDonald Obs. where data
  loss was caused by clouds. There were attempts at the Steward 90",
  George Observatory, and New Mexico Skies that were clouded out. The
  UCF station near Orlando was clearly an appulse. A number of other
  amateurs also succeeded in collecting data. Our presentation will
  provide a final geometric solution for the event as well as baseline
  fits to the atmospheric structure. This work was supported by NASA
  Planetary Astronomy grants NNX08AO626 and NNX08AO50G.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Commission 46: Astronomy Education and Development
Authors: Stavinschi, Magdalena G.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.;
   Andersen, Johannes; Deustua, Susana E.; De Greve, Jean-Pierre; Guinan,
   Edward F.; Haubold, Hans J.; Hearnshaw, John B.; Jones, Barrie W.;
   Kochhar, Rajesh K.; Leung, Kam-Ching; Marschall, Laurence A.; Percy,
   John R.; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia
2009IAUTA..27..424S    Altcode:
  Commission 46 continues its task in the triennium, which started in
  September 2006. It seeks to further contribute to the development and
  improvement of astronomical education at all levels all over the world
  through various projects initiated, maintained and to be developed by
  the Commission, and by disseminating information concerning astronomy
  education.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Waves in Pluto's Upper Atmosphere
Authors: Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Zuluaga,
   C. A.; Babcock, B. A.; McKay, A. J.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.;
   Hubbard, W. B.; Kulesa, C. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.;
   Levine, S. E.; Bosh, A. S.; Ryan, E. V.; Ryan, W. H.; Meyer, A.;
   Wolf, J.; Hill, J.
2008AJ....136.1510P    Altcode:
  Observations of the 2007 March 18 occultation of the star P445.3
  (2UCAC 25823784; R = 15.3) by Pluto were obtained at high time
  resolution at five sites across the western United States and reduced
  to produce light curves for each station using standard aperture
  photometry. Global models of Pluto's upper atmosphere are fitted
  simultaneously to all resulting light curves. The results of these
  model fits indicate that the structure of Pluto's upper atmosphere is
  essentially unchanged since the previous occultation observed in 2006,
  leading to a well-constrained measurement of the atmospheric half-light
  radius at 1291 ± 5 km. These results also confirm that the significant
  increase in atmospheric pressure detected between 1988 and 2002 has
  ceased. Inversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory light
  curves with unprecedented signal-to-noise ratios reveals significant
  oscillations in the number density, pressure, and temperature profiles
  of Pluto's atmosphere. Detailed analysis of this highest resolution
  light curve indicates that these variations in Pluto's upper atmospheric
  structure exhibit a previously unseen oscillatory structure with
  strong correlations of features among locations separated by almost
  1200 km in Pluto's atmosphere. Thus, we conclude that these variations
  are caused by some form of large-scale atmospheric waves. Interpreting
  these oscillations as Rossby (planetary) waves allows us to establish an
  upper limit of less than 3 m s<SUP>-1</SUP> for horizontal wind speeds
  in the sampled region (radius 1340-1460 km) of Pluto's upper atmosphere.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Total Solar Irradiance at the 2006 Transit of Mercury and
    Application to Transiting-Exoplanet Observations
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Willson, R. C.
2008DPS....40.1119P    Altcode: 2008BAAS...40..404P
  Following our earlier work on the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) at
  the 2004 transit of Venus, in which an 0.4 percent drop in TSI was
  readily detectable with the ACRIM3 instrument on NASA's ACRIMsat,
  we report on ACRIM3 observations of the 29 November 2006 transit
  of Mercury. We also observed the transit from Haleakala and from
  Sacramento Peak. Mercury's cross-sectional angular area is only 1/30th
  that of Venus's, so the expected drop in TSI was only 0.01 percent. As
  expected, this tiny drop was not detected, though detailed statistical
  analysis continues. Our Venus and Mercury transit observations provide
  closeup views of phenomena increasingly observed for exoplanets and
  provide examples by which one can assess the limits at which exoplanet
  discoveries can be made with the transit method. Acknowledgments:
  JMP's planetary occultation work and the POETS instrument (Portable
  Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System) were funded in part by NASA
  Planetary Astronomy grants NNG04GE48G, NNG04GF25G, NNH04ZSS001N,
  and NNG05GG75G to M.I.T. and Williams College, and continues under
  NNX08AO50G. Our transit work was funded in part by the Committee for
  Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. ACRIMsat
  is supported by a grant from NASA to Columbia University.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Probing small bodies in the outer solar system with stellar
    occultations
Authors: Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Gulbis,
   A. A. S.
2008epsc.conf..588P    Altcode:
  We present a summary of results from the last decade of stellar
  occultation studies by members of the MITWilliams consortium. Research
  goals included investigations of the atmospheres and figures of small
  bodies in the outer solar system, focusing on Triton, Pluto, and
  Charon. We concentrated on the prediction, observation, and analysis
  of stellar occultations by these bodies. The method of observing
  stellar occultations provides higher spatial resolution than any
  other Earth-based observing method when examining bodies in the outer
  solar system. It also allows for direct measurements of atmospheric
  conditions, if any, as the observed starlight is refracted through
  the atmospheres of these planetary bodies during the occultation. This
  large spatial resolution (about 1 km in the atmosphere of Pluto) and
  direct interaction with any atmosphere allows for great sensitivity to
  the detailed pressure/temperature structure of a planetary atmosphere,
  and multiple observations over several years allow the monitoring of
  changes to that structure.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Observations and Chemical Modelling of Edge Cloud 2
Authors: Ruffle, P. M. E.; Millar, T. J.; Roberts, H.; Lubowich,
   D. A.; Henkel, C.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Brammer, G.
2008ASPC..395..377R    Altcode:
  Edge Cloud 2 (EC2) is a large molecular cloud with one of the largest
  galactocentric distances known in the Milky Way (R<SUB>gc</SUB>̃24
  kpc). We use observations of EC2 to determine its physical
  characteristics. A temperature of 20 K was estimated from our ammonia
  detections and a gas density of n({H}<SUB>2</SUB>) ̃ 10<SUP>4</SUP>
  cm<SUP>-3</SUP> was determined by comparing LVG models of a number
  of species to their deconvolved line detections. Taking the clumpy
  structure of EC2 into account, we also calculated M<SUB>EC2</SUB>
  ̃ 10<SUP>4</SUP> M<SUB>sun</SUB>, and from peak continuum emission
  we calculated a dust mass for EC2 and a dust-to-gas mass ratio ≥
  0.001. To establish the most likely chemical and physical properties
  of EC2, we made a pseudo-time-dependent chemical kinetic model. This
  uses our observationally derived temperatures and densities, and varies
  elemental initial abundances, photon flux, cosmic-ray ionisation rate
  and gas-to-dust ratio in an attempt to fit the observed results. We
  found that heavy elements may be depleted by a factor of ̃5 relative
  to local molecular clouds. The models also suggest a high UV photon
  field in EC2 (10-20× local values). Some of our models indicate that
  steady-state is reached very quickly after around 5,000 yr. Our observed
  high abundances of the radicals C<SUB>2</SUB>H and CN are typical of
  photon-dominated regions. This may be related to a large value of the
  UV flux to grain surface area compared to local clouds. Our best-fit
  models are consistent with reduced elemental abundances and a low
  dust-to-gas mass ratio. Such reduced abundances may be attributed
  to the low level of star formation in this region, and are probably
  also related to the continuing infall of low-metallicity halo gas
  since the Milky Way formed. Although EC2 does contain young stars,
  there is no evidence of the late-type stars which produce dust grains,
  thereby justifying the assumption of a high ratio of UV flux to grain
  surface area. We conclude that, despite the position of EC2 in the
  Galaxy, UV photons (rather than cosmic rays) play an important role
  in establishing its detailed chemical composition. Given that EC2 is
  in a region of extremely low gas pressure and very small spiral arm
  perturbation, questions remain as to the origin of its morphology and
  dynamics. A SNR associated with EC2, GSH 138-01-94, is the largest
  and oldest SNR known in the Milky Way. It consists of a H I shell
  with an expansion velocity of ̃12 km s<SUP>-1</SUP> and an expansion
  age of 4.3 Myr, so EC2 could be as young as the ages derived from our
  time-dependent calculations. We conclude that the formation, structure,
  and subsequent chemistry of EC2 may be the direct result of shock fronts
  from GSH 138-01-94 propagating through the medium between 10<SUP>3</SUP>
  and 10<SUP>4</SUP> yr ago.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Polar Plume Brightening During the 2006 March 29 Total Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Druckmüller, M.;
   Druckmüllerová, H.; Bělík, M.; Saniga, M.; Minarovjech, M.;
   Marková, E.; Babcock, B. A.; Souza, S. P.; Levitt, J. S.
2008ApJ...682..638P    Altcode:
  We discuss a remarkable brightening in a polar plume, as inferred
  from unique coordinated observations of the white-light corona
  during the total eclipse of the Sun of 2006 March 29. The polar
  plume (also known as a polar ray, with distinctions that we discuss)
  was observed at the positional angle of 9° the velocity at which
  the brightening propagated was about 65 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>, which is
  close to the values derived by modeling of mass/energy transfer in
  polar plumes/rays as well as to those acquired from images from the
  Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on the European Space Agency/NASA
  Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO/EIT). Comparing our data with
  those from the SOHO/LASCO C2 coronagraph, we estimate the lifetime of
  the polar ray to be less than 24 hr.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Innovation in Astronomy Education
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi
2008iae..book.....P    Altcode:
  Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching:
  Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy
  by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth
  in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to
  pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy;
  7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational
  opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy
  to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of
  stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts
  of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture;
  13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by
  distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur
  astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate
  around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and
  sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and
  the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a
  general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy
  with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division
  XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting;
  24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and
  the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a
  word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy;
  26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing
  astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster
  abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information
  Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program;
  29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects;
  30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student
  research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian
  study; 32. Visualizing large astronomical data holdings; Poster
  abstracts; Part IV. Practical Issues Connected with the Implementation
  of the 2003 IAU Resolution: Introduction; 33. Stellar evolution for
  students of Moscow University; 34. Astronomy for everybody: An approach
  from the CASAO/NAUH view; 35. Toward a new program in astronomy
  education in secondary schools in Turkey; 36. Universe awareness
  for young children; 37. Education in Egypt and Egyptian responses to
  eclipses; 38. Astronomy in the cultural heritage of African societies;
  39. Education at the Pierre Auger Observatory: the cinema as a tool in
  science education; 40. Freshman seminars: interdisciplinary engagements
  in astronomy; 41. Astronomy for teachers; Poster abstracts; Conclusion.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Simultaneous SoHO and TRACE Observations of the Solar
    Atmosphere
Authors: Tingle, E. D.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2008AGUSMSP31C..04T    Altcode:
  From May 24-27, 2004, the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE)
  and the Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER)
  instrument aboard Solar and Heliospheric Observer (SoHO) simultaneously
  observed the northwest and southwest regions of the sun. Through SUMER's
  measurements, we made detailed velocity measurements from different
  layers of the solar atmosphere corresponding to different temperatures
  and emission lines. Original programs written in Interactive Data
  Language (IDL) revealed maximum and minimum velocities within the region
  populated by spicules from 2,000-10,000 km above the solar limb. These
  values were compared to TRACE observations taken in 1600 Å, which
  revealed a strong coronal loop feature with a strong blueshifted Si II
  (1533.4 Å) emission line and a simultaneously strong redshifted C
  IV (1548.2 Å) emission line suggesting differing flows of material
  at different temperatures within the loop feature. In this paper, we
  seek to further our knowledge of coronal loop evolution and dynamics,
  specifically the observed differing temperature flows. We thank Ingolf
  Dammasch for his expertise. Obtaining the data was supported in part
  by NASA grant NNG04GK44G and the current reduction work is supported in
  part by NASA grant NNM07AA01G from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Using SST and TRACE Observations to Test Spicule Models
Authors: Jacobson, W. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2008AGUSMSP43B..02J    Altcode:
  Spicules are jets of plasma that rise out of the solar photosphere at
  between 10 and 150 km/s to a maximum height of about 10,000 km. These
  jets, which typically live between five and fifteen minutes, make
  up the chromosphere and contribute to the heating of the lower solar
  atmosphere. Using Interactive Data Language (IDL) for image alignment
  and the processing program ImageJ, we were able to determine spicule
  statistics from observations taken at the solar limb with the Swedish
  1-m Solar Telescope (SST) in July 2006. In addition, Dopplergram movies
  allowed for a more complete understanding of spicule formation, motions,
  and evolution. This understanding was further enhanced by comparing
  simultaneous SST and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE)
  images, which allowed us to link corresponding spicule-related events
  in different layers of the solar atmospheric. We consider our results
  in terms of recent spicule models. We thank Mats Lofdahl of the Royal
  Swedish Academy of Sciences for his work on Multi-Object Multi-Frame
  Blind Deconvolution of the SST data. Obtaining the data was supported
  in part by NASA grant NNG04GK44G and the current reduction work is
  supported in part by NASA grant NNM07AA01G from NASA's Marshall Space
  Flight Center.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Chromosphere and Corona for Research and Education
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2008mear.confE..29P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hinode's Solar Wonderland
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2008S&T...115d..64P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Recent Stellar Occultation Observations Using High-Speed,
    Portable Camera Systems
Authors: Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Babcock,
   B. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.; Zuluaga, C. A.
2008AIPC..984...91G    Altcode:
  We have recently constructed six observing systems identified as POETS
  (Portable Occultation Eclipse and Transit System[1]). These systems
  are optimized for (i) high-speed, high signal-to-noise observations
  at visible wavelengths and (ii) easy transport, to allow mounting
  on telescopes worldwide. The Andor iXon cameras have e2v CCD97
  (frame transfer) sensors: a 512×512 array of 16-micron pixels, back
  illuminated, with peak quantum efficiency &gt;90%. The maximum readout
  rate is 32 full frames per second, while binning and subframing can
  increase the cadence to a few hundred frames per second. Read noise
  in conventional modes goes below 6 electrons per pixel. Further,
  an electron-multiplying mode can effectively reduce the read noise
  to sub-electron levels, at the expense of dynamic range. The cameras
  are operated via a desktop computer that contains a 3 GHz Pentium 4
  processor, 2 GB memory, and a 10,000 rpm hard disk. Images are triggered
  from a GPS receiver and have an approximately 50 nanosecond timing
  uncertainty. Each POETS can be transported as carry-on luggage. Here,
  we present instrument details, along with recent results from their
  use in stellar occultation observations by small bodies in the outer
  solar system. Occultations can produce data of the highest spatial
  resolution for any Earth-based observing method; therefore, they play
  a key role in determining diameters of distant solar-system bodies
  and probing the structure of atmospheres at the microbar level. We
  discuss POETS deployments in 2005-2007 to observe stellar occultations
  by Charon and Pluto (on 0.6- to 6.5-m telescopes) and future work on
  occultations by Kuiper Belt objects.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Division Xii: Union-Wide Activities
Authors: Trimble, Virginia L.; Andersen, Johannes; Aksnes, Kaare;
   Genova, Françoise; Gurshtein, Alexander A.; Johansson, Sveneric;
   Pasachoff, Jay M.; Smith, Malcolm G.
2007IAUTB..26..211T    Altcode:
  Division XII consists of Commissions that formerly were organized under
  the Executive Committee, that concern astronomers across a wide range of
  scientific sub-disciplines and provide interactions with scientists in a
  wider community, including governmental organizations, outside the IAU.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Galactic Edge Clouds. I. Molecular Line Observations and
    Chemical Modeling of Edge Cloud 2
Authors: Ruffle, P. M. E.; Millar, T. J.; Roberts, H.; Lubowich,
   D. A.; Henkel, C.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Brammer, G.
2007ApJ...671.1766R    Altcode: 2007arXiv0708.2740R
  Edge Cloud 2 (EC2) is a molecular cloud, about 35 pc in size, with one
  of the largest galactocentric distances known to exist in the Milky
  Way. We present observations of a peak CO emission region in the cloud
  and use these to determine its physical characteristics. We calculate a
  gas temperature of 20 K and a density of n(H<SUB>2</SUB>)~10<SUP>4</SUP>
  cm<SUP>-3</SUP>. Based on our CO maps, we estimate the mass of EC2
  at around 10<SUP>4</SUP> M<SUB>solar</SUB> and continuum observations
  suggest a dust-to-gas mass ratio as low as 0.001. Chemical models have
  been developed to reproduce the abundances in EC2, and they indicate
  that heavy element abundances may be reduced by a factor of 5 relative
  to the solar neighborhood (similar to dwarf irregular galaxies and
  damped Lyα systems), very low extinction (A<SUB>V</SUB>&lt;4 mag) due
  to a very low dust-to-gas mass ratio, an enhanced cosmic-ray ionization
  rate, and a higher UV field compared to local interstellar values. The
  reduced abundances may be attributed to the low level of star formation
  in this region and are probably also related to the continuing infall
  of primordial (or low-metallicity) halo gas since the Milky Way
  formed. Finally, we note that shocks from the old supernova remnant
  GSH 138-01-94 may have determined the morphology and dynamics of EC2.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fifty Years Later: My New York City Moonwatch Observations
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2007AAS...211.2301P    Altcode: 2007BAAS...39..774P
  When Sputnik was launched on October 4, 1957, I was a member of the New
  York City Moonwatch team through the Amateur Astronomers Association. As
  14-year-old sophomore at the Bronx High School of Science, I took the
  subway, the D train, from the Bronx to the RCA building in Rockefeller
  Center, where we observed from the roof. I remember our line or lines
  of elbow telescopes and our eventual success in detecting Sputnik
  overhead. My talk will include my recent reminiscences as a letter
  to the editor of The New York Times; the certificate that the Amateur
  Astronomers Association gave to the Pulkovo Observatory in what is now
  St. Petersburg, Russia; and a survey of Moonwatch history. I will also
  share reminiscences reported from some colleagues.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Commission 46: Astronomy Education and Development
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Jones, Barrie W.; Hearnshaw, John B.;
   Gerbaldi, Michèle; Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Tolbert, Charles R.;
   Percy, John R.
2007IAUTB..26..230P    Altcode:
  The International Astronomical Union (IAU) was founded in 1922 to
  “promote and safeguard astronomy . . . and to develop it through
  international co-operation”. The IAU is funded through its National
  Members. Almost all of the funds supplied from the dues are used for
  the development of astronomy.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Executive Committee Working Group Young Astronomers Events
Authors: Gerbaldi, Michèle; De Greve, Jean-Pierre; Dovčiak,
   Michal; Engvold, Oddbjørn; Guinan, Edward F.; Hearnshaw, John B.;
   Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Percy, John R.; Ribas,
   Ignasi; White, James C.; Dovčiak, Michal; Goosmann, René; Pecháček,
   Tomáš; Stoklasová, Ivana
2007IAUTB..26..242G    Altcode:
  At the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 2003, a questionnaire
  on the perception of participation of “young astronomers” at IAU
  meeting was distributed. Following the conclusions from the analysis of
  this questionnaire, the IAU EC recommended in 2004 that the “young
  astronomers” concept at the next GA in Prague should be worked out
  with specific activities.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book review: The Sun Kings: The Unexpected Tragedy of Richard
    Carrington and the Tale of How Modern Astronomy Began / Princeton
    University Press, Princeton and Oxford, xii + 211 pp., 2007, ISBN
    978-0-691-12660-9.
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Pasachoff, Naomi
2007JHA....38..524P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Electron-Multiplying CCD Imaging: Effectiveness for Stellar
    Occultations by Faint Objects
Authors: Gulbis, Amanda A.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Souza,
   S. P.; Babcock, B. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; McKay, A. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.
2007DPS....39.3408G    Altcode: 2007BAAS...39..480G
  Our Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit Systems (POETS; Souza et
  al. 2006, PASP 118, 1550) have been successfully employed for multiple
  stellar occultation observations: (i) four systems obtained data in
  South America during the 11 July 2005 occultation of C313.2 (2UCAC
  26257135) by Charon (Gulbis et al. 2006, Nature 439, 48; Person et
  al. 2006, AJ 132 1575); (ii) four systems obtained data in Australia
  during the 2006 June 12 occultation of P384.2 (2UCAC 26039859) by Pluto
  (Elliot et al. 2007, AJ 134, 1), and (iii) three systems were utilized
  in the Southwestern U.S. for the 2007 March 18 occultation of P445.2
  (2UCAC 25823784) by Pluto (Person et al. 2007, this meeting). Pluto
  and Charon have apparent V magnitudes of 14 and 16, and the stars for
  these events had UCAC magnitudes of 14.99 to 15.25. These events were
  bright enough to achieve fair to excellent signal-to-noise ratios
  (SNRs) at cadences between 2 and 10 Hz by using "conventional”
  camera modes. POETS also possess electron-multiplying (EM) readout
  modes, which we have not yet employed for occultation observations
  because conventional modes have been more than adequate. EM modes have
  higher read noise, generate an excess noise factor, and limit dynamic
  range; however, signal can be increased by a factor of up to 1000x,
  and read noise is effectively eliminated at high EM gain. Here, we
  explore the benefits and disadvantages of using EM capability for
  observations of stellar occultations by faint bodies. We focus on
  prospective occultations by Kuiper Belt objects, predictions of which
  are increasingly numerous as fainter stars are considered. We identify
  regimes in which EM modes are most effective by analyzing SNR as a
  function of exposure time and object/star magnitudes. This work is
  supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNG04GF25G and NNG04GE48G.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: High Altitude Structure in Pluto's Atmosphere from the 2007
    March 18 Stellar Occultation
Authors: Person, Michael J.; Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A. A.; Zuluaga,
   C. A.; Babcock, B. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; McKay, A. J.; Souza, S. P.;
   Hubbard, W. B.; Kulesa, C. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Kern, S. D.; Levine,
   S. E.; Bosh, A. S.; Ryan, E. V.; Ryan, W. H.; Meyer, A.; Wolf, J.;
   Hill, J. M.
2007DPS....39.5214P    Altcode: 2007BAAS...39..519P
  Visible wavelength observations were made of the 2007 March 18 Pluto
  occultation of the star P445.3 (UCAC2 25823784; McDonald and Elliot,
  AJ 120, 1599) from five US sites by our consortium (Pasachoff, et al.,
  2007, this meeting). Simultaneous model fitting to all of our light
  curve data yielded 1207 ± 4 km as the half-light shadow radius of
  Pluto's atmosphere. This radius is consistent with the 1208 ± 9 km
  result measured in 2006 (Elliot, et al., AJ 134,1) and confirms that
  the large increase in atmospheric pressure measured between the 1988
  and 2002 (Elliot, et al., Nature 424,165 Sicardy, et al., Nature 424,
  168) observations has ceased. Inversion of the highest signal-to-noise
  visible light curve, obtained with the Portable Occultation Eclipse
  and Transit Systems (POETS; Souza, et al., PASP 118, 1550) at the
  6.5-m MMT (MMTO, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Mt. Hopkins)
  resulted in number density, pressure, and temperature profiles for
  Pluto's atmosphere in the radius range of 1340 - 1460 km (assuming the
  dominant atmospheric component is N<SUB>2</SUB>). These inversions
  reveal oscillating deviations of the number density from a simple
  exponential profile in Pluto's upper atmosphere that are coherent
  across the 1000 km length of the grazing occultation and also in the
  300 km line of sight. Here, we interpret this structure as vertically
  propagating waves in Pluto's upper atmosphere, and provide a feasible
  mechanism for the maintenance of this large-scale coherence in terms
  of Rossby planetary waves. This work was partially funded by NASA
  Planetary Astronomy grants NNG04GE48G, NNG04GF25G, NNH04ZSS001N, and
  NNG05GG75G. Partial funding for MMTO observations was also provided by
  Astronomy Camp. Some of the observations reported here were obtained
  at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona
  and the Smithsonian Institution.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Observational Results from the 2007 March 18 Pluto Stellar
    Occultation
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Souza, S. P.; McKay,
   A. J.; Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A. A.; Zuluaga, C. A.;
   Hill, J. M.; Ryan, E. V.; Ryan, W. H.
2007DPS....39.6203P    Altcode: 2007BAAS...39Q.541P
  Our consortium observed the 5-minute occultation by Pluto of the star
  we call P445.3 (2UCAC 25823784, UCAC magnitude 15.3; McDonald and
  Elliot, 2000, AJ 120, 1599) from sites in the American southwest on
  2007 March 17/18 (18 March, UT). Shadow velocity was 6.8 km/s. The
  2007 occultation grazed the atmosphere. We were able to use one of
  the 8.4-m mirrors of the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, still
  in its engineering stage, though only with its facility guide camera
  and not with our Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System
  (POETS) CCD/GPS/computer instruments (Souza et al., 2006, PASP 118,
  1550). Because of the accurate GPS timing, we were able to align
  the light curve obtained, which included only the second half of
  the occultation, with results from other telescopes, including the
  visible, beamsplit light curve obtained by our group with the 6.5-m
  MMT (Person et al., 2007, this meeting). We also used, with POETS, the
  2.4-m Magdalena Ridge Observatory near Socorro, New Mexico; a partial
  light curve was obtained despite variable cloudiness throughout the
  80 min observation. The location of this telescope was the farthest
  into the occultation path, and thus led to the deepest incursion
  into Pluto's atmosphere of the starlight of the major telescopes we
  used. Light curves were generated by frame-by-frame synthetic-aperture
  photometry. The large increase in atmospheric pressure we had earlier
  measured at the 2002 occultation compared with measurements at the
  first successful Pluto occultation, in 1988, has ceased, as shown by
  both the 2006 and the current, 2007 measurements. Acknowledgments:
  We thank Richard Green for granting Director's Discretionary time for
  the LBT observations. This work was partially funded by NASA Planetary
  Astronomy grants NNG05GG75G, NNG04GE48G, NNG04GF25G, and NNH04ZSS001N
  to Williams College and to MIT.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fine Structures in the White-Light Solar Corona at the
    2006 Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Druckmüller, M.; Saniga, M.
2007ApJ...665..824P    Altcode:
  Observations of the total solar eclipse of 2006 March 29, as it crossed
  Africa from southwest to northeast into a Greek island and beyond,
  allowed correlations with near-simultaneous coronal observations
  from several spacecraft, including SOHO and TRACE. New methods of
  compositing images allow the recovery of higher resolution (1"-2")
  on coronal features than had normally been available in the past,
  reaching substantially higher resolutions than are currently available
  from space. We discuss a variety of the new methods and observations,
  and use them to provide the most detailed portrait possible of the Sun,
  at least on 2006 March 29.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Special Session 2 Innovation in teaching and learning astronomy
Authors: Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2007HiA....14..541R    Altcode:
  On August 17 and 18, 2006, Commission 46 on Astronomy Education and
  Development held a Special Session at the IAU XXVI General Assembly
  in Prague. The session, on Innovation in Teaching/Learning Astronomy,
  was organized around four themes: (i) general strategies for effective
  teaching, (ii) connecting astronomy with the public, (iii) effective
  use of instruction and information technology, and (iv) practical
  issues connected with the implementation of the 2003 IAU Resolution
  that recommended including astronomy in school curricula, assisting
  schoolteachers in their training and backup, and informing them about
  available resources. Approximately 40 papers were presented orally;
  in addition, 60 poster papers were displayed.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Changes in Pluto's Atmosphere: 1988-2006
Authors: Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Souza, S. P.;
   Adams, E. R.; Babcock, B. A.; Gangestad, J. W.; Jaskot, A. E.; Kramer,
   E. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Pike, R. E.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Bosh, A. S.;
   Dieters, S. W.; Francis, P. J.; Giles, A. B.; Greenhill, J. G.; Lade,
   B.; Lucas, R.; Ramm, D. J.
2007AJ....134....1E    Altcode:
  The 2006 June 12 occultation of the star P384.2 (2UCAC 26039859)
  by Pluto was observed from five sites in southeastern Australia
  with high-speed imaging photometers that produced time-series CCD
  images. Light curves were constructed from the image time series and
  fit by least-squares methods with model light curves. A new modeling
  procedure is presented that allows a simultaneous fit of the atmospheric
  parameters for Pluto and the astrometric parameters for the occultation
  to all of the light curves. Under the assumption of a clear atmosphere
  and using this modeling procedure to establish the upper atmosphere
  boundary condition, immersion and emersion temperature profiles were
  derived by inversion of the Siding Spring light curve, which had
  our best signal-to-noise ratio. Above ~1230 km radius, atmospheric
  temperatures are ~100 K and decrease slightly with altitude-the same
  as observed in 1988 and 2002. Below 1210 km, the temperature abruptly
  decreases with altitude (gradients ~2.2 K km<SUP>-1</SUP>), which
  would reach the expected N<SUB>2</SUB> surface-ice temperature of
  ~40 K in the 1158-1184 km radius range. This structure is similar
  to that observed in 2002, but a much stronger thermal gradient
  (or stronger extinction) is implied by the 1988 light curve (which
  shows a “kink” or “knee” at 1210 km). The temperature profiles
  derived from inversion of the present data show good agreement with a
  physical model for Pluto's atmosphere selected from those presented
  by Strobel et al. (1996). Constraints derived from the temperature
  profiles (and considering the possibility of a deep troposphere)
  yield a value of 1152+/-32 km for Pluto's surface radius. This value
  is compared with surface-radius values derived from the series of
  mutual occultations and eclipses that occurred in 1985-1989, and the
  limitations of both types of measurements for determining Pluto's
  surface radius are discussed. The radius of Pluto's atmospheric shadow
  at the half-intensity point is 1207.9+/-8.5 km, the same as obtained
  in 2002 within measurement error. Values of the shadow radius cast
  by Pluto's atmosphere in 1988, 2002, and 2006 favor frost migration
  models in which Pluto's surface has low thermal inertia. Those models
  imply a substantial atmosphere when New Horizons flies by Pluto in
  2015. Comparison of the shape of the stellar occultation light curves
  in 1988, 2002, and 2006 suggests that atmospheric extinction, which
  was strong in 1988 (15 months before perihelion), has been dissipating.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: High-spectral-resolution Observations of the Solar Chromosphere
    and Corona
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Bruck, M. A.
2007AAS...210.9507P    Altcode: 2007BAAS...39..224P
  We continue to reduce high-spectral-resolution observations of the
  solar chromosphere from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) and
  TRACE; and, at the 29 March 2006 total solar eclipse, of the solar
  corona in the [Fe XIV] green line and the [Fe X] red line. (a) The
  SST observations in 2006 used the SOUP Lyot filter to observe H-alpha
  limb spicules in five positions with 128 milliangstrom resolution for
  velocity imaging with several cameras to allow restoration of even
  noisy images. One camera is near H-alpha, providing high S/N images for
  extracting wavefront information. The other is deliberately defocused
  for Phase Diversity information. We use Multi-Object Multi-Frame
  Blind Deconvolution (MOMFBD; momfbd.org), assisted by Michiel Van
  Noort and Mats Löfdahl (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) and the
  CfA Hinode center. Simultaneous TRACE observations show spicules in
  emission and, silhouetted against the EUV corona, in absorption. (b)
  Our Fabry-Perot 2006-eclipse coronal spectra were taken with David
  Rust's (JHUAPL) 0.16 angstrom Y-cut lithium-niobate filter. With Rust
  and Matthew Noble, the etalon was stepped across the red coronal line
  every 0.22 angstrom. We present the profile and Doppler shifts of the
  [Fe X] line. (c) We collected simultaneous 10 Hz observations in the
  red and green coronal lines at the 2006 eclipse, with the goal of
  detecting high-frequency intensity oscillations ( 1 Hz), which can
  be relevant to coronal heating, and to confirm previous results. We
  present FFT and wavelet analysis of the aligned data. We thank Bryce
  Babcock and Steven Souza (Williams) for their eclipse collaboration. We
  acknowledge grants NNG04GK44G, NNG04GE48G, and NN05GG75G from NASA
  Planetary Astronomy. The eclipse observations were supported by NSF
  grant ATM-0552116 from the Solar Terrrestrial Program of the Atmospheres
  Sciences Division. Additional eclipse support was received from National
  Geographic's Committee on Research and Exploration and Williams's Rob
  Spring Fund.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: (134340) Pluto
Authors: Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Zuluaga,
   C. A.; Babcock, B. A.; McKay, A. J.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.;
   Hubbard, W. B.; Kulesa, C. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Kern, S. D.; Levine,
   S. E.; Bosh, A. S.; Ryan, E. V.; Ryan, W. H.; Meyer, A.; Wolf, J.
2007IAUC.8825....1P    Altcode: 2007IAUC.8825A...1P
  M. J. Person, J. L. Elliot, A. A. S. Gulbis, and C. A. Zuluaga,
  Massachusetts Institute of Technology; B. A. Babcock, A. J. McKay,
  J. M. Pasachoff, and S. P. Souza, Williams College; W. B. Hubbard,
  C. A. Kulesa, and D. W. McCarthy, University of Arizona; S. D. Kern,
  Space Telescope Science Institute; S. E. Levine, U.S. Naval Observatory;
  A. S. Bosh, Boston University; E. V. Ryan and W. H. Ryan, Magdalena
  Ridge Observatory; and A. Meyer and J. Wolf, SOFIA, report observations
  on Mar. 18 UT of an occultation by (134340) Pluto of the star/event
  called P445.3 by McDonald and Elliot (2000, A.J. 120, 1599; see also
  http://occult.mit.edu/research/occultations/Pluto/P445.3-preds/). The
  occultation was observed from five sites by their consortium (as well
  as by others). A preliminary astrometric solution based on the light
  curves from all of the stations places Pluto's shadow north of pre-event
  predictions. Based on this solution, the closest approach distance of
  the center of Pluto's shadow to their successful observation sites are
  as follows: Mount Hopkins, 1319 km; Magdalena Ridge, 1192 km; Fremont
  Peak, 1019 km; USNO Flagstaff Station, 1102 km; and Mt. Graham, 1258
  km. All closest-approach distances are south of Pluto's center in the
  shadow plane, perpendicular to the direction to the star and shifted
  by the same amount within the uncertainties. The formal error on the
  astrometric solution is +/- 4 km, but error bars of +/- 15 km account
  for possible systematic effects. The half-light shadow radius from
  this solution is 1207 +/- 15 km, consistent with the shadow radius of
  1208 +/- 10 km from 2006 (Elliot et al., A.J., in press).

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Observing solar eclipses in the developing world
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2007IAUSS...5..265P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Education at the International Astronomical Union Meeting -
    Prague Czech Republic
Authors: Ros, Rosa; Pasachoff, Jay
2007Spark...3...14R    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: St. Benedict Sees the Light: Asam's Solar Eclipses as Metaphor
Authors: Olson, Roberta J. M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2007ReArt..11..299O    Altcode:
  During the Baroque period, artists worked in a style - encouraged by
  the Roman Catholic Church and the Council of Trent - that revealed
  the divine in natural forms and made religious experiences more
  accessible. Cosmas Damian Asam, painter and architect, and his brother
  Egid (Aegid) Quirin Asam, sculptor and stuccatore, were the principal
  exponents of eighteenth-century, southern-German religious decoration
  and architecture in the grand manner, the Gesamtkunstwerk. Cosmas
  Damian's visionary and ecstatic art utilized light, both physical and
  illusionistic, together with images of meteorological and astronomical
  phenomena, such as solar and lunar eclipses. This paper focuses on his
  representations of eclipses and demonstrates how Asam was galvanized
  by their visual, as well as metaphorical power and that he studied a
  number of them. He subsequently applied his observations in a series
  of paintings for the Benedictine order that become increasingly
  astronomically accurate and spiritually profound. From the evidence
  presented, especially in three depictions of St. Benedict's vision,
  the artist harnessed his observations to visualize the literary
  description of the miraculous event in the Dialogues of St. Gregory
  the Great, traditionally a difficult scene to illustrate, even for
  Albrecht Dürer. Asam painted the trio at Einsiedeln, Switzerland
  (1724-27); Kladruby, the Czech Republic (1725-27), where he captured
  the solar corona and the "diamond-ring effect"; and Weltenburg, Germany
  (1735), where he also depicted the diamond-ring effect at a total
  solar eclipse. We conclude that his visualizations were informed by his
  personal observations of the solar eclipses on 12 May 1706, 22 May 1724,
  and 13 May 1733. Asam may have also known the eclipse maps of Edmond
  Halley and William Whiston that were issued in advance. Astronomers
  did not start studying eclipses scientifically until the nineteenth
  century, making Asam's depictions all the more fascinating. So powerful
  was the image that Asam invented to visualize St. Benedict's vision
  that it found reflection in the subsequent Bavarian Benedictine visual
  tradition. Total solar eclipses are among the most spectacular sights
  in Nature. Therefore, in an age obsessed with revealing the divine
  through natural idioms and making religious experiences direct - not
  to mention that light had long functioned as a symbol of divinity in
  the Christian tradition - it seems fitting that solar eclipses would
  be interpreted as a metaphor of a divine presence or a miracle.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The April 8, 2005, Eclipse White-Light Corona
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Kimmel, Shelby B.; Druckmüller, Miloslav;
   Rušin, Vojtech; Saniga, Metod
2006SoPh..238..261P    Altcode: 2006SoPh..tmp...71P
  The hybrid solar eclipse of April 8, 2005, provided a good opportunity
  to observe the white-light solar corona, even though the eclipse
  lasted just 30 seconds and could be seen only from ships in the Pacific
  Ocean. During the eclipse, we detected a unique ‘cloud’ of particles
  in the white-light corona above the west limb ≈260° 270°. We compare
  this feature with EUV images from SOHO. The feature’s density and
  temperature seem comparable to a coronal condensation, and, like a
  coronal condensation, it is connected to the emergence of material
  from the solar surface without a flare. However, the morphology of the
  feature shows clear differences from a classical coronal condensation.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: POETS: Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System
Authors: Souza, Steven P.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.;
   Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, Michael J.; Gangestad,
   Joseph W.
2006PASP..118.1550S    Altcode:
  Occultations of stars by small bodies in the outer solar system are
  opportunities to make high-resolution measurements of their geometries
  and orbital elements and to detect or probe their atmospheres. Such
  events are limited in space and time, so it is desirable to deploy
  highly capable camera systems on multiple fixed and/or portable
  telescopes anywhere in the world, potentially on short notice. Similar
  considerations apply to planetary transits and solar eclipses. We have
  designed a camera system called POETS (Portable Occultation, Eclipse,
  and Transit System), which is optimized for occultation and related
  observations, and have assembled five such systems. The core of this
  system is the Andor Technology DV-887 (now DU-897) frame-transfer
  camera, featuring a high frame rate, minimal dead time, high quantum
  efficiency, and low read noise. An electron-multiplying mode lowers
  effective read noise to below 1 e<SUP>-</SUP> pixel<SUP>-1</SUP>
  and is capable of photon counting. Each POETS includes a compact
  GPS timing system with microsecond accuracy, and a high-performance
  computer system capable of sustained fast frame rates. Each POETS is
  designed to be transportable as carry-on luggage and is adaptable to a
  wide variety of sites. POETS were deployed for the first time for the
  2005 July 11 Charon occultation event, and they performed extremely
  well on telescopes with apertures from 0.6 to 6.5 m. Three POETS
  were subsequently deployed for the 2006 March 29 total solar eclipse,
  and five for the 2006 June 12 Pluto occultation.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Charon's Radius and Density from the Combined Data Sets of
    the 2005 July 11 Occultation
Authors: Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Pasachoff,
   J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Souza, S. P.; Gangestad, J.
2006AJ....132.1575P    Altcode: 2006astro.ph..2082P
  The 2005 July 11 C313.2 stellar occultation by Charon was observed by
  three separate research groups, including our own, at observatories
  throughout South America. Here, the published timings from the three
  data sets have been combined to more accurately determine the mean
  radius of Charon: 606.0+/-1.5 km. Our analysis indicates that a
  slight oblateness in the body (0.006+/-0.003) best matches the data,
  with a confidence level of 86%. The oblateness has a pole position
  angle of 71.4d+/-10.4d and is consistent with Charon's pole position
  angle of 67°. Charon's mean radius corresponds to a bulk density of
  1.63+/-0.07 g cm<SUP>-3</SUP>, which is significantly less than Pluto's
  (1.92+/-0.12 g cm<SUP>-3</SUP>). This density differential favors an
  impact formation scenario for the system in which at least one of the
  impactors was differentiated. Finally, unexplained differences between
  chord timings measured at Cerro Pachón and the rest of the data set
  could be indicative of a depression as deep as 7 km on Charon's limb.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pluto's Atmospheric Structure: Results From The 2006 June 12
    Stellar Occultation
Authors: Gulbis, Amanda A.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Adams, E. R.;
   Kramer, E. A.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Pike, R. E.; Babcock, B. A.; Gangestad,
   J. W.; Jaskot, A. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.; Francis, P. J.;
   Lucas, R.; Bosh, A. S.; Ramm, D. J.; Greenhill, J. G.; Giles, A. B.;
   Dieters, S. W.
2006DPS....38.3101G    Altcode: 2006BAAS...38..541G
  Observations of the 2006 June 12 occultation by Pluto of P384.2
  (McDonald &amp; Elliot, AJ 120, 1599; UCAC2 26039859) were attempted by
  the MIT-Williams College collaboration from five sites in Australia and
  New Zealand. Four sites were successful: Black Springs, South Australia
  (0.8m); Mt. Canopus, Tasmania (1m); Mt. Stromlo, Australian Capital
  Territory (1.8m); and Siding Spring, New South Wales (2.3m). Data
  were recorded using Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit Systems
  (POETS; Souza et al., in preparation). Using these data, we characterize
  Pluto's atmosphere and compare our results to previous occultation
  observations. Above half-light level, the light curves exhibit the
  signature of an isothermal atmosphere. The scale height is consistent
  at 60 km, equivalent to a temperature of 110 K for an N<SUB>2</SUB>
  atmosphere. Below half-light level, the light curves resemble those
  obtained in 2002 (Pasachoff et al., AJ 129, 1718) more than 1988
  (Elliot et al., Icarus 77, 148). The data drop significantly below
  the isothermal curve at this level, due either to a thermal gradient
  or extinction (or some combination); however, the drop is not as
  abrupt as in 1988. Data from 2002 demonstrated that at least some
  extinction is at work, due to the wavelength dependence of the residual
  flux at the bottom of the light curves (Elliot et al., Nature 424,
  165). Unfortunately, we do not have multi-wavelength observations
  for P384.2. Our highest signal-to-noise ratio data, from the 2.3m,
  exhibit spikes caused by density variations in Pluto's atmosphere
  and interesting structure in the bottom of the light curve, when the
  star is probing around the limb more than vertically. Data from this
  event are also discussed in Elliot et al., a derivation of Pluto's
  atmospheric size, and Pasachoff et al., a search for satellites, rings
  and debris. Support partially provided by NASA grants NNG04GE48G,
  NNG04GF25G, and NNH04ZSS001N.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy through the years
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2006Natur.443..274P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Size of Pluto's Atmosphere As Revealed by the 2006 June
    12 Occultation
Authors: Elliot, James L.; Person, M. J.; Gulbis, A. A.; Adams,
   E. R.; Kramer, E. A.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Pike, R. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.;
   Souza, S. P.; Babcock, B. A.; Gangestad, J. W.; Jaskot, A. E.; Francis,
   P. J.; Lucas, R.; Bosh, A. S.; Giles, A. B.; Greenhill, J. G.; Dieters,
   S. W.; Ramm, D. J.
2006DPS....38.3102E    Altcode: 2006BAAS...38..541E
  Observations of the 2006 June 12 occultation of P384.2 (McDonald &amp;
  Elliot, AJ 120, 1599; aka UCAC2-26039859) were attempted at five sites
  by the MIT-Williams occultation group. Four were successful: the 0.8-m
  telescope at the Star Castle Observatory in Black Springs, the 1 m
  at the Mt. Canopus Observatory in Hobart, the 1.8 m at Mt. Stromlo,
  and the 2.3-m ANU telescope at Siding Spring. The data were recorded
  with our Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit Systems (POETS;
  Souza et al., in preparation). These telescopes were located on both
  sides of the centerline and yielded light curves of good to excellent
  signal-to-noise ratio, in spite of Pluto being located 15º deg from
  a 15.7 day-old-moon. Above the 0.50 stellar flux level (and somewhat
  below it), Pluto's atmosphere is well described by an isothermal
  model, having the same scale height (within the errors) at all of our
  stations. Thus the 0.50 flux level provides a well-defined, consistent
  fiducial for measuring the radius of Pluto's atmosphere. All eight
  occultation timings (immersion and emersion at each station) were used
  in a least-squares fit for the radius. Results will be compared with
  Pluto's atmospheric size in 2002 (Person et al., Icarus, submitted),
  which had expanded significantly from that reported in 1988 (Elliot
  et al., Nature 424, 165). Pluto's atmospheric structure as derived
  from these data is discussed in the abstract by Gulbis et al. and
  the use of these data to probe for unknown satellites and debris in
  the Pluto-Charon system is discussed in the abstract by Pasachoff
  et al. This work was partially supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy
  Grants NNG04GE48G, NNG04GF25G, and NNH04ZSS001N.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Search for Rings, Moons, or Debris in the Pluto System
    during the 2006 July 12 Occultation
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Souza, S. P.; Gangestad,
   J. W.; Jaskot, A. E.; Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A. A.; Person, M. J.;
   Kramer, E. A.; Adams, E. R.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Pike, R. E.; Francis,
   P. J.; Lucas, R.; Bosh, A. S.; Ramm, D. J.; Greenhill, J. G.; Giles,
   A. B.; Dieters, S. W.
2006DPS....38.2502P    Altcode: 2006BAAS...38..523P
  We examined our data runs from four sites for the 2006 July 12
  occultation of the star P384.2 (McDonald &amp; Elliot, AJ 120, 1599,
  2000; UCAC2 26039859), to search for moons, rings, or other debris
  in the Pluto system. Our data runs extended 80 minutes, or 115,200
  km. Motivated by the discovery of P1 (Hydra) and P2 (Nix), each
  approximately 50 km in diameter and thought to result from the same
  collision that formed Charon, S. A. Stern et al. (Nature 439, 946-948,
  2006) suggested that such matter might be detectable. Though their first
  estimate was unobservably low at 5×10<SUP>-6</SUP>, it could change
  by a factor of 10,000 or more in either direction (Stern, private
  communication). Our cloudless data sets, in declining order of S/N,
  used our Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit Systems (POETS;
  Souza et al., in preparation) and include those from the 2.3-m ANU
  telescope at Siding Spring, Australia; 0.8-m Black Springs telescope
  near Adelaide, and the 1.8-m EOS telescope at Mt. Stromlo; though
  the atmospheric observation time at the 1-m Mt. Canopus Telescope at
  Hobart could be recovered from the comparison stars, cloudy intervals
  prevent full recovery during the ring/debris possible interval. Our
  observing with the 1-m Mt. John University Observatory in New Zealand
  was rendered impossible by the lack of electricity resulting from a
  major snowstorm. For the ring/debris search, we also evaluated data
  from past Pluto (Pasachoff et al., AJ 129, 1718-1723, 2005) and Charon
  (Gulbis et al., Nature 439, 48-51, 2006) occultations. See also Elliot
  et al. and Gulbis et al. (this meeting). We thank Ian Ritchie of
  Electro Optic Systems (Mt. Stromlo Observatory), Ian Bedford, Lyndon
  Hemer, and Fraser Farrell (Black Springs Observatory), and Blair Lade
  (Stockport Observatory). This work was partially supported by NASA
  Planetary Astronomy Grants NNH04ZSS001N, NNG04GE48G, and NNG04GF25G.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Observing Solar Eclipses in the Developing World
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
2006IAUSS...5E..29P    Altcode:
  The paths of totality of total solar eclipses cross the world, with
  each spot receiving such a view about every 300 years. The areas of the
  world from which partial eclipses are visible are much wider. For the
  few days prior to a total eclipse, the attention of a given country
  is often drawn toward the eclipse, providing a teachable moment that
  we can use to bring astronomy to the public's attention. Also, it is
  important to describe how to observe the partial phases of the eclipse
  safely. Further, it is important to describe to those people in the
  zone of totality that it is not only safe but also interesting to view
  totality. Those who are misled by false warnings that overstate the
  hazards of viewing the eclipse, or that fail to distinguish between
  safe and unsafe times for naked-eye viewing, may well be skeptical when
  other health warnings--perhaps about AIDS or malaria prevention or polio
  inoculations--come from the authorities, meaning that the penalties
  for misunderstanding the astronomical event can be severe. Through the
  International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses and
  through the I.A.U.'s Program Group on Public Education at the Times
  of Eclipses, part of the Commission on Education and Development,
  we make available information to national authorities, to colleagues
  in the relevant countries, and to others, through our Websites at
  http://www.eclipses.info and http://www.totalsolareclipse.net and
  through personal communication. Among our successes at the 29 March
  2006 total solar eclipse was the distribution through a colleague in
  Nigeria of 400,000 eye-protection filters.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fabry-Perot Interferometric Study of the Green Coronal line
    during the Total Eclipse of 2001 from Zambia
Authors: Chandrasekhar, T.; Ashok, N. M.; Rao, B. G. A.; Pasachoff,
   J. M.; Suer, Terry-Ann
2006IAUJD...3E...2C    Altcode:
  We report an interesting ground based Fabry-Perot interferometric
  experiment on the green coronal line at 5303 Å carried out successfully
  during the total eclipse of 21 June 2001 from Lusaka.Unlike as in
  earlier experiments a cooled CCD was used to record as many as 17
  Interferograms during the 194 sec of totality. The instrumental profile
  is well determined by a green He-Ne laser and has a FWHM of 0.2 Å. The
  Fabry-Perot was off centred with respect to the solar disk to permit
  wider fringe coverage of the corona. Radial scans from fringe centre
  of only one interferogram number over 500 and each scan has several
  fringes. The data base spread over 17 interferograms is huge and has
  been only partially analysed. Line width temperatures derived from
  fringes analysed so far range from 2.4 to 3.7 million degrees and
  many profiles are asymmetric. The data base permits a search of line
  width oscillations at many positions in the corona with a temporal
  resolution of a few seconds which has implications for wave heating
  of the corona. Details of the experiment and emerging results will
  be presented.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Cosmic Deuterium and Social Networking Software
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Suer, T. -A.; Lubowich, D. A.; Glaisyer, T.
2006IAUSS...2E..79P    Altcode:
  For the education of newcomers to a scientific field and for the
  convenience of students and workers in the field, it is helpful to have
  all the basic scientific papers gathered. For the study of deuterium
  in the Universe, in 2004-5 we set up http://www.cosmicdeuterium.info
  with clickable links to all the historic and basic papers in the field
  and to many of the current papers. Cosmic deuterium is especially
  important because all deuterium in the Universe was formed in the
  epoch of nucleosynthesis in the first 1000 seconds after the Big Bang,
  so study of its relative abundance (D:H~1:100,000) gives us information
  about those first minutes of the Universe's life. Thus the understanding
  of cosmic deuterium is one of the pillars of modern cosmology, joining
  the cosmic expansion, the 3 degree cosmic background radiation,
  and the ripples in that background radiation. Studies of deuterium
  are also important for understanding Galactic chemical evolution,
  astrochemistry, interstellar processes, and planetary formation. Some
  papers had to be scanned while others are available at the Astrophysical
  Data System, adswww.harvard.edu, or to publishers' Websites. By 2006,
  social networking software (http:tinyurl.com/ zx5hk) had advanced with
  popular sites like facebook.com and MySpace.com; the Astrophysical
  Data System had even set up MyADS. Social tagging software sites like
  http://del.icio.us have made it easy to share sets of links to papers
  already available online. We have set up http://del.icio.us/deuterium to
  provide links to many of the papers on cosmicdeuterium.info, furthering
  previous del.icio.us work on /eclipses and /plutocharon. It is easy
  for the site owner to add links to a del.icio.us site; it takes merely
  clicking on a button on the browser screen once the site is opened and
  the desired link is viewed in a browser. Categorizing different topics
  by keywords allows subsets to be easily displayed. The opportunity
  to expose knowledge and build an ecosystem of web pages that use the
  functionality of a facebook-type application to capture knowledge
  collaboratively is considerable. Setting up such a system would marry
  one of the youngest isotopes with the latest software technologies.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Main Objectives for this I.A.U. Special Session on Innovation
    in Teaching/ Learning Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Ros, R. M.
2006IAUSS...2E...1P    Altcode:
  In the IAU resolution on the Value of Astronomy Education, passed by the
  IAU's General Assembly in 2003, it was recommended: to include astronomy
  in school curricula, to assist schoolteachers in their training and
  backup, and to inform teachers about available resources. The aim of
  this Special Session 2 on "Innovation in Teaching/Learning Astronomy"
  is to contribute to the implementation of these recommendations,
  introducing innovative points of view regarding methods of
  teaching and learning. Astronomers from all countries—developed or
  developing—will be equally interested. New methods of dissemination
  of information are making big changes in the opportunity of spreading
  astronomical knowledge. The World Wide Web continues to expand its
  reach, and the Astronomy Picture of the Day reaches the homepage of
  millions. The new phenomenon of podcasts is spreading rapidly. Astronomy
  attracts many young people to education in important fields in science
  and technology. But in many countries, astronomy is not part of the
  standard curriculum, and teachers do not receive adequate education
  and support. Still, many scientific and educational societies and
  government agencies have produced materials and educational resources
  in astronomy for all educational levels. Technology is used in
  astronomy both for obtaining observations and for teaching. In any
  case, it is useful to take their special opportunity to learn about
  the situation in different countries, to exchange opinions, and to
  collect information in order to continue, over at least the next
  triennium, the activities related to promoting astronomy throughout
  the world. In particular, we would like to invite all participants to
  explain their positive original experiences so they can be adapted for
  other regions. Everyone is invited to exchange their initiatives and
  to try to involve other countries in common projects. All of us are
  in the same boat. http://www.communicatingastronomy.org/innovation2006/

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Education Efforts of the International Astronomical Union
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
2006IAUSS...2E...6P    Altcode:
  I describe the education activities of the International Astronomical
  Union, particularly the work of Commission 46 on Education and
  Development. We are most interested in education in schools and
  for general university education rather than for pre-professional
  training or graduate schools. We have over 75 National Liaisons,
  mostly from member countries of the I.A.U. but some from nonmembers
  or regional groupings. We operate through 10 program groups, which are
  described at our Website at http://www.astronomyeducation.org. We also
  organize Special Sessions at General Assemblies of the International
  Astronomical Union, such as this Special Session 2 on Innovation
  in Teaching/ Learning Astronomy Methods, organized by Rosa Ros and
  me, and Special Session 5 on Astronomy for the Developing World,
  organized by John Hearnshaw. A modified version of our Special Session
  from the 2003 Sydney General Assembly was published as Teaching and
  Learning Astronomy: Effective Strategies for Educators Worldwide (Jay
  M. Pasachoff and John R. Percy, eds., Cambridge University Press,
  2005). Michele Gerbaldi and Ed Guinan run the International Schools
  for Young Astronomers. Jay White heads the Teaching Astronomy for
  Development Program Group. John Hearnshaw runs the Program Group
  for the Worldwide Development of Astronomy. Charles Tolbert and John
  Percy run an Exchange of Astronomers program with a limited number of
  grants for stays of over three months between astronomers in developing
  countries and established astronomical institutions. Barrie Jones, as
  vice-president, aided by Tracey Moore, runs the Newsletter and keeps
  track of the National Liaisons list. I run the Program group of Public
  Education at the Times of Solar Eclipses.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: In Retrospect: Out of the darkness
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2006Natur.442..986P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Deuterium in the Galactic Center: Evidence for a Cosmological
    Origin of D and the Infall of D Enriched Gas
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Roberts, H. R.; Millar,
   T. J.; Henkel, C.; Brammer, G.
2006AAS...20721703L    Altcode:
  If deuterium is produced via any stellar or Galactic nucleosynthesis
  process, then its abundance would be a maximum value in the Galactic
  Center (GC). Conversely, if there are no additional Galactic source
  of D, then astration would reduce the initial D abundance in the
  GC by 10<SUP>7</SUP> to D/H = (2-4)×10<SUP>-12</SUP>. We used the
  Arizona Radio Observatory and detected the J = 1-0 lines of DCN and
  H<SUP>15</SUP>CN in four GC molecular clouds located from 10-100 pc
  from the GC (Sgr A 50 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>; Sgr A 20 km s<SUP>-1</SUP>;
  Sgr B2; and G0.13-0.13 in the magnetic arc). We did not detect DCN or
  H<SUP>15</SUP>CN in the circumnuclear disk located 2 pc from the GC
  where any D is probably destroyed by a faster rate of astration. We
  used a 5300 chemical reaction model to analyze DCN (used to trace
  D) and D fractionation, which always enhances the abundance of D
  molecules. We estimate the underlying D/H ratio in the GC to be D/H
  = (2-5)×10<SUP>-6</SUP> which is in agreement with the results of
  Lubowich et al. (2000, Nature, 405, 1025; D/H = 1.7×10<SUP>-6</SUP>)
  from DCN observations in one GC cloud. The GC D/H ratios are less than
  the local ISM D/H ratio but 10<SUP>6</SUP> times larger than D/H ratios
  predicted by chemical evolution models without an additional source
  of D. The most likely source of this additional D is the continuous
  infall of low-metallicty gas enhanced with D which would negate much
  of the effects of astration. Thus, there are no significant Galactic
  sources of deuterium, D is primarily cosmological, and the Galaxy has
  not had quasar or AGN activity in the past 1 Gyr. DAL was supported
  by an AAS Small Research Grant

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: High-Resolution Observations of Limb Spicules from the
    Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the Swedish Solar Telescope
Authors: Westbrook, Owen; Pasachoff, J. M.; Kozarev, K. A.; Yee, J.
2006SPD....37.0202W    Altcode: 2006BAAS...38..221W
  We observed spicules at the solar limb with TRACE and the Swedish Solar
  Telescope on La Palma for four-day intervals in 2004 and 2005 as well
  as simultaneous SUMER/SOHO observations in 2004. We are evaluating
  the apparent motion of individual spicules to infer chromospheric
  heat flow and mass transfer and to improve the statistics of basic
  spicule parameters including height, velocity, and inclination. We
  use the highest available cadence to measure height vs. time curves,
  using parabolic and linear fits to extract average maximum heights and
  apparent velocities of rise and descent. Our semiautomatic measurements
  of several dozen individual Ca II H spicules find an average height
  of 7610 ± 20 km based on ballistic fits and 7990 ± 80 km based on
  linear fits, with average velocities 8.7 ± 0.2 km/s ascending and 5.6
  ± 0.1 km/s descending. Our TRACE data include observations at 1600 Å,
  171 Å, and Lyman-alpha; our SST observations using Lockheed Martin's
  SOUP include H-alpha (four wing wavelengths to measure velocities)
  and Ca II H. We are investigating the relationships between spicule
  height and intensity to search for evidence of sheathed vs. monolithic
  spicule models, and analyzing ionization fadeout vs. velocity
  reversals for limiting spicule heights. A third yearly session of
  simultaneous TRACE/SST observations is scheduled.We thank S. P. Souza,
  B. De Pontieu, L. Golub, and J. Cirtain; earlier collaboration by
  D. B. Seaton, J. P. Shoer, D. L. Butts, and J. W. Gangestad; as well
  as the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Support was provided by a
  NASA/Solar-Terrestrial Guest Investigator Grant for TRACE (NNG04GK44G),
  from Sigma Xi, and from the NASA/Massachusetts Space Grant.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coronal Observations at the 29 March 2006 Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Souza, S. P.; Bruck, M. A.;
   Hess, P. W.; Kimmel, S. B.; Levitt, J. S.; Steele, A. S.; Tsykalova,
   A. E.; Rust, D. M.; Noble, M. W.; Wittenmyer, R.; Kern, J.; Hawkins,
   R. L.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Pistikoudis, G.; Nestoras,
   J.; Demianski, M.
2006SPD....37.0107P    Altcode: 2006BAAS...38Q.216P
  We report on our eclipse expedition to Kastellorizo, Greece, in the
  Dodecanese off the Turkish coast. We observed 3 min 00 sec of totality
  on 29 March 2006. All our observations worked very well. One of them
  was high-time-resolution (10 Hz) observations in the coronal green
  line looking at coronal loops; another was similar observations in
  the coronal red line; both are to determine among theories of coronal
  heating and continue earlier reports of excess Fourier power in the 1
  Hz range. As we knew from SOHO observations from the day before the
  eclipse, an active region was stationed right on the east limb and
  it gave us very suitable loops to study, with pointing in agreement
  with TRACE. A third set of observations used a very narrow-band filter
  (Fabry-Perot), with 1/6 angstrom resolution, to make velocity (Doppler)
  images of the same coronal loops. A fourth set of observations used a
  telescope we had built to match the size of the now defunct innermost
  coronagraph on the NASA/ESA SOHO, and it indeed was used to merge with
  SOHO EIT disk coronal images and SOHO LASCO outer coronal coronagraph
  images. Further, radial-filter "Newkirk camera" images captured the role
  of magnetic fields in shaping coronal streamers, which we also display
  in mergers of images with sequential exposure times. The expedition
  was supported by NSF (ATM-0552116), the Committee for Research and
  Exploration of the National Geographic Society, NASA's Planetary
  Astronomy Division for the CCD cameras (NNG04GE48G), Sigma Xi, and the
  Rob Spring Fund and the Ryan Patrick Gaishin Fund at Williams College.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Narrow-band Filter Observations of the Red-Line Corona at
    the 29 March 2006 Eclipse
Authors: Rust, David M.; Noble, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock,
   B. A.; Bruck, M. A.; Wittenmyer, R. A.
2006SPD....37.0110R    Altcode: 2006BAAS...38..217R
  We report on observations of the corona above active region NOAA 10866,
  which was on the solar east limb at S 06 on 29 March 2006. Filtergrams
  were obtained at six 0.22 Å steps across the profile of the Fe
  X line at 6374.5 Å during the total solar eclipse, starting at
  about 1052 UT. The telescope was a 35-cm Schmidt-Cassegrain Meade
  RCX400 with the solar image relayed to a 512 x 512-pixel Andor Ixon
  DV887 CCD camera via telecentric optics and two narrow-bandpass
  filters: (1) a 2 Å thin-film Andover Corp. blocker and (2) a 0.16
  Å tunable Fabry-Perot etalon, made by the CSIRO Australian Centre
  for Precision Optics. The F-P etalon is a Y-cut lithium niobate wafer
  of 0.200-mm thickness coated with reflective and conductive thin-film
  layers. Application of a voltage to the etalon produces a passband shift
  of 0.0011 Å/volt. Calibration at the eclipse site in Kastellorizo,
  Greece, was maintained by reference to a WSTech thermo-electrically
  stabilized diode laser tuned to 6375.16 Å. The profile and Doppler
  shifts of the Fe X line will be discussed.The expedition was supported
  by NSF (ATM-0552116), the Committee for Research and Exploration of
  the National Geographic Society, NASA's Planetary Astronomy Division
  for the CCD cameras (NNG04GE48G), Sigma Xi, and the Rob Spring Fund
  and the Ryan Patrick Gaishin Fund at Williams College.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Effect of the Transit of Venus on ACRIM's Total Solar
Irradiance Measurements: Implications for Transit Studies of
    Extrasolar Planets
Authors: Schneider, G.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Willson, Richard C.
2006ApJ...641..565S    Altcode: 2005astro.ph.12251S
  We have used the 2004 June 8 transit of Venus (ToV) as a surrogate
  to test observing methods, strategies, and techniques that are being
  contemplated for future space missions to detect and characterize
  extrasolar terrestrial planets (ETPs) as they transit their host
  stars, notably NASA's Kepler mission, planned for 2008. As an analog
  to “Kepler-like” photometric transit observations, we obtained
  (spatially unresolved) radiometric observations with the ACRIM 3
  instrument on ACRIMSAT at a sampling cadence of 131 s to follow the
  effect of the ToV on the total solar irradiance (TSI). Contemporaneous
  high-resolution broadband imagery with NASA's TRACE spacecraft
  provided, directly, measures of the stellar (solar) astrophysical
  noise that can intrinsically limit such transit observations. During
  the Venus transit, which lasted ~5.5 hr, the planet's angular diameter
  was approximately 1/32 the solar diameter, thus covering ~0.1% of the
  stellar surface. With our ACRIM 3 data, we measure temporal changes in
  TSI with a 1 σ per sample (unbinned) uncertainty of approximately 100
  mW m<SUP>-2</SUP> (0.007%). A diminution in TSI of ~1.4 W m<SUP>-2</SUP>
  (~0.1%, closely corresponding to the geometrically occulted area of
  the photosphere) was measured at mid-transit compared with a mean
  pre-/post-transit TSI of ~1365.9 W m<SUP>-2</SUP>. The radiometric
  light curve is complex because of the parallactic motion of Venus
  induced by ACRIMSAT's near-polar orbit, but exhibits the characteristic
  signature of photospheric limb darkening. These observations serve
  as a surrogate for future photometric observations of ETPs, such as
  Kepler will deliver. Detailed analysis of the ToV, a rare event within
  our own solar system, with time-resolved radiometry augmented with
  high-resolution imagery, provides a useful analog for investigating
  the detectability and characterization of ETPs from observations that
  are anticipated in the near future.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Film: Big trip to the red planet
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay
2006Natur.440...28P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review - Theaters of Time and Space: American Planetaria,
    1930-1970
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2006AEdRv...4b.106P    Altcode: 2005AEdRv...4b.106.
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: THE SUN / Abrams, 2006
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2006SB&F...42..257P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Charon's radius and atmospheric constraints from observations
    of a stellar occultation
Authors: Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Adams, E. R.;
   Babcock, B. A.; Emilio, M.; Gangestad, J. W.; Kern, S. D.; Kramer,
   E. A.; Osip, D. J.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.; Tuvikene, T.
2006Natur.439...48G    Altcode:
  The physical characteristics of Pluto and its moon, Charon, provide
  insight into the evolution of the outer Solar System. Although previous
  measurements have constrained the masses of these bodies, their radii
  and densities have remained uncertain. The observation of a stellar
  occultation by Charon in 1980 established a lower limit on its radius
  of 600km (ref. 3) (later refined to 601.5km ref. 4) and suggested
  a possible atmosphere. Subsequent, mutual event modelling yielded a
  range of 600-650km (ref. 5), corresponding to a density of 1.56 +/-
  0.22gcm<SUP>-3</SUP> (refs 2, 5). Here we report multiple-station
  observations of a stellar occultation by Charon. From these data,
  we find a mean radius of 606 +/- 8km, a bulk density of 1.72 +/-
  0.15gcm<SUP>-3</SUP>, and rock-mass fraction 0.63 +/- 0.05. We do
  not detect a significant atmosphere and place 3σ upper limits on
  atmospheric number densities for candidate gases. These results seem
  to be consistent with collisional formation for the Pluto-Charon
  system in which the precursor objects may have been differentiated,
  and they leave open the possibility of atmospheric retention by the
  largest objects in the outer Solar System.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: THEATERS OF TIME AND SPACE: AMERICAN PLANETARIA,
    1930- 1970 / Rutgers University Press, 2005
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2006AEdRv...4b..12P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Teaching and Learning Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John
2005tla..book.....P    Altcode:
  Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World:
  Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in
  the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics
  education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the
  world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert
  Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the
  world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy
  education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns;
  7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle
  M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education
  research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a
  new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights:
  astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface;
  11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet
  astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with
  robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating
  students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service
  astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service
  education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights:
  educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface;
  18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar;
  19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay
  M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching
  astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster
  highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing
  Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries
  Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing
  countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy:
  Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide
  Craig and Isabel Hawkins; 25. The role of science centers and
  planetariums Nick Lomb; 26. Science education for the new century -
  a European perspective Claus Madsen; 27. Communicating astronomy to
  the public Charles Blue; 28. Poster highlights: public outreach in
  astronomy; Part IX. The Education Programs of the IAU: Preface; 29. A
  short overview of astronomical education carried out by the IAU Syuzo
  Isobe; Part X. Discussion; Index.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Charon's Radius and Atmospheric Constraints from the 2005
    July 11 Stellar Occultation
Authors: Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Adams,
   E. R.; Kern, S. D.; Kramer, E. A.; Babcock, B. A.; Gangestad, J. W.;
   Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.; Osip, D. J.; Emililo, M.; Tuvikene, T.
2005DPS....37.5505G    Altcode: 2005BAAS...37.1571G
  On 2005 July 11 (UT), Charon occulted the star “C313.2" (originally
  identified as a Pluto occultation star [McDonald &amp; Elliot,
  Astron. J. 120, 1599, 2000]; UCAC2 26257135; R = 14.8). We arranged to
  observe this event using five telescopes at four sites: the 0.6-m at
  Pico dos Dias Obs. (Brazil), the 0.84-m at Obs. Cerro Armazones, the
  2.5-m du Pont and 6.5-m Clay at Las Campanas Obs., and the 8-m Gemini
  South at Cerro Pacha (Chile). The observations were successful at all
  stations excluding Pico dos Dias, which was clouded out. The Acquisition
  Camera was employed at Gemini South, while the remaining sites used
  POETS (Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit Systems). Each
  system utilized a high-speed camera, a control computer, and a GPS to
  establish accurate timing. The cameras contain back-illuminated CCDs,
  with &gt; 90% quantum efficiency, ̃ 6 electrons read noise, and 1.74
  ms deadtime during frame transfer. For this event, data rates were
  2 - 10 Hz and signal-to-noise ratios were 28 - 273 (normalized to 1
  s). The Clay telescope light curve had high enough time resolution
  and signal-to-noise to detect the first diffraction fringe. This
  dataset marks significant improvement over the only previously viewed
  stellar occultation by Charon (Walker, MNRAS 192, 47, 1980; Elliot
  &amp; Young, Icarus 89, 244, 1991). By fitting the light curves with
  models derived from French and Gierasch (Astron. J. 81, 445, 1976),
  we have calculated Charon's radius and placed strong constraints on an
  atmosphere. These results seem consistent with a collisional origin
  of the Pluto-Charon system in which either of the precursor bodies
  may have been differentiated (McKinnon, Astrophys. J. Lett. 344, L41,
  1989). Support provided, in part, by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants
  NNG04GE48G, NNG04GF25G, and NNH04ZSS001N, IAP P5/36 of the Belgian
  Federal Office, and BIL 01/3 of the Flemish Ministry.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy education research
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2005AmJPh..73..997P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review—Theaters of Time and Space: American Planetaria,
    1930-1970 by Jordan D. Marché
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2005AEdRv...4..106P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Chandra observations of open cluster h Per.
Authors: Evans, N. R.; Wolk, S.; Bizunok, N.; Spitzbart, B.; Seward,
   F.; Kenyon, S.; Barnes, T.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2005JRASC..99..136E    Altcode: 2005JRASC..99V.136E
  We have obtained a 40 ksec ACIS observation of the open star cluster
  h Per in December, 2004, from which we have identified more than 200
  X-ray sources and found optical counterparts for many of them. We are
  processing the h Per data with the ANCHORS pipeline which is being used
  to process Chandra observations of star forming regions in a uniform
  manner. This will provide fits to the instrumental low resolution
  spectra for cool pre-main sequence stars in h Per including fluxes,
  temperatures and absorption.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Chandra Observations of Open Cluster h Per
Authors: Evans, N. R.; Wolk, S.; Bizunok, N.; Spitzbart, B.; Seward,
   F.; Kenyon, S.; Barnes, T.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2005JRASC..99R.136E    Altcode:
  We have obtained a 40 ksec ACIS observation of the open star cluster
  h Per in December 2004, from which we have identified more than 200
  X-ray sources and found optical counterparts for many of them. We are
  processing the h Per data with the ANCHORS pipeline, which is being used
  to process Chandra observations of star forming regions in a uniform
  manner. This will provide fits to the instrumental low-resolution
  spectra for cool pre-main sequence stars in h Per including fluxes,
  temperatures, and absorption.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Portable, Photon-Counting Cameras for Observing Occultations,
    Eclipses, and Transits
Authors: Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Babcock,
   B. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.
2005DPS....37.1810G    Altcode: 2005BAAS...37T.651G
  Occultations, eclipses, and transits can produce data of the highest
  spatial resolution for any Earth-based observing method and are
  thus used to determine planetary diameters and probe atmospheric
  profiles. Observing these events requires precise geographic and
  temporal information. For occultations, the size of the shadow on the
  Earth is a function of the occulting body's size and distance. This
  shadow is significantly smaller than the Earth's angular diameter for
  objects in which we are particularly interested (Triton, Pluto, Charon,
  and Kuiper belt objects). Therefore, instruments capable of traveling
  to a predicted shadow path increase the opportunities for observing
  events. Having multiple systems is also beneficial, since multiple
  chords must be observed to derive a body's shape. We have constructed
  four portable observing systems (POETS; Portable Occultation Eclipse
  and Transit Systems), which can be transported as carry-on luggage and
  attached to portable or fixed telescopes. The cameras have E2V CCD97
  sensors: a 512 x 512 array of 16 micron pixels, back illuminated, with
  &gt; 90% QE. The CCDs are thermoelectrically cooled to ̃80 degrees
  C in air. Readout modes are 1, 3, 5 and 10 MHz, with a maximum data
  rate of 32 full frames per second. Binning and subframes increase the
  rate to a few hundred frames per second. The lowest achievable read
  noise in conventional mode is approximately 6 electrons. One of the two
  amplifiers employs electron multiplying gain, which effectively reduces
  the read noise to sub-electron levels and allows the cameras to be used
  for counting photons. Event timing is done using a state-of-the-art
  GPS receiver to trigger images. We present details of the systems,
  an analysis of the use of photon counting in the field of small body
  occultations, and sample occultation data. Funding for this work is
  provided by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNG04GE48G, NNG04GF25G,
  and NNH04ZSS001N.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: h Persei: Young Star Cluster in X-rays
Authors: Bizunok, Natalya; Wolk, S. J.; Evans, N. R.; Spitzbart, B.;
   Seward, F.; Kenyon, S.; Barnes, T.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2005sfet.confE..48B    Altcode:
  We have obtained a 40 ksec ACIS observation of the open star cluster
  h Per in December, 2004, from which we have identified more than 200
  X-ray sources and found optical counterparts for many of them. We are
  processing the h Per data with the ANCHORS pipeline, which is being used
  to process Chandra observations of star forming regions in a uniform
  manner. This will provide fits to the instrumental low-resolution
  spectra for cool pre-main sequence stars in h Per including fluxes,
  temperatures, and absorptions.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Deuterium Nucleosynthesis in AGN: Is D Cosmological?
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Kuno, N.; Roberts, H.; Millar, T. J.;
   Henkel, C.; Pasachoff, J.; Mauersberger, R.
2005NuPhA.758..795L    Altcode:
  Although deuterium is predicted to be primarily cosmological, D
  can also be produced by cosmic-ray or γ-ray spallation reactions -
  possibly between high energy jets and the surrounding gas in AGN. We
  used the Nobeyama mm array with a 3" resolution (200 pc) in April 2003
  to search for any enhanced D from the DCN J = 2 1 line in the 45"×45"
  (3 kpc) circumnuclear region of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. NGC
  1068 is an optimal target because it has jets, starburst activity, a
  circumuclear molecular ring and molecular disk, dense optically thick
  concentrations of HCN, and a low-energy X-ray flux of 10<SUP>42</SUP>
  erg/s (the highest X-ray flux of any galaxy in which HCN has been
  detected and the flux required to produce high D abundances). Although
  DCN is detected in most Galactic or LMC molecular clouds with optically
  thick HCN, we did not detect DCN with S<SUB>rms</SUB> = 11 mJy/beam
  or T<SUB>rms</SUB> = 35.6 mK. Thus our 3σ upper limits are S⩽ 33
  mJy/beam or T<SUB>mb</SUB> ⩽ 106.7 mK and DCN/HCN⩽ 0.0044. Using
  our 5260 reaction chemical network we estimate the underlying D/H⩽
  1.5×10<SUP>-5</SUP> less than or equal to but not greater than the
  local Galactic ISM D/H = 1.5 × 10<SUP>-5</SUP>. Thus there is no
  significant D production in the nuclear region of NGC 1068 and NGC
  1068 has probably not had a recent period of activity with a γ-ray
  or cosmic-ray luminosity &gt; 10<SUP>42</SUP> erg/s. If jet-cloud
  nucleosynthesis produces significant amounts of D, then the D is
  either produced inside a very small nuclear region or transported
  outside the nuclear region whereby subsequent infall may continuously
  supply galactic nuclei with D. However, any enhanced D produced via
  spallation reactions would have been destroyed via astration due to
  the large AGN star formation rate. Our results are additional evidence
  that D is primarily cosmological and that AGN do not produce D.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Spicules, mass transfer, oscillations, and the heating of
    the corona
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kozarev, K. A.; Butts, D. L.; Gangestad,
   J. W.; Seaton, D. B.; de Pontieu, B.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Wilhelm,
   K.; Dammasch, I.
2005AGUSMSH13C..02P    Altcode:
  The mass moving in chromospheric spicules is enough to replace the
  corona in a brief time, so understanding the dynamics of spicules
  is important for understanding the support and heating of the
  solar corona. We have undertaken a program involving simultaneous
  high-resolution observations in various chromospheric visible lines
  (H-alpha, Ca II H, and G-band, as well as Dopplergrams) using the
  Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma, ultraviolet chromospheric,
  transition-region, and coronal lines (Fe IX/X 171 A, Lyman-alpha
  1216 A, and continuum/C I/C IV 1600 A) using NASA's TRACE, and
  ultraviolet chromospheric and transition-region lines (Si II 1533,
  C IV 1548, and Ne VIII 770) using SUMER on SOHO. Our first coordinated
  observing run, in May 2004, yielded a variety of images that are under
  study, especially for the morphological statistics and dynamics of
  spicules. The energy transfer through the chromosphere is relevant to
  the overlapping investigation of coronal heating through rapid (1Hz
  range) oscillations of coronal loops as observed at total eclipses
  by Williams College expeditions. This research is supported by NASA
  grant number NNG04GK44G to Williams College. TRACE analysis at SAO
  is supported by a contract from Lockheed Martin. SOHO is a project of
  international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Open Cluster h Per as Seen by Chandra
Authors: Bizunok, N. S.; Evans, N. R.; Wolk, S. J.; Spitzbart, B.;
   Seward, F. D.; Kenyon, S. J.; Barnes, T. G.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2005AAS...206.3604B    Altcode: 2005BAAS...37R.488B
  In December, 2004, we observed the open star cluster h Per with Chandra
  ACIS for 40 ksec. We have identified more than 200 X-ray sources on
  the image and found optical counterparts for many of them. The ANCHORS
  pipeline, which we used to process the data, provides homogeneous
  output products for this and many other star forming regions. Among
  the outputs are fits to the instrumental low resolution spectra for
  cool pre-main sequence stars in h Per that yield flux, temperature and
  absorption for these sources. Funding for this investigation has been
  provided by Chandra contract NAS8-39073 and NASA Grant GO5-6007A

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The black-drop effect explained
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, Glenn; Golub, Leon
2005tvnv.conf..242P    Altcode: 2005IAUCo.196..242P
  The black-drop effect bedeviled attempts to determine the Astronomical
  Unit from the time of the transit of Venus of 1761, until dynamical
  determinations of the AU obviated the need for transit measurements. By
  studying the 1999 transit of Mercury, using observations taken from
  space with NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), we
  have fully explained Mercury's black-drop effect, with contributions
  from not only the telescope's point-spread function but also the solar
  limb darkening. Since Mercury has no atmosphere, we have thus verified
  the previous understanding, often overlooked, that the black-drop effect
  does not necessarily correspond to the detection of an atmosphere. We
  continued our studies with observations of the 2004 transit of Venus
  with the TRACE spacecraft in orbit and with ground-based imagery from
  Thessaloniki, Greece. We report on preliminary reduction of those
  data; see http://www.transitofvenus.info for updated results. Such
  studies are expected to contribute to the understanding of transits
  of exoplanets. Though the determination of the Astronomical Unit from
  studies of transit of Venus has been undertaken only rarely, it was
  for centuries expected to be the best method. The recent 8 June 2004
  transit of Venus provided an exceptionally rare opportunity to study
  such a transit and to determine how modern studies can explain the
  limitations of the historical observations.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Structure of Pluto's Atmosphere from the 2002 August 21
    Stellar Occultation
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Souza, Steven P.; Babcock, Bryce A.;
   Ticehurst, David R.; Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; Clancy, K. B.;
   Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Hall, D. T.; Tholen, David J.
2005AJ....129.1718P    Altcode:
  We have observed the 2002 August 21 occultation by Pluto of the R=15.7
  mag star P131.1, using 0.5 s cadence observations in integrated white
  light with the Williams College frame-transfer, rapid-readout CCD at
  the 2.24 m University of Hawaii telescope. We detected an occultation
  that lasted 5 minutes, 9.1+/-0.7 s between half-light points. The
  “kinks” in the ingress and egress parts of the curve that were
  apparent in 1988 had become much less pronounced by the time of the
  two 2002 occultations that were observed, indicating a major change
  in the structure of Pluto's atmosphere. Analysis of our light curves
  shows that the pressure in Pluto's atmosphere has increased at all the
  altitudes that we probed. Essentially, the entire pressure scale has
  moved up in altitude, increasing by a factor of 2 since 1988. Spikes
  in our light curve reveal vertical structure in Pluto's atmosphere at
  unprecedentedly high resolution. We have confirmation of our spikes
  at lower time resolution as part of observations of the emersion made
  at 1.4 s and 2.4 s cadence with the 3.67 m AEOS telescope on Maui.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Repeated universes in the AJP statistics literature
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2005AmJPh..73..199P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Astronomical Unit
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2005PhTea..43...69P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Textbooks for K-12 Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2005HiA....13.1048P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: What to teach? What is learned? Astronomy as an amalgam of
    new and old
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
2005EAS....16..137P    Altcode:
  The tension between contemporary astronomy and traditional topics as
  subjects for general astronomy courses or fundamental science courses
  is healthy, but one must worry if either type crowds out the other. Too
  often only topics understood hundreds of thousands of years ago (such
  as gravity, tides, phases, and seasons) take up such a large fraction
  of the astronomy content that few or none of the fascinating and
  important discoveries of recent centuries not to mention recent years
  or months are included. I discuss aspects of this problem. Including
  topics of contemporary interest often motivates students to concentrate
  their attention and study time on the entire range of topics in the
  course. Practitioners of the new field of Astronomy Education Research
  seem often to attack their subject in perpendicular fashion to the
  methods of practitioners of communicating astronomy to the public. I
  also discuss some of the content of our International Astronomical
  Union's Commission on Education and Development's special session
  from 2003 on Effective Teaching and Learning of Astronomy, and of the
  forthcoming volume of the same title to be published by Cambridge
  University Press. I further discuss the role of inspiring events,
  such as George Ellery Hale's inspiration from the 1882 transit of
  Venus and the potential from the widespread observation of the 2004
  transit of Venus and of solar eclipses.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Space Studies of the Black-Drop Effect at a Mercury Transit
Authors: Schneider, Glenn; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Golub, Leon
2005HiA....13...70S    Altcode:
  The accuracy with which the Astronomical Unit was known has been
  historically limited by the ""black drop"" effect observed during
  Venus's rare transits. It is often mistakenly attributed to Venus's
  atmosphere. We report on observations taken outside the Earth's
  atmosphere of the 1999 and 2003 transits of Mercury with the NASA
  solar satellite known as the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer
  (TRACE). Though there was no contribution from the atmosphere of Mercury
  or the Earth nevertheless a faint black-drop effect was detected. We
  discuss and model the images showing the sources of the black-drop
  effect. The techniques we discuss are applicable to ground-based and
  space-based observations of the 8 June 2004 and 5-6 June 2012 transits
  of Venus.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy Textbooks
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Pasachoff, Naomi
2005coas.conf...73P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 23 November 2003 Total Solar Eclipse in Antarctica
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2005HiA....13..931P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The composition at the outer edge of the Galaxy
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Brammer, G.; Roberts, H.; Millar, T. J.;
   Pasachoff, J. M.; Henkel, C.; Ruffle, P.
2005HiA....13..586L    Altcode:
  We present observations of a 10-Gyr-old molecular cloud at the
  outer edge of the Galactic disk (28 kpc). We detected CO 13CO 18CO
  CS CN SO HCN HNC HCO+ CH3OH HCS+ H2CO C2H C3H2 and NH3 but we did
  not detect CO+ N2H+ DCN HC3N 34CS SiO SiS 17CO or SO2. The NH3 H2CO
  and CS abundances indicate that T = 20 K and n = 5x10(3) cm(-3). The
  N-containing molecules were weak and we did not detect the usually
  strong N2H+ or HC3N lines. Using our 5300 chemical reaction model we
  calculate that the N is depleted in this cloud by about 3x and this
  cloud has a lower metallicity (similar to dwarf irregular galaxies
  or damped Lyman alpha systems) and a lower cosmic-ray ionization rate
  possibly resulting from the infall of halo gas enriched in O C and S
  from a burst of massive star formation in the Galactic halo shortly
  after the Milky Way was formed. This activity would have produced both
  O and S which are produced by massive stars; C which is produced by
  massive and intermediate mass stars; but less N abundance because the
  secondary element N is produced primarily from low mass stars.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Effect of the Transit of Venus on ACRIM's Total Solar
Irradiance Measurements: Implications for Transit Studies of
    Extrasolar Planets
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Schneider, G.; Willson, R. C.
2004AAS...20513511P    Altcode: 2004BAAS...36.1566P
  We used 131-s-cadence observations made with ACRIM3 on ACRIMsat on 8
  June 2004 to follow the effect of the transit of Venus, which lasted
  about 6 hours, on the total solar irradiance (TSI). Venus's angular
  diameter, in transit, is approximately 1/30 the solar diameter, so
  it covered approximately 0.1% of the sun's surface. With our ACRIM3
  data, we measure temporal changes in TSI with a one-sigma per sample
  (unbinned) certainty of approximately 100 milliwatts per square
  meter (0.007%). We found a diminution in TSI of approximately 1.4
  watts per square meter (approximately 0.1%, closely corresponding to
  the geometrically occulted area of the photosphere) at mid-transit
  compared with a mean pre/post transit TSI of 1365.9 watts per square
  meter. The measured light curve is complex because of the parallactic
  motion of Venus induced by the satellite's polar orbit, but exhibits
  the characteristic signature of photospheric limb-darkening when
  orbit-driven variations are accounted for. Analysis of the limb
  darkening can reveal temporal structure with height in the photosphere
  and asymmetries can, in principle, be attributable to planetary
  atmospheres. Similar observations will increasingly be detected from
  exoplanet transits, so detailed analysis of the transit within our solar
  system will provide a useful analogue for interpreting the many more
  such transits expected to be discovered within the next decade. JMP's
  and GS's transit of Venus observations were supported by a grant from
  the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic
  Society. NASA provides support for RCW at Columbia University under
  contract NNG04HZ42C.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: STELLAR ALCHEMY: THE CELESTIAL ORIGIN OF ATOMS /
    Cambridge University Press, 2003
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2004PhT....57l..69P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Stellar Alchemy: The Celestial Origin of Atoms
Authors: Cassé, Michel; Lyle, Stephen; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2004PhT....57l..69C    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Deuterium Nucleosynthesis in AGN: Is D Cosmological?
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Kuno, N.; Roberts, H.; Millar, T. J.;
   Henkel, C.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Mauersberger, R.
2004AAS...20511807L    Altcode: 2004BAAS...36Q1546L
  Although deuterium is predicted to be primarily cosmological, D can
  also be produced by cosmic-ray or γ -ray spallation reactions -
  possibly between high energy jets and the surrounding gas in AGN. We
  used the Nobeyama mm array with a 3" resolution (220 pc) in April 2003
  to search for any enhanced D from the DCN J = 2-1 line in the Seyfert
  galaxy NGC 1068. NGC 1068 is an optimal target because it has jets,
  starburst activity, a circumuclear molecular ring and disk, dense
  optically thick concentrations of HCN, and a low-energy X-ray flux
  of 10<SUP>42</SUP> erg/s (the highest X-ray flux of any galaxy in
  which HCN has been detected and the flux required to produce high D
  abundances). We did not detect DCN (which is detected in all other
  molecular clouds with optically thick HCN in the Galaxy or LMC)
  and we obtained an upper limit of S≤15 mJy/beam = 48.5 mK in the
  circumnuclear region and a DCN/HCN ratio of 0.0046. Using our 5300
  reaction chemical network we estimate D/H leq1.5x10<SUP>-5</SUP> as
  compared to the local Galactic ISM D/H = 1.4x10<SUP>-5</SUP>. Thus
  there is no significant D production in the nuclear region of NGC
  1068 and NGC 1068 has probably not had a recent period of activity
  with a γ -ray or cosmic-ray luminosity &gt; 10<SUP>42</SUP> erg/s. If
  jet-cloud nucleosynthesis produces significant amounts of D, then the
  D is produced outside of the nuclear region where the subsequent infall
  may be one way to continuously supply galactic nuclei with D. However,
  any enhanced D produced via spallation reactions would have been
  destroyed via astration due to the faster star formation rate. Our
  results are additional evidence that D is primarily cosmological and
  that AGN do not produce D.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Satellite and Ground-Based Observations of the Transit of Venus
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Butts,
   D. L.; Gangestad, J. W.; Westbrook, O. W.; Cordova, A. R.; Gaydosh,
   K.; Seiradakis, J. H.
2004DPS....36.3901P    Altcode: 2004BAAS...36.1161P
  We report on a coordinated program of CCD observations of the transit
  of Venus of 8 June 2004 made with NASA's Transition Region and Coronal
  Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft and with ground-based observations from
  Greece (including the first two contacts) and the U.S. (the last
  two contacts). We observed in white light, with special attention to
  imaging Venus's atmosphere at ingress and egress and to the presence
  and formation of the black-drop effect at second and third contacts. We
  analyze the data in terms of the telescope's point-spread function,
  the solar limb darkening (which we previously showed to have a role
  in the black-drop effect for a transit of Mercury), and seeing effects
  from the terrestrial atmosphere. Our TRACE data have a 7-s cadence at
  uncompressed data transmission and higher for compressed data, both over
  the 20-min ingress and egress phases. Our expedition was supported by
  a grant from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National
  Geographic Society. We thank Sigma Xi for additional student support.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Box: Transit Research in the 21st Century
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2004S&T...108e..82P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fascinating Pluto
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Elliot, James L.
2004PhT....57i..18P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: TRACE observations of the 15 November 1999 transit of Mercury
and the Black Drop effect: considerations for the 2004 transit
    of Venus
Authors: Schneider, Glenn; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Golub, Leon
2004Icar..168..249S    Altcode:
  Historically, the visual manifestation of the "Black Drop effect," the
  appearance of a band linking the solar limb to the disk of a transiting
  planet near the point of internal tangency, had limited the accuracy of
  the determination of the Astronomical Unit and the scale of the Solar
  System in the 18th and 19th centuries. This problem was misunderstood
  in the case of Venus during its rare transits due to the presence of
  its atmosphere. We report on observations of the 15 November 1999
  transit of Mercury obtained, without the degrading effects of the
  Earth's atmosphere, with the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer
  spacecraft. In spite of the telescope's location beyond the Earth's
  atmosphere, and the absence of a significant mercurian atmosphere, a
  faint Black Drop effect was detected. After calibration and removal of,
  or compensation for, both internal and external systematic effects,
  the only radially directed brightness anisotropies found resulted
  from the convolution of the instrumental point-spread function with
  the solar limb-darkened, back-lit, illumination function. We discuss
  these effects in light of earlier ground-based observations of transits
  of Mercury and of Venus (also including the effects of atmospheric
  "seeing") to explain the historical basis for the Black Drop effect. The
  methodologies we outline here for improving upon transit imagery are
  applicable to ground-based (adaptive optics augmented) and space-based
  observations of the 8 June 2004 and 5-6 June 2012 transits of Venus,
  providing a path to achieving high-precision measurements at and near
  the instants of internal limb tangencies.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Bohr Staircase
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2004PhTea..42...38P    Altcode:
  The attempt to bring students to critical thinking about topics in
  contemporary astronomy is a goal shared by many teachers. Since the
  rise of astrophysics in the early 20th century, spectroscopy has been
  the defining technique. Various techniques have been tried to give
  students a concrete understanding of emission lines and absorption
  lines in the hydrogen spectrum.1 Spectroscopy of hydrogen plays an
  important part of most textbooks in elementary astronomy.2 After years
  of jumping off lecture-room steps and trying (but never succeeding) in
  hovering between stair levels, I still find too many students drawing
  equally spaced hydrogen energy levels on exams. I thus arranged for
  carpenters to build a five-step staircase with the spacing matching
  that of the actual hydrogen energy levels. I can now use the staircase
  to demonstrate the Bohr atom3 in a memorable manner. “Bohr staircase”
  is therefore a suitable name for it. If a teacher wants to stress the
  visible spectrum rather than the energy levels, “Balmer staircase”
  is an alternate name.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Chemical Composition of a Molecular Cloud at the Outer
    Edge of the Galaxy
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Brammer, G.; Roberts, H.; Millar, T. J.;
   Henkel, C.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2004oee..sympE..37L    Altcode:
  Centimeter and millimeter-wave observations of a molecular cloud at
  the extreme outer edge of the Galactic disk (kinematic ga lactocentric
  distance: ̃28 kpc) are presented. We detected CO, <SUP>13</SUP>CO,
  <SUP>18</SUP>CO, CS, CN, SO, HCN, HNC, C<SUB>2</SUB>H, HCO<SUP>+</SUP>,
  H<SUP>13</SUP>CO<SUP>+</SUP>, HCS<SUP>+</SUP>, NH<SUB>3</SUB>,
  H<SUB>2</SUB>CO, C<SUB>3</SUB>H<SUB>2</SUB> and CH<SUB>3</SUB>OH, while
  <SUP>17</SUP>CO, <SUP>34</SUP>CS, SiO, SiS, N<SUB>2</SUB>H<SUP>+</SUP>,
  D CN, DNC, DCO<SUP>+</SUP>, SO<SUB>2</SUB> and HC<SUB>3</SUB>N remained
  undetected. From the NH<SUB>3</SUB> and H<SUB>2</SUB>CO data, a kinetic
  temperature of T<SUB>kin</SUB> ̃20 K and a density of n(H<SUB>2</SUB>)
  ̃5×10<SUP>3</SUP> cm<SUP>-3</SUP> are derived. Nitrogen bearing
  molecules show , when detected, only weak lines. Commonly strong
  line emitters such as N<SUB>2</SUB>H<SUP>+</SUP> and HC<SUB>3</SUB>N
  were not seen. Using a numeri cal network including 5300 chemical
  reactions we determined that N is depleted by approximately 24 times,
  and the metallicit y is reduced by a factor of five (similar to dwarf
  irregular galaxies or damped Lyman alpha systems) relative to the
  solar ne ighborhood. These unusual abundances are probably the result
  of the infall of halo gas enriched in O, C, and S from a burst o f
  massive star formation in the Galactic halo shortly after the Milky
  Way was formed. This activity would have produced both O and S, which
  are produced by massive stars; C, which is produced by massive and
  intermediate mass stars; but less N abundan ce because the secondary
  element N is produced primarily from low mass stars. Thus the edge cloud
  probably results from infal ling halo gas from the early Galaxy that was
  not significantly processed during the last 10 Gyr and provides a new
  way to und erstand the origin of the Galactic disk. Our observations
  of the early Galactic disk abundances will constrain models of nu
  cleosynthesis, Galactic chemical evolution, and astrochemistry.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Value of the Great Observatories' Educational Programs
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
2003AAS...20310701P    Altcode: 2003BAAS...35.1376P
  What should non-major and school-level students learn about
  astronomy? The current trend in Physics Education Research, now being
  translated to Astronomy Education Research, is that "less is more." As
  a result, there may be little time for modern topics or there may be
  a judgment that these topics are too abstract to teach. Yet NASA's
  Great Observatories and other missions have vital and interesting
  Education and Public Outreach programs. Through the Web, through
  distribution of CD-ROM's and other media, and through a variety of
  materials and activities these programs provide not only reports
  on current research but also substantial background information. To
  explore the contemporary question of what we professional astronomers
  think we should be communicating to students at all levels, I have
  invited both scientists and public information officers of the Hubble
  Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Space Infrared
  Telescope Facility to discuss the importance and the methodologies of
  their Education and Public Outreach programs.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Explanation of the Black-Drop Effect at Transits of Mercury
    and the Forthcoming Transit of Venus
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Schneider, G.; Golub, L.
2003AAS...203.0104P    Altcode: 2003BAAS...35.1202P
  We used the observations of the transits of Mercury of 1999 and 2003
  taken with NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) solar
  spacecraft. For the 1999 Mercury transit, for which data were acquired
  with the highest digital fidelity available for TRACE, we detected a
  black-drop effect, in spite of the facts that we were observing from
  outside the Earth's atmosphere and that Mercury has no significant
  atmosphere. We were able to show that the Mercury black-drop effect
  comes from a convolution of the instrument's point-spread function and
  the solar limb darkening. By implication, we should be able to explain
  Venus's black-drop effect in a similar way. It has long been known that
  Venus's black-drop effect is too large to come from Venus's atmosphere.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book review: The enigma of sunspots: a story of discovery
    and scientific revolution / Floris Books, Edinburgh, 192 pp., 2002,
    ISBN 0-86315-370-4.
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2003JHA....34..458P    Altcode: 2003JHA....34..458B
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Space Studies of the Black-Drop Effect at a Mercury Transit
Authors: Schneider, G.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Golub, L.
2003astro.ph.10379S    Altcode:
  Transits of Mercury and Venus across the face of the Sun are rare. The
  20th century had 15 transits of Mercury and the 21st century will have
  14, the two most recent occuring on 15 November 1999 and 7 May 2003. We
  report on our observations and analyses of a black-drop effect at the
  1999 and 2003 transits of Mercury seen in high spatial resolution
  optical imaging with NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer
  (TRACE) spacecraft. We have separated the primary contributors to this
  effect, solar limb darkening and broadening due to the instrumental
  point spread function, for the 1999 event. The observations are
  important for understanding historical observations of transits
  of Venus, which in the 18th and 19th centuries were basic for the
  determination of the scale of the solar system. Our observations
  are in preparation for the 8 June 2004 transit of Venus, the first
  to occur since 1882. Only five transits of Venus have ever been seen
  -- in 1639, 1761, 1769, 1874, and 1882. These events occur in pairs,
  whose members are separated by 8 years, with an interval between pairs
  of 105 or 122 years. Nobody alive has ever seen a transit of Venus.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Complete Idiot's Guide to The Sun
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2003cigs.book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The recent expansion of Pluto's atmosphere
Authors: Elliot, J. L.; Ates, A.; Babcock, B. A.; Bosh, A. S.; Buie,
   M. W.; Clancy, K. B.; Dunham, E. W.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Hall, D. T.;
   Kern, S. D.; Leggett, S. K.; Levine, S. E.; Moon, D. -S.; Olkin, C. B.;
   Osip, D. J.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Penprase, B. E.; Person, M. J.; Qu,
   S.; Rayner, J. T.; Roberts, L. C.; Salyk, C. V.; Souza, S. P.; Stone,
   R. C.; Taylor, B. W.; Tholen, D. J.; Thomas-Osip, J. E.; Ticehurst,
   D. R.; Wasserman, L. H.
2003Natur.424..165E    Altcode:
  Stellar occultations-the passing of a relatively nearby body in front
  of a background star-can be used to probe the atmosphere of the closer
  body with a spatial resolution of a few kilometres (ref. 1). Such
  observations can yield the scale height, temperature profile, and other
  information about the structure of the occulting atmosphere. Occultation
  data acquired for Pluto's atmosphere in 1988 revealed a nearly
  isothermal atmosphere above a radius of ~1,215km. Below this level,
  the data could be interpreted as indicating either an extinction
  layer or the onset of a large thermal gradient, calling into question
  the fundamental structure of this atmosphere. Another question is to
  what extent Pluto's atmosphere might be collapsing as it recedes from
  the Sun (passing perihelion in 1989 in its 248-year orbital period),
  owing to the extreme sensitivity of the equilibrium surface pressure to
  the surface temperature. Here we report observations at a variety of
  visible and infrared wavelengths of an occultation of a star by Pluto
  in August 2002. These data reveal evidence for extinction in Pluto's
  atmosphere and show that it has indeed changed, having expanded rather
  than collapsed, since 1988.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: Setting sail for the universe: astronomers
    and their discoveries / Rutgers University Press, Piscataway, NJ,
    192 pp., 2002, ISBN 0-8135-3088-1.
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2003JHA....34..238P    Altcode: 2003JHA....34..238F
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pluto's Atmospheric Figure from the P131.1 Stellar Occultation
Authors: Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Clancy, K. B.; Kern, S. D.;
   Salyk, C. V.; Tholen, D. J.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Souza,
   S. P.; Ticehurst, D. R.; Hall, D.; Roberts, L. C., Jr.; Bosh, A. S.;
   Buie, M. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Olkin, C. B.; Taylor, B.; Levine, S. E.;
   Eikenberry, S. S.; Moon, D. -S.; Osip, D. J.
2003DPS....35.2301P    Altcode: 2003BAAS...35..957P
  The stellar occultation by Pluto of the 15th magnitude star designated
  P131.1 (McDonald and Elliot, AJ, 119, 1999) on 2002 August 21 (UT)
  provided the first significant chance to compare Pluto's atmospheric
  structure to that determined from the 1988 occultation of P8 (Millis,
  et al., Icarus, 105, 282). The P131.1 occultation was observed from
  several stations in Hawaii and the western United States (Elliot
  et al., Nature, in press, 2003). Numerous occultation chords were
  obtained enabling us to examine Pluto's atmospheric figure. The light
  curves from the observations were analyzed together in the occultation
  coordinate system of Elliot et al., (AJ, 106, 2544). The Mauna Kea and
  Lick datasets straddle the center of Pluto's figure, providing strong
  constraints on model fits to cross sections of the atmospheric shape. In
  1988, Millis (et al., Icarus, 105, 282) did not report any deviation
  from sphericity in Pluto's atmospheric figure. From the 2002 data,
  Pluto;s isobars at the radii probed by the occultation ( 1250 km)
  appear to be distorted from a circular cross-section. Least-squares
  fits to this cross-section by elliptical models reveal ellipticities
  in the range 0.05-0.08 although the shape may be more complex than
  ellipsoidal. The orientation of the distortion appears uncorrelated
  with Pluto;s rotational axis. Taken at face value, this ellipticity
  could imply wind speeds of up to twice the sonic speed ( 200 m/s),
  which would be difficult to explain. Similar distortions have been
  reported for Triton's atmosphere (Elliot, J. L., et al., Icarus 148,
  347). This work has been supported in part by Research Corporation,
  the Air Force Research Laboratory, NSF, and NASA.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The forgotten star atlas : John Bevis's Uranographia
    Britannica.
Authors: Kilburn, K. J.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Gingerich, O.
2003JHA....34..125K    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Working Group on Solar Eclipses (Groupe de Travail pour les
    Eclipses Solaires)
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2003IAUTA..25...75P    Altcode: 2003IAUTr..25A..75P
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Space Studies of the Black Drop Effect at a Mercury Transit
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, Glenn; Golub, Leon
2003IAUJD...2E...5P    Altcode:
  The accuracy with which the Astronomical Unit was known has been
  historically limited by the ""black drop"" effect observed during
  Venus's rare transits. It is often mistakenly attributed to Venus's
  atmosphere. We report on observations taken outside the Earth's
  atmosphere of the 1999 and 2003 transits of Mercury with the NASA
  solar satellite known as the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer
  (TRACE). Though there was no contribution from the atmosphere of Mercury
  or the Earth nevertheless a faint black-drop effect was detected. We
  discuss and model the images showing the sources of the black-drop
  effect. The techniques we discuss are applicable to ground-based and
  space-based observations of the 8 June 2004 and 5-6 June 2012 transits
  of Venus.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Textbooks for K-12 Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2003IAUSS...4E..63P    Altcode:
  Astronomy is a part of the science curriculum of the early years of
  K-12 education in the United States but after a grades 7-9 (ages
  13-15 approximately) sequence that is usually Life Sciences/Earth
  Sciences/Physical Sciences no science is commonly required. Several
  national projects have addressed the astronomy content of K-12
  education. I will discuss and show examples of the astronomy content
  in American school textbooks and various of the proposals that have
  been advanced for reform.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Composition at the Outer Edge of the Galaxy
Authors: Lubowich, Donald; Brammer, Gabriel; Roberts, Helen; Millar,
   Tom; Henkel, Christian; Pasachoff, Jay; Ruffle, Paul
2003IAUJD..15E..51L    Altcode:
  We present observations of a 10-Gyr-old molecular cloud at the
  outer edge of the Galactic disk (28 kpc). We detected CO 13CO 18CO
  CS CN SO HCN HNC HCO+ CH3OH HCS+ H2CO C2H C3H2 and NH3 but we did
  not detect CO+ N2H+ DCN HC3N 34CS SiO SiS 17CO or SO2. The NH3 H2CO
  and CS abundances indicate that T = 20 K and n = 5x10(3) cm(-3). The
  N-containing molecules were weak and we did not detect the usually
  strong N2H+ or HC3N lines. Using our 5300 chemical reaction model we
  calculate that the N is depleted in this cloud by about 3x and this
  cloud has a lower metallicity (similar to dwarf irregular galaxies
  or damped Lyman alpha systems) and a lower cosmic-ray ionization rate
  possibly resulting from the infall of halo gas enriched in O C and S
  from a burst of massive star formation in the Galactic halo shortly
  after the Milky Way was formed. This activity would have produced both
  O and S which are produced by massive stars; C which is produced by
  massive and intermediate mass stars; but less N abundance because the
  secondary element N is produced primarily from low mass stars.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: What Should Students Learn? Stellar Magnitudes?
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2003AEdRv...2b.162P    Altcode: 2003AEdRv...2..162P
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Back to School
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2003S&T...105a..12P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 23 November 2003 Total Solar Eclipse in Antarctica
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2003IAUSS...2E...9P    Altcode:
  The total solar eclipse of 23 November 2003 will be visible only
  from Antarctica. The path of totality extends from Mirny at 93°E
  to the Maitri Novolazarevskaya 12°E. Totality lasts from 1 minute
  54 seconds at Mirny with the Sun at an altitude of 14° to a maximum
  of 1 minute 57 seconds at greatest eclipse halfway in toward Vostok
  with the Sun at an altitude of 18° to 1 minute 20 s with the Sun 2°
  above the horizon where the path leaves the coast near Maitri. The
  rest of Antarctica will have only a partial eclipse with the Sun's
  diameter 77% covered at McMurdo and 65° covered at the tip near
  South America. An icebreaker passenger ship is planning a 28-day
  voyage and airplanes are being arranged for observation. Scientific
  observations will include electronic imaging of the corona to compare
  with simultaneous space observations of the Sun. Links to maps and
  other items of coordination can be found at www.eclipses.info and
  www.totalsolareclipse.net the sites of the IAU Program Group on Public
  Education at the Time of Eclipses and of the IAU Working Group on
  Eclipses respectively. The NASA site with maps and other information
  is at sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/TSE2003/TSE2003.html

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pluto Occultation of P131.1 in 2002 August: Overview of
    Observations and Infrared Results
Authors: Elliot, J. L.; Clancy, K. B.; Rayner, J. T.; Tholen,
   D. J.; Person, M. J.; Osip, D. J.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock,
   B. A.; Ticehurst, D. R.; Hall, D.; Roberts, L. C., Jr.; Bosh, A. S.;
   Eikenberry, S. S.; Moon, D. -S.; Buie, M. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Olkin,
   C. B.; Taylor, B.; Kern, S. D.; Qu, S.; Salyk, C. V.; Leggett, S. K.;
   Levine, S. E.; Stone, R. C.
2002AAS...201.6101E    Altcode: 2002BAAS...34.1211E
  Pluto's occultation of the star P131.1 (R = 15.7, K = 13.3; see McDonald
  &amp; Elliot, 2002, AJ 120, 1599) on 2002 August 21 was successfully
  observed with nine telescopes: the IRTF, UH 2.2m, UH 0.6m, UKIRT, and
  CFHT on Mauna Kea; the AEOS telescope on Haleakala, the Shane telescope
  at Lick Observatory, the Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory, and
  the Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. Occultation light curves were
  recorded at a variety of time resolutions and wavelengths in order to
  facilitate several investigations of Pluto's atmosphere (see Pasachoff
  et al., Person et al., Clancy et al., this meeting). We confirm the
  main conclusion from the P126 occultation (Buie et al., BAAS 34, 877)
  that the structure of Pluto's atmosphere has changed substantially
  since it was last observed in 1988 (Elliot &amp; Young et al., AJ 103,
  991). The multi-wavelength nature of our P131.1 data set allows us to
  elucidate these changes. The IRTF data were recorded with SpeX (Rayner
  et al. 2003 PASP, in preparation) and span the 0.8 to 2.5 micron region
  of the spectrum. Although recorded at lower time resolution (about 4
  spectra per minute) than the other data sets, comparison of the SpeX
  light curves at different wavelengths (and comparing them with the
  visible light curves) is being used to establish the role of extinction
  by possible hazes and clouds in Pluto's atmosphere throughout the
  occultation. These IR data and the UKIRT light curve with the H filter
  will be used to correct the visible-light curves for extinction effects
  (if present) prior to inverting the light curves to obtain temperature,
  pressure, and number-density profiles of Pluto's atmosphere. This work
  has been supported in part by Research Corporation, NASA, and NSF.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: High-Time-Resolution White-Light Observations of Pluto's
    Occultation of P131.1 in 2002 August
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Elliot, J. L.; Babcock, B. A.; Ticehurst,
   D. R.; Tholen, D. J.; Person, M. J.
2002AAS...201.6102P    Altcode: 2002BAAS...34Q1211P
  We observed a 304-s FWHM occultation of the 15th magnitude (R) star
  P131.1 by Pluto on 2002 August 21 (UT) with the University of Hawaii's
  2.2-m telescope on Mauna Kea. We used a Princeton Instruments/Roper
  front-illuminated CCD in frame-transfer mode at a 0.5 s cadence, with no
  filter in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Seeing was 0.4
  arcsec; Charon was distinctly visible throughout alongside Pluto. We
  obtained images with our 0.2 arcsec pixels for astrometric purposes
  at various times before and after the occultation on the night of the
  occultation and on the preceding night. In our occultation run of 20
  min, we binned 5x5 and obtained 2400 images. A nearby double star
  allowed monitoring of the sky transparency. The light curve shows
  the occultation at a higher cadence than the visible and infrared
  light curves obtained at adjacent telescopes. We discuss the fully
  reduced and calibrated light curve, the implications for models of
  haze in Pluto's atmosphere from the lack of complete occultation
  even at full depth, and the interpretation of positive spikes in
  the light curve during the emersion as waves or turbulence in Pluto's
  atmosphere. We compare these white-light observations with the infrared
  results obtained simultaneously and discuss implications for Pluto's
  current atmospheric structure. This work was supported by Research
  Corporation, by NASA through its New Horizons project, and by Williams
  College. The CCD is part of NSF-supported solar-eclipse research. We
  thank A. Pickles for assistance with scientific arrangements at Mauna
  Kea and S. P. Souza for help with preliminary data reduction and other
  aspects of the expedition.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Committee of Ten and Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2002PhTea..40..517P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Examination of Pluto's Atmospheric Figure with the P131.1
    Stellar Occultation
Authors: Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Clancy, K. B.; Tholen, D. J.;
   Rayner, J. T.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Ticehurst, D. R.;
   Hall, D.; Roberts, L. C., Jr.; Bosh, A. S.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Moon,
   D. S.; Buie, M. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Olkin, C. B.; Taylor, B.; Kern,
   S. D.; Osip, D. J.; Qu, S.; Salyk, C. V.; Leggett, S. K.; Levine,
   S. E.; Stone, R. C.
2002AAS...201.6103P    Altcode: 2002BAAS...34R1211P
  From the 1988 stellar occultation by Pluto, Millis (et al., Icarus,
  105, 282) did not report any deviation from sphericity in Pluto's
  atmospheric figure. However, stellar occultation measurements of Triton
  throughout the late 1990's revealed a significant deviation from a
  spherical figure in Triton's atmospheric shape (Elliot et al., Icarus,
  148, 347, and Person 2001, S.M. Thesis, Dept. of Earth Atmos. and
  Plan. Sci., Mass. Inst. Of Tech., Cambridge MA). This deviation is
  unexpected since Triton's rotation period is slow (5.88 days), but
  the resulting non-spherical shape could be due to high winds. The
  Triton results have prompted us to examine Pluto's atmospheric figure
  with more recent data. The stellar occultation by Pluto of the 15th
  magnitude star designated P131.1 (McDonald and Elliot, AJ, 119,
  1999) on 2002 August 21 (UT) provided the first significant chance
  since the Triton results to measure such non-sphericity in Pluto's
  atmosphere. The occultation was observed from numerous stations in
  Hawaii and the western United States (see Elliot et al., Pasachoff
  et al., Clancy et al., this conference). We present the results
  of our analysis of these datasets in searching for non-spherical
  deviations in Pluto's atmospheric figure. The light curves from the
  observations were analyzed together in the occultation coordinate
  system of Elliot et al., (AJ, 106, 2544). The datasets from the various
  Mauna Kea telescopes are redundant with each other in figure space,
  but provide valuable cross checks among their timing systems. The
  Mauna Kea and Lick datasets straddle the center of Pluto's figure,
  providing strong constraints on model fits to cross sections of the
  atmospheric shape. As a second measure of possible non-sphericity,
  the individual light curves can be individually fit with atmospheric
  models in the manner of Elliot and Young (AJ, 103, 991), to search
  for asymmetry indicative of a non-circular atmospheric cross section
  around the limb of the planet. This work has been supported in part
  by Research Corporation, NASA, and NSF.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Comets, meteors, and eclipses: Art and science in early
    Renaissance Italy
Authors: Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2002M&PS...37.1563O    Altcode:
  We discuss eight trecento (fourteenth century) paintings containing
  depictions of astronomical events to reveal the revolutionary advances
  made in both astronomy and naturalistic painting in early Renaissance
  Italy, noting that an artistic interest in naturalism predisposed these
  pioneering painters to make their scientific observations. In turn,
  the convincing representations of their observations of astronomical
  phenomena in works of art rendered their paintings more believable,
  convincing. Padua was already a renowned center for mathematics
  and nascent astronomy (which was separating from astrology) when
  Enrico Scrovegni commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di
  Bondone to decorate his lavish family chapel (circa 1301-1303). Giotto
  painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional Star of Bethlehem
  in the Adoration of the Magi scene. Moreover, he painted a historical
  apparition that he recently had observed with a great accuracy even
  by modern standards. Halley's Comet of 1301 (Olson, 1979). While we do
  not know the identity of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss
  the possibility that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and
  "astronomer" who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We
  also compare Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the
  artist's shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account
  for the differences. In addition, we discuss Giotto's pupil, Taddeo
  Gaddi, reputed to have been partially blinded by a solar eclipse,
  whose calamity may find expression in his frescoes in Santa Croce,
  Florence (1328-30; 1338?). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter
  Pietro Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi
  (1316-20) contain dazzling meteor showers that reveal the artist's
  observed astronomical phenomena, such as the "radiant" effect of meteor
  showers, first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt in 1799 and only
  accepted in the nineteenth century. Lorenzetti also painted sporadic,
  independent meteors, which do not emanate from the radiant. It is also
  significant that these artists observed differences between comets and
  meteors, facts that were not absolutely established until the eighteenth
  century. In addition we demonstrate that artistic and scientific visual
  acuity were part of the burgeoning empiricism of the fourteenth century,
  which eventually yielded modern observational astronomy.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Haystack radio telescope
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2002AmJPh..70..983P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Changes in Pluto's Atmosphere Revealed by the P126A Occultation
Authors: Buie, M. W.; Elliot, J. L.; Kidger, M. R.; Bosh, A. S.;
   Saá, O.; Van Malderen, R.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Davignon, G.; Dunham,
   E. W.; Olkin, C. B.; Taylor, B. W.; Wasserman, L. H.; Clancy, K.;
   Person, M. J.; Levine, S. E.; Stone, R. C.; Peréz-González, P. G.;
   Pasachoff, J. M.; Souza, S. P.; Ticehurst, D. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.
2002DPS....34.2102B    Altcode: 2002BAAS...34..877B
  We will report the results from an occultation of P126A by
  Pluto on the night of 2002 July 20 UT. The event was successfully
  observed with a 0.4-m telescope at Mamiña, Chile under photometric
  conditions. Additional data were collected at CTIO on a 0.6-m telescope
  with heavy interference from clouds. The CTIO observations preclude an
  occultation at that location thus forcing the Mamiña chord to lie south
  of the centerline. Less-constraining negative results were obtained
  from the Canary Islands. The Mamiña lightcurve shows an occultation
  profile that clearly indicates the continued presence of a substantial
  atmosphere around Pluto. The profile does not show any trace of the
  “kink” seen in the 1988 occultation data at a similar distance
  from the centerline of the shadow. Depending on the specific model
  assumptions, the minimum distance of Mamiña from the center of Pluto's
  shadow lies in the range 1025-1130 km, which corresponds to a range of
  1180-1260 km for the deepest radius probed in Pluto's atmosphere. These
  new occultation data cannot be well fitted with models derived from the
  1988 data. Hence one or more changes have occurred in Pluto's atmosphere
  in the past 14 years. Either the haze/thermal gradient altitude has
  decreased (or disappeared altogether), or the temperature above this
  level has increased (accompanied by an increase in pressure), or some
  combination of the these two. These results challenge the current
  level of understanding of the nature of Pluto's atmosphere and its
  surface-atmosphere interaction. This work was supported, in part, by
  NASA Grants NAG5-10444, NAG5-9008, by NOAO and CTIO operated for NSF by
  AURA, NASA through the New Horizons project, and Research Corporation.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Short-Period Waves That Heat the Corona Detected at the
    1999 Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Russell, Kevin D.;
   Seaton, Daniel B.
2002SoPh..207..241P    Altcode: 2002astro.ph..2237P
  As a part of a study of the cause of solar coronal heating, we searched
  for high-frequency (~1 Hz) intensity oscillations in coronal loops in
  the [Fexiv] coronal green line. We summarize results from observations
  made at the 11 August 1999 total solar eclipse from Râmnicu-Vâlcea,
  Romania, through clear skies. We discuss the image reduction and
  analysis through two simultaneous series of coronal CCD images digitized
  at 10 Hz for a total time of about 140 s. One series of images was
  taken through a 3.6 Å filter isolating the 5303 Å[Fexiv] coronal
  green line and the other through a 100 Å filter in the nearby K-corona
  continuum. Previous observations, described in Pasachoff et al. (2000),
  showed no evidence for oscillations in the [Fexiv] green line at a level
  greater than 2% of coronal intensity. We describe several improvements
  made over the 1998 eclipse that led to increased image clarity and
  sensitivity. The corona was brighter in 1999 with the solar maximum,
  further improving the data. We use Fourier analysis to search in the
  [Fexiv] channel for intensity oscillations in loops at the base of
  the corona. Such oscillations in the 1-Hz range are predicted as a
  result of density fluctuations from the resonant absorption of MHD
  waves. The dissipation of a significant amount of mechanical energy
  from the photosphere into the corona through this mechanism could
  provide sufficient energy to heat the corona. A Monte Carlo model
  of the data suggests the presence of enhanced power, particularly in
  the 0.75-1.0 Hz range, and we conclude that MHD waves remain a viable
  method for coronal heating.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Further Analysis of Short-Period Waves for Coronal Heating
    from the 1999 Eclipse
Authors: Seaton, D. B.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Russell,
   K. D.
2002AAS...200.8804S    Altcode: 2002BAAS...34..789S
  As a part of a study of the cause of solar coronal heating, we searched
  at several eclipses for high-frequency ( 1 Hz) intensity oscillations
  in coronal loops in the [Fe XIV] coronal green line. Such oscillations
  in the 1-Hz range are predicted as a result of density fluctuations
  from the resonant absorption of MHD waves. The dissipation of a
  significant amount of mechanical energy from the photosphere into
  the corona through this mechanism could provide sufficient energy to
  hear the corona. We summarize results from observations made at the
  11 August 1999 total solar eclipse from Râmnicu-Vâlcea, Romania,
  through clear skies, where data were taken through two simultaneous
  series of coronal CCD images digitized at 10 Hz for a total time of
  about 140 s. Previous observations, described in Pasachoff, Babcock,
  Russell, McConnochie, and Diaz (2000), had a detection limit of 2% for
  intensity oscillations in the [Fe XIV] green line. We found stronger
  coronal intensity at the 1999 eclipse because of the peak in the sunspot
  cycle and we selected our region of observations in consultation with
  SOHO/EIT and TRACE scientists. One series of images was taken through
  a 3.6 Å filter isolating the 5303 Å [Fe XIV] coronal green line and
  the other through a 100 Å filter in the nearby K-corona continuum. We
  used Fourier analysis to search in the [Fe XIV] channel for intensity
  oscillations in loops at the base of the corona (Pasachoff, Babcock,
  Russell, &amp; Seaton, 2002). A comparison with a Monte-Carlo model of
  the data suggested the presence of enhanced power, particularly in the
  0.75-1.0 Hz range. We report on our ongoing wavelet analysis that may
  make a stronger case for the presence of oscillations in our data. We
  also discuss plans for observing the 4 December 2002 eclipse. Support
  for this research has been provided by the National Science Foundation,
  the National Geographic Society, and NASA; DBS is supported by the
  TRACE grant, contract NAS5-38099 from NASA to LMATC.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Menzel and eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2002JHA....33..139P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: Astronomy : from the earth to the universe.-
    6th ed. / Thomson Learning, 2001
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
2002Obs...122..111P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J.
2002eaa..bookE2017P    Altcode:
  An eclipse of the Sun is an OCCULTATION at which the Moon comes between
  the Earth and the Sun, blocking some or all of the sunlight from
  reaching an observer. Eclipses result from the fortuitous circumstance
  that the angular sizes of the Sun and the Moon as seen from Earth are
  the same to within about 10%, although in absolute diameter they differ
  by a factor of 400....

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pasachoff's Points
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2002PhTea..40..196P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Universe from Nothing
Authors: Filippenko, Alexei V.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2002Mercu..31b..15F    Altcode:
  Insights from modern physics suggest that our wondrous universe may
  be the ultimate free lunch.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Nearest star: The surprising science of our Sun
Authors: Golub, Leon; Pasachoff, Jay M.; O'Connell, James
2002PhTea..40..127G    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomical Sacred Sites - II
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2002S&T...103b..16P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: What Should College Students Learn?
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2002AEdRv...1a.124P    Altcode:
  Editor's Note: One of the key goals of the Astronomy Education Review
  is to encourage open discussion about issues of interest to astronomy
  educators. We begin our series of opinion pieces with a contribution
  by veteran educator and author Jay Pasachoff on the subject of what
  we should be teaching in the introductory college astronomy course. We
  invite our readers to respond to his position and also to submit opinion
  pieces on other controversial topics. (Please see the "How to Submit"
  section of our site.)

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay
2002afeu.book.....P    Altcode:
  Clear explanations, rare photographs, and authoritative commentary
  makes Pasachoff's book the definitive text in introductory astronomy.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Chemical Composition at the Edge of the Galaxy
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Millar, T. J.; Roberts,
   H.; Brammer, G. B.; Henkel, C.
2001AAS...199.5804L    Altcode: 2001BAAS...33Q1390L
  We present initial observations to determine the chemical composition
  of a molecular cloud at the edge of the Galaxy (28 kpc from the Galactic
  Center). Our observations provide a unique opportunity to determine the
  chemical composition and physical conditions in 10-Gyr-old less evolved
  gas similar to the early Galactic disk to help understand the formation
  of the Galaxy. We used the Kitt Peak 12-m telescope in June 2001 and
  detected the 2-1 line of CS and the 1-0 lines of HCO<SUP>+</SUP>, HCN,
  and HNC with a peak T<SUB>R<SUP>*</SUP></SUB> = 160 mK, 130 mK, 50 mK,
  and 40 mK respectively. For the 1-0 lines of DNC, DCO<SUP>+</SUP>, and
  N2H<SUP>+</SUP> we obtained upper limits of T<SUB>R<SUP>*</SUP></SUB>
  &lt; 6 mK, 6 mK, and 10 mK respectively. The HCN/HNC ratio indicated
  that this is a cold cloud with T<SUB>kin</SUB> = 10 K - 20 K. We present
  additional data from observations of SiO, SO, CH<SUB>3</SUB>OH, OCS,
  H<SUB>2</SUB>CO, H<SUB>2</SUB>CS, HC<SUB>3</SUB>N, CN, C<SUB>2</SUB>H,
  and H<SUB>2</SUB>S that will be conducted this fall with the Kitt
  Peak 12-m and Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope telescopes. We
  will test models of Galactic chemical evolution that predict that the
  abundances of C, N, O will be lower than in any other Galactic cloud
  and similar to dwarf irregular galaxies. We will test the possibility
  that we are observing gas from an early burst of massive star formation
  such as population III halo stars which would have produced some S and
  O but not a significant amount of the secondary element N that is also
  produced from low mass stars. We thank the Research Corporation for
  providing funding for general community access to Kitt Peak 12-meter
  telescope, presently operated by Steward Observatory and to the AAS
  for a small research grant.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Role of Research in an Astronomy or Astrophysics Major
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
2001AAS...19915404P    Altcode: 2001BAAS...33S1534P
  Undergraduates have proven capable of substantial research success in
  the hundreds of projects undertaken at both Williams College and over
  the past decade at its associated institutions in the Keck Northeast
  Astronomy Consortium: Wellesley, Wesleyan, Middlebury, Colgate, Vassar,
  Haverford, and Swarthmore. We consider the undergraduate research to
  be central to our astronomy and astrophysics major programs. Research
  opportunities of underclass years, usually during summers, often help
  students decide to major in astronomy or astrophysics. The senior
  thesis research is often a highpoint of the undergraduate educational
  experience while nonthesis projects often also prove valuable for
  students assessing their interests and careers. Many of the projects
  have been on campus while others are at national observatories or in
  other non-local research programs. Our Keck consortium has included
  a student summer exchange in which 12-16 students, usually after
  their sophomore or junior years, undertake research projects at
  member institutions other than their own. The results are reported
  at a student research symposium each fall, with approximately
  35 research papers delivered; the proceedings are available. See
  http://www.astro.wellesley.edu/keck/. Institutions such as those
  in the consortium, with typical enrollments of 1100-2800, have been
  shown to generate a higher rate of attainment of science professional
  degrees than universities. Of course, many students at universities
  also benefit from undergraduate research opportunities during their
  undergraduate careers. Whether at colleges at universities, the personal
  contact and opportunity to transfer one's abilities from book learning
  to independent investigation can be invaluable in preparing students
  for their post-undergraduate lives.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: TRACE Observations of the 15 November 1999 Transit of Mercury
Authors: Schneider, G.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Golub, L.
2001DPS....33.1002S    Altcode: 2001BAAS...33.1037S
  We present time-resolved (38s) high-resolution (500mas) imagery of
  the ingress phase of the 15 November 1999 transit of Mercury observed
  with the Transition Region Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft in its
  "white light" (1600 - 6000 Angstrom) channel. As part of our photometric
  and astrometic analyses of this data set we examined the images in and
  around the point of internal tangency for evidence of the historical
  "black drop effect". After calibration (including careful removal of
  image/instrumental artifacts and flat-fielding) the only radially
  directed brightness anisotropes found were due to the interacting
  effects the back-light solar limb-darkening, diffraction of photospheric
  light around the Mercurian disk, and the instrument's Point Spread
  Function. We discuss, and model, these effects as they would have
  applied to earlier ground-based observations of Mercurian transits
  (also including the effects of atmospheric "seeing") to explain the
  historical basis for the black drop effect.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Nearest Star: The Surprising Science of Our Sun
Authors: Golub, Leon; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Lopez, Ramon E.
2001PhT....54k..59G    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: What Should College Students Learn?
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2001AEdRv...1..124P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Meteoritics as Visual Metaphors
Authors: Olson, R. M. J.; Pasachoff, J. M.
2001M&PSA..36R.153O    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: What should students learn?
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2001PhTea..39..381P    Altcode:
  It is important for students to learn about the exciting things that
  are now going on in astronomy. But the application of physics research
  to astronomy seems bogged down in the phases of the Moon and the cause
  of the seasons.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Donald H. Menzel: Scientist, Educator Builder
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Gingerich, O.; Layzer, D.; Noyes, R. W.;
   Parkinson, W. H.; Welther, B.
2001AGUSM..SH41B26P    Altcode:
  A centennial symposium in honor of Donald H. Menzel was held at the
  Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics on May 11, 2001. Menzel
  was known especially for his studies of the solar chromosphere, for
  his theoretical work on gaseous nebulae, and for his role in founding
  the Sacramento Peak and High Altitude observatories and in bringing the
  Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to Cambridge. Menzel received his
  Ph.D. at Princeton, where he was fascinated and excited by the lectures
  of Henry Norris Russell about the new theoretical astrophysics. At
  Lick Observatory, Menzel investigated the solar chromosphere using
  solar eclipse spectra, and published the results in a major volume
  in 1931. The value for the mean molecular weight he deduced for the
  lower chromosphere helped persuade Russell and others that hydrogen
  was the major constituent of the solar atmosphere, as Cecilia Payne had
  intimated earlier. Menzel's studies of solar eclipse spectra also led
  him to propose, in a paper written with R. T. Birge, that hydrogen had
  an isotope of mass 2, a suggestion that motivated Harold Urey to isolate
  the isotope (deuterium) chemically. Menzel joined the Harvard faculty
  in 1932. His interest in investigating the sun led him to observe
  more than a dozen solar eclipses, to exploit the coronagraph, and to
  found two solar observatories: at Climax, Colorado, and at Sunspot, New
  Mexico. He served as Director of the Harvard College Observatory from
  1952 to 1966. During this time he suggested bringing and arranged to
  bring the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory to Harvard. Speakers at
  the symposium on Menzel's life, times, and scientific legacy included
  Donald Osterbrock, David DeVorkin, David Layzer, Jay Pasachoff,
  Barbara Welther, Thomas Bogdan, Jack Zirker, and France Cordova. The
  organizing committee was Owen Gingerich, David Layzer, Robert Noyes,
  William Parkinson, Jay Pasachoff, and Barbara Welther.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Eclipse/SOHO Joint Observations of Solar Eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Russell, K. D.; Seaton, D. B.; Babcock,
   B. A.; Martin, S.
2001AGUSM..SH41B25P    Altcode:
  Eclipse observations extend upward from the lunar limb, and so include a
  region occulted by all coronagraphs, spaceborne and mountaintop. Prior
  to the 1998 total solar eclipse, we conceived a joint observation
  with LASCO on SOHO to observe the solar corona with the same field
  of view and same filter passband and central wavelength. We would
  not only fill in the occulted region from the SOHO C1 coronagraph
  but also measure the substantial scattered light on C1 as a function
  of position by comparing its observations with ours. We have used a
  purpose-built telescope matching SOHO's and IDL to obtain and calibrate
  those observations with a 0.3 nm passband at 530.0 nm, offband from
  the coronal green line. Further, with the demise of C1, we used an
  improvement in our apparatus to observe on-band at 530.3 nm during the
  total solar eclipse of 1999. For both eclipses, we have interposed the
  EIT disk observations with our eclipse observations of the lower corona
  and with LASCO C2 observations of higher coronal levels to provide a
  full-field continuous image of the corona, emphasizing streamers and
  other structure and tracing them from their feet on the solar disk
  upward through the corona.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: On teaching introductory astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2001PhTea..39..198P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pro-Am Solar-Eclipse Conference, A
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2001S&T...101b..45P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Early Eclipse Science
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2001S&T...101b..46P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: Shoemaker by Levy : the man who made an impact /
    Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 303 pp., 2000,
    ISBN 0-691-00225-8.
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2001Ast....29b.100P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Solar-Eclipse Science: Still Going Strong
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2001S&T...101b..40P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Moon-Struck: Artists Rediscover Nature And Observe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.
2001EM&P...85..303P    Altcode: 1999EM&P...85..303P
  We discuss rare early depictions of the Moon by artists who actually
  observed Earth's nearest neighbor rather than relying on stylized
  formulas. The earliest, from the 14th and 15th centuries, reveal that
  revolutionary advances in both pre-telescopic astronomy and naturalistic
  painting could go hand-in-hand. This link suggests that when painters
  observed the world, their definition of world could also include the
  heavens and the Moon. Many of the artists we discuss - e.g., Pietro
  Lorenzetti, Giotto, and Jan Van Eyck - actually studied the Moon,
  incorporating their studies into several works. We also consider the
  star map on the dome over the altar in the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo,
  Florence (c. 1442), whose likely advisor was Toscanelli. In addition, we
  examine representations by artists who painted for Popes Julius II and
  Leo X - Raphael and Sebastiano del Piombo, both of whom were influenced
  by individuals at the papal court, such as the astronomer, painter,
  and cartographer Johann (Giovanni) Ruysch and Leonardo da Vinci. We
  also discuss Leonardo's pre-telescopic notes and lunar drawings as they
  impacted on art and science in Florence, where Galileo would study
  perspective and chiaroscuro. Galileo's representations of the Moon
  (engraved in his Sidereus Nuncius, 1610) are noted, together with those
  by Harriot and Galileo's friend, the painter Cigoli. During the 17th
  century, the Moon's features were telescopically mapped by astronomers
  with repercussions in art, e.g., paintings by Donati Creti and Raimondo
  Manzini as well as Adam Elsheimer. Ending with a consideration of the
  19th-century artists/astronomers John Russell and John Brett and early
  lunar photography, we demonstrate that artistic and scientific visual
  acuity belonged to the burgeoning empiricism of the 14th, 15th, and
  16th centuries that eventually yielded modern observational astronomy.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Deuterium Near and Far in the Galaxy
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ostenson, Jason A.
2001coev.conf...63L    Altcode:
  We report on our program to determine the deuterium abundance
  distribution in the Milky Way. We have reported D/H =
  1.7×10<SUP>-6</SUP> in a molecular cloud 10 pc from the Galactic
  Center, from which we infer recent continuous infall of pregalactic
  primordial gas. We have searched for the Balmer Da lines with high S/N
  = 300 - 1000 observations of a halo star (HD 140283), slowly rotating
  B stars (ι Her and γ Peg), H II regions (Orion Nebula and M17),
  and the planetary nebula NGC 7027.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Public education in developing countries on the occasions
    of eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2001IAUGA..24..101P    Altcode: 2000IAUSS..24E..38P
  Total solar eclipses will cross southern Africa on June 21, 2001,
  and on December 4, 2002. Most of Africa will see partial phases. The
  total phase of the 2001 eclipse will be visible from parts of Angola,
  Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Madagascar. The total phase of the
  2002 eclipse will be visible from parts of Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe,
  South Africa and Mozambique. Public education must be undertaken to tell
  the people how to look at the eclipse safely. We can take advantage of
  having the attention of the people and of news media to teach about
  not only eclipses but also the rest of astronomy. I am Chair of a
  "Public Education at Eclipses" subcommission of IAU Commission 46 on
  the Teaching of Astronomy, and we are able to advise educators and
  others about materials, procedures and information releases.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Nearest star : the surprising science of our sun
Authors: Golub, Leon; Pasachoff, Jay M.
2001nsss.book.....G    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Cosmos: Astronomy in the New Millennium
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay; Filippenko, Alex
2001canm.book.....P    Altcode:
  Pasachoff/Filippenko represent a team that brings together experience in
  writing, research, and teaching. This book provides a brief, up-to-date,
  and beautifully illustrated overview of astronomy. Pasachoff/Filippenko
  are each very experienced in teaching elementary astronomy to
  their student and bring that experience to bear in this text. Visit
  www.harcourtcollege.com/astro/cosmos for further information.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Prediction and Observation of the 1997 July 18 Stellar
Occultation by Triton: More Evidence for Distortion and Increasing
    Pressure in Triton's Atmosphere
Authors: Elliot, J. L.; Person, M. J.; McDonald, S. W.; Buie, M. W.;
   Dunham, E. W.; Millis, R. L.; Nye, R. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Wasserman,
   L. H.; Young, L. A.; Hubbard, W. B.; Hill, R.; Reitsema, H. J.;
   Pasachoff, J. M.; McConnochie, T. H.; Babcock, B. A.; Stone, R. C.;
   Francis, P.
2000Icar..148..347E    Altcode:
  A variety of CCD astrometric data was used to predict the location of
  the path for the occultation of the star we have denoted "Tr176" by
  Triton, which occurred on 1997 July 18, and was visible from locations
  in northern Australia and southern North America. A network of fixed
  and portable telescopes equipped with high-speed photometric equipment
  was set up to observe the event, with the following observational
  goals: (i) mapping the central flash (to establish the global
  shape of Triton's atmosphere at about 20-km altitude by modeling
  the detailed shape of the central flash), (ii) obtaining one or more
  light curves of high signal-to-noise ratio from a large telescope (to
  accurately determine the thermal structure of Triton's atmosphere),
  and (iii) obtaining light curves distributed across Triton's disk (to
  probe the thermal structure of Triton's atmosphere above different
  areas and to establish the shape of the atmosphereat about 100-km
  altitude by modeling the half-light surface). Although the large,
  fixed telescopes proved to be outside of the occultation shadow and
  observations with some of the portable telescopes were foiled by clouds,
  light curves were successfully recorded from Brownsville, Texas, and
  Chillagoe, Queensland. These were combined with data from another
  group to determine the radius and shape of the half-light surface
  in Triton's atmosphere and the equivalent-isothermal temperatures at
  the sub-occultation latitudes on Triton. A circular solution for the
  half-light surface (projected into Triton's shadow) yielded a radius of
  1439±10 km. However, the data are indicative of a global shape more
  complex than a sphere. Such a figure is most likely caused by strong
  winds. Light-curve models corresponding to the best fitting circular
  and elliptical atmospheres were fit to the data. The mean pressure
  at 1400-km radius (48-km altitude) derived from all of the data was
  2.23±0.28 μbar for the circular model and 2.45±0.32 μbar for the
  elliptical model. These values suggest a global pressure increase at
  this level since a previous Triton occultation in 1995 August. The mean
  equivalent-isothermal temperature at 1400 km was 43.6±3.7 K for the
  circular model and 42.0±3.6 K for the elliptical model. Within their
  (sometimes large) uncertainties, the equivalent-isothermal temperatures
  agree for all Triton latitudes probed.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Further Evidence for Increasing Pressure and a Non-spherical
    Shape in Triton's Atmosphere
Authors: Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; McDonald, S. W.; Buie, M. W.;
   Dunham, E. W.; Millis, R. L.; Nye, R. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Wasserman,
   L. H.; Young, L. A.; Hubbard, W. B.; Hill, R.; Reitsema, H. J.;
   Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. M.; Stone, R. C.
2000DPS....32.4502P    Altcode: 2000BAAS...32.1082P
  An occultation by Triton of a star denoted as Tr176 by McDonald &amp;
  Elliot (AJ 109, 1352), was observed on 1997 July 18 from various
  locations in Australia and North America. After an extensive prediction
  effort, two complete chords of the occultation were recorded by our
  PCCD portable data systems. These chords were combined with three
  others recorded by another group (Sicardy et al., BAAS 30, 1107)
  to provide an overall geometric solution for Triton's atmosphere at
  the occultation pressure. A simple circular fit to these five chords
  yielded a half-light radius of 1439 +/- 10 km, however least squares
  fitting revealed a significant deviation from the simple circular
  projection of a spherical atmosphere. The best fitting ellipse (a first
  order deviation from the circular solution) yielded a mean radius
  of 1440 +/- 6 km and an ellipticity of 0.040 +/- 0.003. To further
  characterize the non-spherical solutions to the geometric fits,
  methods were developed to analyze the data assuming both circular
  and elliptical profiles. Circular and elliptically focused light
  curve models corresponding to the best fitting circular and elliptical
  geometric solutions were fit to the data. Using these light curve fits,
  the mean pressure at the 1400 km radius (48 km altitude) derived from
  all the data was 2.23 +/- 0.28 microbar for the circular model and 2.45
  +/- 0.32 microbar for the elliptical model. These pressures agree with
  those for the Tr180 occultation (which occurred a few months later),
  so these results are consistent with the conclusions of Elliot et
  al. (Icarus 143, 425) that Triton's surface pressure has increased from
  14.0 microbar at the time of the Voyager encounter to 19.0 microbar in
  1997. The mean equivalent-isothermal temperature at 1400 km was 43.6
  +/- 3.7 K for the circular model and 42.0 +/- 3.6 K for the elliptical
  model. Within their calculated errors, the equivalent-isothermal
  temperatures were the same for all Triton latitudes probed.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A search at two eclipses for short-period waves that heat
    the corona
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Russell, Kevin D.;
   McConnochie, Timothy H.; Diaz, J. Sebastian
2000SoPh..195..281P    Altcode:
  As part of a study of the cause of solar coronal heating, we searched
  for high-frequency (~1 Hz) intensity oscillations in coronal loops in
  the [Fexiv] coronal green line. We summarize results from observations
  made at the 3 November 1994, total solar eclipse from the International
  Astronomical Union site in Putre, Chile, through partly cloudy skies,
  and at the 26 February 1998 total solar eclipse from Nord, Aruba,
  through clear skies. We discuss the image reduction and analysis of two
  simultaneous series of coronal CCD images digitized at 10 Hz for a total
  time of 160 s in Chile. One series of images was taken through a filter
  isolating the 5303 Å[Fexiv] coronal green line and the other through
  a 100 Å filter in the nearby K-corona continuum. We then discuss the
  modifications made for the 1998 eclipse, and the image reduction and
  analysis for those image sequences. After standard calibrations and
  image alignment of both data sets, we use Fourier analysis to search
  in the [Fexiv] channel for intensity oscillations in loops at the base
  of the corona. Such oscillations in the 1-Hz range are predicted as
  a result of density fluctuations from the resonant absorption of MHD
  waves. The dissipation of a significant amount of mechanical energy
  from the photosphere into the corona through this mechanism could
  provide sufficient energy to heat the corona. At neither eclipse do
  we find evidence for oscillations in the [Fexiv] green line at a level
  greater than 2% of coronal intensity.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Deuterium in the Galactic Centre as a result of recent infall
    of low-metallicity gas
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Balonek, Thomas J.;
   Millar, T. J.; Tremonti, Christy; Roberts, Helen; Galloway, Robert P.
2000Natur.405.1025L    Altcode:
  The Galactic Centre is the most active and heavily processed region
  of the Milky Way, so it can be used as a stringent test for the
  abundance of deuterium (a sensitive indicator of conditions in the
  first 1,000 seconds in the life of the Universe). As deuterium is
  destroyed in stellar interiors, chemical evolution models predict
  that its Galactic Centre abundance relative to hydrogen is D/H =
  5 × 10<SUP>-12</SUP>, unless there is a continuous source of
  deuterium from relatively primordial (low-metallicity) gas. Here
  we report the detection of deuterium (in the molecule DCN) in a
  molecular cloud only 10 parsecs from the Galactic Centre. Our data,
  when combined with a model of molecular abundances, indicate that
  D/H = (1.7 +/- 0.3) × 10<SUP>-6</SUP>, five orders of magnitude
  larger than the predictions of evolutionary models with no continuous
  source of deuterium. The most probable explanation is recent infall of
  relatively unprocessed metal-poor gas into the Galactic Centre (at the
  rate inferred by Wakker). Our measured D/H is nine times less than the
  local interstellar value, and the lowest D/H observed in the Galaxy. We
  conclude that the observed Galactic Centre deuterium is cosmological,
  with an abundance reduced by stellar processing and mixing, and that
  there is no significant Galactic source of deuterium.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Eclipse Observations of Coronal Structure, Polarization,
    and Oscillations from 11 August 1999
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Russell, K. D.; May, S. K.
2000AAS...196.4904P    Altcode: 2000BAAS...32..750P
  We report on CCD observations of the corona from Ramnicu Valcea,
  Romania, during the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999. One
  experiment searched for oscillations in the 530.3-nm coronal green line
  at about 1 Hz by digitizing at 10 Hz, as a determination of the coronal
  oscillation spectrum to test models of magnetohydrodynamic heating. The
  optical system was improved in several ways since the 1998 expedition,
  as was monitoring of the filter. The series of images was aligned and
  Fourier transforms were examined for individual pixels and groups of
  pixels. No oscillations were clearly detected above the 1% level, though
  statistical analysis continues at this writing. A second experiment took
  a series of 36 images through one filter wheel that contained three
  filters near 400 nm and a second filter wheel containing polarizers
  at three angles plus a parfocal clear filter. The results include a
  polarization map of a quadrant of the sun and an attempt to map the
  coronal temperature. The temperature map uses techniques suggested by
  Cram (1976) through a determination of the extent to which scattering
  off high-temperature electrons wash out the photospheric Fraunhofer
  lines. Low-pass filtering of our resultant images show detail in the
  form of coronal loops but do not show much non-radial structure in
  the temperature variations. We also compare composite photographic
  observations with EIT images from eclipse day. The expedition was
  supported by NSF grant ATM-9812408, National Geographic Society grant
  6449-99, the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium, and NASA SOHO/EIT
  guest-investigator grant NRA-98-03-SEC-051.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: SECIS: The Solar Eclipse Coronal Eclipse Imaging System
Authors: Phillips, K. J. H.; Read, P. D.; Gallagher, P. T.; Keenan,
   F. P.; Rudawy, P.; Rompolt, B.; Berlicki, A.; Buczylko, A.; Diego,
   F.; Barnsley, R.; Smartt, R. N.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.
2000SoPh..193..259P    Altcode:
  The Solar Eclipse Coronal Imaging System (SECIS) is an instrument
  designed to search for short-period modulations in the solar corona
  seen either during a total eclipse or with a coronagraph. The CCD
  cameras used in SECIS have the capability of imaging the corona at a
  rate of up to 70 frames a second, with the intensities in each pixel
  digitised in 12-bit levels. The data are captured and stored on a
  modified PC. With suitable optics it is thus possible to search for
  fast changes or short-period wave motions in the corona that will
  have important implications for the coronal heating mechanism. The
  equipment has been successfully tested using the Evans Solar Facility
  coronagraph at National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak and during
  the 11 August 1999 eclipse at a site in north-eastern Bulgaria. The
  instrument is described and preliminary results are outlined.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Deuterium Abundance In The Galactic Center 50 km/s
Molecular Cloud: Evidence For A Cosmological Origin Of D
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Galloway, R. P.; Balonek,
   T. J.; Tremonti, C.; Millar, T.; Roberts, H.
2000IAUS..198..167L    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Williams College expedition to Râmnicu Vâlcea
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
2000asre.conf...23P    Altcode:
  The Williams College expedition to Râmnicu Vâlcea, Romania, made
  observations of the solar corona (a) to compare with the Extreme
  ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric
  Observatory; (b) to search for the source of coronal heating through a
  study of the oscillatory power spectrum of coronal loops in an emission
  line typical of high temperature; (c) mapped the coronal temperature
  using ultraviolet continuum observations; (d) made videos and still
  photographs of coronal motions and details; and (e) collaborated with
  the scientists at the Astronomical Institute in Bucharest.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Wiliams College, Hopkins Observatory, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts 01267. Report for the period 1 Jul 1998 - 1 Sep 1999.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kwitter, K. B.
2000BAAS...32..619P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Commission 46: Teaching of Astronomy: (Enseignement de
    L'astronomie)
Authors: Fierro, Julieta; Isobe, Syuzo; Jones, B.; Batten, A.;
   Arellano, A.; Gervaldi, M.; Guinan, E.; Tush, W.; Hoff, D.; Martinez,
   P.; McNally, D.; Norton, A.; Narlikar, J.; Pasachoff, J.; Percy, J.;
   Wentzel, D.
2000IAUTA..24..423F    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fire in the Sky
Authors: Olson, Roberta J. M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1999fisk.book.....O    Altcode:
  Fire in the Sky collects many representations of comets and meteors in
  Britain during the eighteen and nineteenth century when a large number
  of works inspired by these celestial objects were produced. Over 100
  photographs--and two sections of luscious color plates--beautifully
  portray the inspired output of some of the world's most talented
  artists, fully capturing the phenomenon that obsessed not only
  a nation but an era as well. Olson and Pasachoff reveal the many
  different ways that comets and meteors have appeared in paintings and
  literature and link these works to the achievements of British science
  in the wake of Newton and Halley. They also examine the different
  symbolism that writers and artists have attached to these spectacular
  objects. Throughout, Fire in the Sky conveys how the development of
  new technologies, and the burgeoning interest of the general public
  in science and art, dovetailed with an interest in nature and a
  strong literary tradition of comet and meteor symbolism. Beautifully
  illustrated and packed with engaging stories, this book will delight
  anyone with an interest in the art and astronomy of comets.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Comets, Meteors, and Eclipses: Art and Science in Early
    Renaissance Italy (Invited)
Authors: Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1999DPS....31.0701O    Altcode:
  We discuss several topics relating artists and their works with
  actual astronomical events in early Renaissance Italy to reveal
  the revolutionary advances made in both astronomy and naturalistic
  painting. Padua, where Galileo would eventually hold a chair at
  the University, was already by the fourteenth century (trecento)
  a renowned center for mathematics and nascent astronomy (which was
  separating from astrology). It is no wonder that when Enrico Scrovegni
  commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone to decorate
  his lavish family chapel (c. 1303) that in the scene of the Adoration
  of the Magi Giotto painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional
  Star of Bethlehem. Moreover, he painted an historical apparition he
  recently had observed with a great understanding of its scientific
  structure: Halley's Comet of 1301 (since Olson's first publication
  of this idea in Scientific American we have expanded the argument
  in several articles and talks). While we do not know the identity
  of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss the possibility
  that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and “astronomer"
  who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We also compare
  Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the artist's
  shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account for the
  differences. In addition, we tackle the question how Giotto's pupil,
  Taddeo Gaddi, who is documented as having been partially blinded by
  lengthy unprotected observation of the partial phase of an annular
  solar eclipse, reflects his observations in his frescoes in Santa Croce,
  Florence (1328-30). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter Pietro
  Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi (1316-20),
  contain dazzling meteor showers that hold important symbolic meanings
  in the cyle's argument but more importantly reveal that the artist
  observed astronomical phenomena, such as the “radiant" effect, which
  was first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt in 1799 and only accepted
  in the nineteenth century. Lorenzetti also painted sporadic, independent
  meteors, which do not emanate from the radiant, demonstrating that he
  observed this phenomenon as well. (It is significant that these artists
  knew the differences between comets and meteors, facts which were not
  absolutely established until the eighteenth century.) We demonstrate
  that artistic and scientific visual acuity were part of the burgeoning
  empiricism of the fourteenth century that eventually yielded modern
  observational astronomy. Our joint work has been supported in part by
  the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Getty Grant Program.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Comets, meteors, and eclipses: art and science in early
    renaissance Italy (Invited).
Authors: Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1999BAAS...31.1080O    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Halley and his maps of the Total Eclipses of 1715 and 1724
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1999JAHH....2...39P    Altcode:
  Edmond Halley was perhaps the first, in 1715, to draw the path of an
  eclipse as seen from above, looking down at the Earth's surface. I
  compare four eclipse-path maps drawn for Halley: one before the 1715
  eclipse, one with a corrected path after the eclipse and including
  the predicted path for the 1724 eclipse, a reissue of that map
  just before the latter eclipse, and a different map for that latter
  eclipse. These maps are in the collection of the Houghton Library of
  Harvard University. For comparison, I provide a current map of the
  1999 total solar-eclipse path, which is similar to that of 1724.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Halley's Maps and Descriptions of the 1715 Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1999AAS...194.0108P    Altcode: 1999BAAS...31..824P
  Edmond Halley was perhaps the first to present eclipse maps to the
  public in their common current form: looking down on the Earth's surface
  from above. For the 1715 total solar eclipse that crossed England,
  he prepared broadsheets showing the eclipse path and describing
  what would be expected. After the eclipse, he corrected the eclipse
  path, and added the path and description of the 1724 total solar
  eclipse. His separate path for the latter resembles the path of the
  August 11, 1999, eclipse as drawn by Fred Espenak in his NASA Reference
  Publication. All four of the Halley maps are in the Houghton Library,
  Harvard University. Halley described observations of the 1715 eclipse
  in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, including
  both his own observations and those of other observatories. The need
  for advising the public about forthcoming eclipses and how to observe
  them safely continues from Halley's time down to this day.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Halley et ses cartes des éclipses totales de 1715 et 1724.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1999C&T...115...51P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Halley and his maps of the total eclipses of 1715 and 1724
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay
1999A&G....40b..18P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Solar Corona
Authors: Golub, Leon; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Smartt, Raymond N.
1999AmJPh..67..263G    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Williams College, Hopkins Observatory, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts 01267. Report for the period 1 Jul 1997 - 30 Jun 1998.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kwitter, K. B.
1999BAAS...31..650P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Linking a Textbook with the World Wide Web
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1998AAS...193.7801P    Altcode: 1998BAAS...30.1371P
  The pace of astronomy is such that a printed textbook is out of date
  by the time it appears, though a cooperative publisher can allow a
  book to be six months or so more current than others with the same
  copyright date. I have endeavored to allow faculty and students to
  bring their textbook up to date on the day of each lecture or each
  reading assignment by providing a Web site linked chapter-by-chapter
  to my text Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe, 5th edition,
  1998. The URL http://www.williams.edu/Astronomy/jay contains updates,
  new discussions, errata, and links to other sites. The site also allows
  feedback and links to both author and publisher.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: The solar corona / Cambridge U Press, 1997
Authors: Golub, L.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1998SoPh..183..227G    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Weighty planets
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1998PhTea..36..324P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The FAQs of astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1998Natur.394..438P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Global warming on Triton
Authors: Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.;
   McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. W.; Spencer,
   J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock,
   B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.
1998Natur.393..765E    Altcode:
  Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo
  significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes
  in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at
  the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a
  number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and
  frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations
  of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with
  earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global
  warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of
  temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply
  that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years-significantly
  faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton,. Our
  result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a dominant
  role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes
  should also be active on Pluto.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Williams College's Hopkins Observatory: the oldest extant
    observatory in the United States
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1998JAHH....1...61P    Altcode:
  The Hopkins Observatory, built at Williams College in 1836-1838, is the
  oldest astronomical observatory extant in the United States. Founded
  by Professor Albert Hopkins and built together with his students, it
  still contains the oldest known Alvan Clark telescope. Some of its
  historic instruments are mounted in its wings, known as the Mehlin
  Museum of Astronomy, and its central internal domed-ceiling room is
  the Milham Planetarium.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fire in the Sky
Authors: Olson, Roberta J. M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1998fisk.book.....O    Altcode:
  Introduction; 1. Prelude: the beginning of telescopic astronomy and
  the background of British astronomy and artistic traditions; 2. The
  heavens on fire: the eighteenth century; 3. The comet-crazed century
  opens; 4. The triumph of realism; 5. Donati's comet, the watershed;
  6. The origin of comet (and meteor) photography; 7. The triumph of the
  imagination; 8. Comets and the new century; Epilogue: comets and the
  new millennium; Appendices; List of illustrations; Bibliography; Index.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1998afeu.book.....P    Altcode:
  The latest edition of a wonderful general-astronomy book meant for
  the introductory survey course in American universities. Highly
  illustrated. Covers the wide range of astronomy.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Use of the World Wide Web in Astronomy Teaching
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1998ntat.coll...68P    Altcode: 1998IAUCo.162...68P
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Solar Eclipses and Public Education
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1998ntat.coll..202P    Altcode: 1998IAUCo.162..202P
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fire in the Sky: Comets and Meteors, the Decisive Centuries,
    in British Art and Science
Authors: Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1998fscm.book.....O    Altcode:
  Comets and meteors are spectacular and awe-inspiring natural phenomena,
  which are among nature's most compelling icons. Since the beginning of
  recorded time, they have mesmerized people, not least among them artists
  and astronomers. Britain during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
  produced a larger number and greater variety of representations of
  comets and meteors than any other country. The development of new
  technologies, and the burgeoning interest of the general public in
  science and art, dovetailed with the inherent British interest in nature
  and a strong literary tradition of comet and meteor symbolism. This
  beautifully illustrated book examines the link between these works
  and the achievements of British science in the wake of Newton and
  Halley. This book will be stimulating to anyone interested in the art
  or astronomy of comets.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Field Guide to the Stars and Planets
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Menzel, D. H.
1998fgsp.book.....P    Altcode:
  The standard field guide for amateur observing; also usable for
  reference at professional telescopes. Many useful tables.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Mars Pathfinder slide set
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Britt, Daniel
1998mpss.book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Total solar eclipse to sweep across Americas
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1997PhTea..35Q.515P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Solar Corona
Authors: Golub, Leon; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1997soco.book.....G    Altcode:
  Observations from the ground and space have advanced our knowledge
  of the solar corona dramatically over the past three decades. This
  timely volume presents a lucid and synthesized review of the latest
  observations of the solar corona and discusses how these observations
  have advanced and shaped our understanding of coronal physics. In
  the process, the authors introduce a wide variety of exciting
  physics, including dynamo theory and radiative transfer. They also
  demonstrate how the transient effects of the solar cycle effect "space
  weather." This book provides a much-needed introduction to coronal
  physics for advanced students and researchers.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hubble `worth the price'
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1997Natur.387..754P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Panel and Audience Discussion
Authors: Quinn, Helen; Alberts, Bruce; Stith, James H.; Pasachoff,
   Jay M.; Orpwood, Graham
1997APS..APR..M205Q    Altcode:
  Participating Panelists: Bruce Alberts, National Academy of Sciences
  James H. Stith, Department of Physics, Ohio State University Jay
  M. Pasachoff, Astronomy Department, Williams College Graham Orpwood,
  Faculty of Education, York University

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Pitfalls in the Science Standards
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1997APS..APR..M203P    Altcode:
  The National Science Standards ask for "relevance" and use a very
  limited set of topics. The "less is more" approach leaves out many
  topics that practicing physicists and teachers believe are essential
  for equipping students to see the roles of science in the modern
  world. The Standards' request for "relevance" may also not match
  the inspirational topics of today's physics and astronomy. If these
  problems are not considered as the Standards become incorporated
  in curricula, a substantial fall in student interest in physics and
  astronomy could result.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coronal heating experiments of the Williams College Group at
    Mukandgarh Fort, Rajasthan.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Diaz, S.; Reardon, K. P.;
   Kutner, E. R.
1997KodOB..13...75P    Altcode:
  The authors report on the Williams College expedition to Mukandgarh
  Fort, Rajasthan, for the total solar eclipse of 24 October 1995. The
  main experiments were a search for 1 Hz oscillations in coronal loops
  as an indication of magnetohydrodynamic theories of coronal heating
  and a mapping of the coronal temperature through comparison of images
  at specific ultraviolet wavelengths, measuring the difference between
  the photospheric and coronal continuum. The authors also obtained a
  variety of coronal images.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Solar eclipses as a vehicle for international astronomy
    education.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1997ASIC..494..249P    Altcode: 1997topr.conf..249P
  The public's attention is drawn to astronomy whenever solar eclipse -
  partial, annular, or total - is visible, and we must take advantage
  of the opportunity to teach about the nature of science, the ability
  of astronomers to predict and analyze distant bodies and events, and
  the value of scientific research. We must also instruct people how to
  watch the partial and annular phases safely and that the total phase
  is not harmful.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Eclipse observations relevant to the coronal heating problem.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1997ASIC..494..181P    Altcode: 1997topr.conf..181P
  The author is studying the coronal oscillation spectrum and its
  implications on the heating of the solar corona through the reduction
  of his data from observations of the total solar eclipse of 24 October
  1995 and with further theoretical and observational investigations. The
  observations provide tests of proposed mechanisms to explain the
  heating of the solar corona via weakly compressive magnetohydrodynamic
  waves. The author is also mapping the electron temperature of the corona
  through study of the broadening by electron scattering of ultraviolet
  Fraunhofer lines.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Cosmic Questions: Galactic Halos, Cold Dark Matter, and the
    End of Time
Authors: Morris, Richard; Kutner, Eric R.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1996AmJPh..64.1437M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Earliest Comet Photographs: Usherwood, Bond, and Donati
    1858
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.; Hazen, Martha L.
1996JHA....27..129P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Universe Wide Web
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1996PhTea..34..134P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Textbooks and Electronic Media
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1996ASPC...89...66P    Altcode: 1996aecd.conf...66P
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Study of the High-Frequency Coronal-Loop Oscillation Spectrum
    at the 1994 Total Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B.; Diaz, J. S.; Reardon, K.;
   Nichols-Kiley, R.
1995AAS...18710106P    Altcode: 1995BAAS...27.1427P
  We summarize results from observations made at the November 3, 1994,
  total solar eclipse from the International Astronomical Union site
  in Putre, Chile, through partly cloudy skies. We discuss the image
  reduction and analysis of two simultaneous series of coronal images with
  a cadence of 10 frames per second for a total time of 160 seconds. One
  series of images was taken through a filter isolating the 530.3 nm
  [Fe XIV] coronal green line and the other through a 10 nm filter in
  the nearby K-corona continuum. After standard calibrations and image
  alignment, we use Fourier analysis to search in the [Fe XIV] channel
  for high-frequency ( 1 Hz) intensity oscillations in loops at the base
  of the corona. Such oscillations are predicted as a result of density
  fluctuations from the resonant absorption of high-frequency Alfven
  waves. The dissipation of a significant amount of mechanical energy from
  the photosphere into the corona through this mechanism could provide
  sufficient energy to heat the corona. The observations were supported by
  NSF ATM-9005194 and Education Division DUE-9351279 grants; the National
  Geographic Society through their Committee on Research and Explorations
  (grant: 5190-94), and the Keck Northeastern Astronomy Consortium.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Earliest Comet Photographs: Usherwood and Bond for
    Donati 1858
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.
1995AAS...187.3501P    Altcode: 1995BAAS...27.1331P
  The first known photographs of a comet were taken in 1858. The
  earliest astronomical telescopic photographs, daguerreotypes from
  1850-51, had been made only when the violet focus of telescopes was
  found. Tracking remained a problem preventing astronomical objects from
  being photographed. When the Harvard refractor's tracking was improved
  in 1858, it was used by the Bonds and colleagues to photograph Comet
  Donati on a collodion plate. The plate remains in the archives of the
  Harvard College Observatory, though the image shows only very faintly
  and no tail can be seen. Bond was scooped the previous night by the
  commercial English photographer W. Usherwood, who used a portrait camera
  at a much lower focal ratio to capture the comet's tail. The plate was
  seen and evaluated by W.C. Bond. No further comet photography took place
  until 1881, when P.J.C. Janssen and J.W. Draper took the first generally
  recognized photographs of a comet, followed by D. Gill's photographs
  of the Great September comet of 1882. This work was sponsored by two
  Senior Research Grants from the Getty Grant Program.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Showing Women in Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1995AmJPh..63..873P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe - ED.4
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Mizon, B.
1995JBAA..105..185P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: The farthest things in the universe / Cambridge
    U Press, 1994
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Spinrad, H.; Osmer, P.; Cheng, E.; Jones, T.
1995Obs...115..137P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - the Farthest Things in the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Spinrad, H.; Osmer, P.; Cheng, E.; Glass,
   I. S.
1995MNSSA..54...46P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Comets and meteors in 18th and 19th century British art
    and science.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.
1995PhyEd..30..156P    Altcode:
  Comparing paintings, drawings and prints of comets and meteors in
  British works of art and scientific records of the 18th and 19th
  centuries brings us to a study of the relationship between science and
  art. Representations were sometimes naturalistic, sometimes symbolic
  and sometimes satirical. The British interest in images of comets and
  meteors, which were not clearly distinguished from each other during
  much of the period, coincided with the era that celebrated the progress
  in science exemplified by the discoveries of Newton and Halley. At
  the end of the period in question, the invention of photography,
  and its subsequent improvement to the point where faint objects like
  comets could be recorded, altered the dynamics. The changes in both
  intellectual climate and technology resulted in an increasing separation
  between the arts and the sciences.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Books-Received - the Farthest Things in the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1995Sci...268..315P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Books-Received - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe
    - ED.4
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1995Sci...268..136P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy, from the Earth to the universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1995aetu.book.....P    Altcode: 1995QB45.P287......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Textbooks and Electronic Media
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1995HiA....10..170P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Farthest Things in the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Spinrad, Hyron; Osmer, Patrick; Cheng,
   Edward S.
1995ftu..book.....P    Altcode:
  The quest for the farthest objects in the Universe remains one of
  the most challenging areas of modern astronomical research. Peering
  deeper and deeper into space reveals the most distant and powerful
  objects known and so unveils the embryonic epochs of the Universe
  not long after its birth in the Big Bang. Four world experts--chosen
  for their ability to communicate research astronomy at a popular
  level--each contributes a chapter to this lucid survey. They address
  the fundamental issues of scale in the Universe; the ghostly etchings
  seen on the cosmic background radiation; quasars and their evolution;
  and galaxy birth. This fascinating and accessible account offers an
  exceptional chance for the general audience to share in the excitement
  of today's forefront research of the early Universe.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coronal Heating Studies at the 1994 Total Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B.; Reardon, K.
1995pist.conf...18P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Proceedings of the international symposium on the total solar
    eclipse of November 3, 1994. Lake Titicaca, Bolivia, May 14-17, 1995
Authors: Raljevic, Mirko S.; Zaratti, Francesco; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1995pist.conf.....R    Altcode: 1994QB544.94.E25...
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Experiments at Putre for the November 3 Total Solar Eclipse
    Regimiento de Caballería Blindada No. 1 "Granaderos" Site of the
    International Astronomical Union Expeditions
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1995pist.conf....1P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: An Upper Limit for the Deuterium Abundance in the Halo Star
    HD 140283
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Galloway, Robert P.;
   Kurucz, R. L.; Smith, Verne V.
1994AAS...185.9805L    Altcode: 1994BAAS...26.1479L
  Because of the possible enhanced deuterium abundance of D/H =
  2.5 10(-4) (the ISM D/H = 1.65x10(-5) ) recently reported in quasar
  absorption spectra, we searched for the D_alpha line at 6561 A in the
  metal-poor halo star HD 140283 (G2IV, [Fe/H] = -2.6; T<SUB>eff</SUB>=
  5700K). We observed HD 140283 using the .9m KPNO coude feed and the
  2.7m McDonald Observatory telescopes with echelle spectrographs
  having a resolution Delta lambda = .05 A/pixel with S/N= 200 and
  Delta lambda = .11 A/pixel with S/N = 600 respectively. We did not
  detect the D_alpha line and compared our results to model atmosphere
  calculations for this star. We estimate an upper limit of D/H &lt;
  1x10(-5) which is smaller than the primordial or and Early Galactic
  D/H = 8x10(-5) . Since D is destroyed via reactions with protons at T
  &gt; 5x10(5) K, the atmospheric deuterium has probably been destroyed
  during the pre-main sequence convection phase. Because (7) Li, (9)
  Be, and (11) B have all been detected in this star (Li/H=1.5x10(-10)
  and B/H=2.9x10(-12) ) and Li is destroyed at T &gt; 2.5x10(6) K, the
  temperature at the bottom of the pre-main sequence convection zone is
  1x10(6) K &lt; T &lt; 2.5x10(6) .K

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: An answer to an earlier question
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1994PhTea..32..453P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Books-Received - the Cambridge Eclipse Photography Guide -
    how and where to Observe and Photograph Solar and Lunar Eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Covington, M. A.
1994Sci...264..297P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coronal Morphology and Heating Mechanism Observations at
    Total Eclipses Through 1992
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1994scs..conf..523P    Altcode: 1994IAUCo.144..523P
  The author describes the change of overall coronal morphology over
  the sunspot cycle, using most recently the total eclipse of 30 June
  1992. He describes a series of eclipse observations meant to test a
  model of coronal heating via surface Alfvén waves by searching for
  1 Hz coronal oscillations in coronal loops in the green line.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Total Solar Eclipses, 1994 - 1999
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1994scs..conf..579P    Altcode: 1994IAUCo.144..579P
  The author summarizes total solar eclipses that will occur during the
  1990s. These eclipses will provide several favorable opportunities to
  provide coronal and other solar observations not only for intrinsic
  data reduction but also to compare with observations obtained from a
  variety of spacecraft.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Farthest Things in the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Spinrad, H.; Osmer, P. S.; Cheng, E. S.
1994ftu..book.....P    Altcode: 1994QB43.2.F37.....
  Report of a symposium held at the American Association for the
  Advancement of Science yearly meeting.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Journey through the universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1994jtu..book.....P    Altcode: 1994QB45.P293......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Curriculum Projects and their Effects on Astronomy Education
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1993AAS...183.6101P    Altcode: 1993BAAS...25.1389P
  National curriculum projects can have a long-lasting and widespread
  effect on the teaching of astronomy in schools and thus on the supply of
  astronomers and on knowledge of astronomy among the general public. For
  example, the omission of astronomy as a requirement in 1893 by the
  Committee of Ten (J.L. Bishop in Pasachoff and Percy, The Teaching
  of Astronomy, Proc. IAU Colloq 105) and the fact that an astronomer
  was not included on the committee has had major and long-lasting
  consequences to the detriment of astronomy. Thus it is important for
  us to become familiar with a set of curriculum projects that are now
  being intensively worked on. They include the American Association for
  the Advancement of Sciences Project 2061: Science for All Americans,
  the National Science Teachers Association's Scope, Sequence, and
  Coordination of Secondary-School Science Education, and the National
  Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment's National
  Science Education Standards, the last under the aegis of the National
  Research Council. We will discuss these projects and their impacts on
  astronomy with principal participants James Rutherford for the AAS,
  Russell Aiuto for the NSTA, and Ken Hoffmann for the NRC/NCSESA.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: DCN in the 50 km/s Galactic Center SGR A Molecular Cloud:
    Confirmation of the existence of deuterium in the Galactic Center
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Balonek, Thomas J.;
   Tremonti, Christy P.; Galloway, Robert P.; Mancuso, Ann
1993AAS...18311608L    Altcode: 1993BAAS...25R1467L
  We confirm the presence of deuterium in the Galactic Center Sgr A cloud
  (tentative detection by Penzias (ApJ, 228, 430, 1979) with T_a(*) =
  0.02 Kq 0.15 K) by observing the 1-0 and 2-1 lines of DCN in the "50
  km/s" Galactic Center molecular cloud (M-0.02-.07) using the NRAO 12-m
  telescope. We used the 3-mm and 2-mm SIS receivers in position switching
  mode with 1 MHz filters, 256 MHz bandwidth, 4.1 km/s resolution at
  the DCN 1-0 transition, and a typical T sys = 400K. We observed a
  Gaussian line peak intensity T_r(*) and integrated Gaussian intensity
  of 0.061 Kq.007 K, 2.0 K-km/s; and 0.042 Kq.02 K, 0.91 K-km/s for
  the optically thin 1-0 and 2-1 DCN lines, respectively. The DCN was
  concentrated along the north-south ridge observed in other molecules
  in this cloud. We also observed H13CN, HC15N, HNC, DNC and HCO+ at the
  position of the DCN 1-0 peak. From the DCN/H13CN we estimate DCN/HCN
  = .005. The inferred D/H is estimated to be less than the local ISM
  value of 2 x 10(-5) , but is sensitive to the chemistry and physical
  conditions in the molecular cloud. These results imply that deuterated
  molecules D are not significantly enhanced in the GC molecular clouds
  and is consistant with the upper limits for atomic D obtained for the
  GC molecular clouds (Lubowich, Anantharamaiah, and Pasachoff, ApJ,
  345, 770, 1989). The DCN/HCN we obtained is similar to that of the
  hot core of Orion so that D might be enhanced by fractionation and
  the sublimation of fossil D from grains. If there are no Galactic
  sources of D, then each generation of stars reduces the ISM D/H via
  astration and the observed D is the primordial abundance reduced by
  astration and mixing and possibly enhanced by the infall of primordial
  matter. If the rate of astration is faster in the GC as suggested by
  models of chemical evolution, then infall of primordial matter is a
  likely source of the GC deuterium.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Books-Received - Mcgraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Astronomy - ED.2
Authors: Parker, S. P.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1993Sci...261.1189P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coronal Images from the 1984 Solar Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Reardon, Kevin P.; MacKenty, John W.
1993SoPh..146..405P    Altcode:
  We present digitized photographs of the white-light solar corona
  taken during the total solar eclipse of 22 23 November, 1984, on both
  calibrated black-and-white film and on color film. Conditions on site
  in Hula, Papua New Guinea, were exceptionally clear. The color image
  was used to produce an isophotal map of the inner corona, from which
  a flattening coefficient of 0.23 was measured. The black-and-white
  image was enhanced through a digital radial filter. Our images are the
  best processed images available from the 1984 eclipse and so provide
  important data for synoptic observations.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Rediscovering the Color of the Crab Nebula
Authors: Malin, David; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1993S&T....86...43M    Altcode: 1993S&T....86a..43M
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: CCD Observations of SN1993J in M81 from the Keck Northeast
    Astronomy Consortium
Authors: Benson, P. J.; Little-Marenin, I. R.; Herbst, W.; Salzer,
   J. J.; Vinton, G.; Elmegreen, D.; Chromey, F.; Balonek, T. J.; Strom,
   C.; Tremonti, C.; Hanson, G. J.; Ratcliff, S.; Winkler, P. F.; Gloria,
   K.; Kwitter, K.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Partan, J.; Crawford, F.; Elmegreen,
   B.; Wells, L.; Tweedy, R.
1993AAS...182.2916B    Altcode: 1993BAAS...25..835B
  We present UBVRI photometry for SN 1993J, as well as data on its likely
  progenitor. The post-explosion data were obtained with CCDs attached
  to telescopes (0.4 to 0.6m) on the campuses of the Keck Northeast
  Astronomy Consortium (KNAC) and on the Burrell Schmidt telescope of
  the Warner and Swasey Observatory, Case Western Reserve University,
  at KPNO by the authors and their undergraduate students. We have
  obtained a fairly well-sampled light curve of the early stages in the
  outburst, including the rapid decay (0.30 magnitude per day at V) from
  the initial maximum and the subsequent slower rise to the secondary
  maximum. The position of the supernova, as measured on our images
  agrees to within 0.1 arc-sec with the position of a faint, apparently
  stellar image, taken with the 0.9m telescope at KPNO on 1992 October
  2. The brightness of this object (Perelmuter, IAUC 5736; Filippenko,
  IAUC 5737; Humphreys et al., IAUC 5739) are consistent with its being a
  late-type supergiant. A series of images of M81 taken in 1992 November
  and 1993 February are analyzed to provide further constraints on the
  likely progenitor and its photometric behavior in the months before
  its explosion. We acknowledge the generous support of the W. M. Keck
  Foundation for providing the CCD cameras and workstations and for
  their support of astronomy at the KNAC institutions.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Books-Received - a Field Guide to the Stars and Planets
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1993Sci...260Q.706P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Cambridge eclipse photography guide : how and where to
    observe and photograph solar and lunar eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Covington, Michael A.; Espenak, Fred
1993cepg.book.....P    Altcode: 1993QB121.C69......
  Eclipses of the 1990s and how to observe them.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Astronomy
Authors: Parker, S.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1993mhea.book.....P    Altcode: 1993QB14.M3725.....
  A wide-ranging one-volume encyclopedia of astronomy; extracted from
  the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review - Exercises in Practical Astronomy Using
    Photographs
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1992JRASC..86..162P    Altcode: 1992JRASC..86..162B
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - the Teaching of Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Percy, J. R.
1992JBAA..102..175P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The great eclipse.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1992NaGe..181...30P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The 1816 Solar Eclipse and the Comet 1811I in Linnell's
    Astronomical Album
Authors: Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1992JHA....23..121O    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Unified units
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1992Obs...112...15P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Journey through the universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1992jtun.book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Stars and planets
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Menzel, Donald H.
1992stpl.book.....P    Altcode: 1992QB64.P37.......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Williams College, Hopkins Observatory, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts 01267. Report for the period Jul 1990 - Jul 1991.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1992BAAS...24..653P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Journey Through the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1992Natur.355..407P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Save the U.S.NAVAL-OBS. Eclipse Circulars
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1991S&T....82..342P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The CUREA 1992 Summer Program in Astrophysics at Mount Wilson
    Observatory
Authors: Snider, J.; Bracher, K.; Briggs, J.; Mickelson, M.; Mitchell,
   W., Jr.; Pasachoff, J.; Snodgrass, H.; Yorka, S.
1991BAAS...23.1437S    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Williams College 1991 Total Solar Eclipse Expedition
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1991BAAS...23.1443P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Teaching of Astronomy: International Astronomical Union
    Colloquium 105
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Percy, John R.; French, Richard G.
1991AmJPh..59..667P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Sun - a Star Close UP
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1991Mercu..20...66P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Access to Contemporary Research Results for Teachers of
    Astronomy Courses on the School and University Levels
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1991BAAS...23..930P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1991S&T....81Q.279P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Daylight savings.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1991PhTea..29R..71P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fabry-Pérot line profiles in the λ5303 å and λ6374 å
    coronal lines obtained during the 1983 Indonesian eclipse
Authors: Chandrasekhar, T.; Desai, J. N.; Ashok, N. M.; Pasachoff,
   Jay M.
1991SoPh..131...25C    Altcode:
  During the total solar eclipse of 11 June, 1983, an imaging dual-channel
  Fabry-Pérot interferometer was used to obtain line profiles
  simultaneously in the green λ5303 Å [Fe xiv] and the red λ6374 Å
  [Fe x] coronal lines at various positions in the corona. Extensive
  microdensitometry followed by multi-Gaussian curve-fitting analysis
  has resulted in the determination of coronal temperatures and velocity
  separations between different pockets of coronal gas in the line
  of sight over a large extent of the corona. Fewer high temperature
  zones are to be found in the corona of 1983 compared with our similar
  green-line measurements of the solar maximum corona of 1980. The
  data are consistent with a temperature maximum occurring at 1.2 R
  <SUB>☉</SUB>, as found at the 1980 eclipse, but our new data are
  insufficient to observe farther out than this radius and so determine
  the position of a maximum. The velocity field in the corona at the 1983
  eclipse is less structured compared with that at the 1980 eclipse and
  is mainly confined to the zone 20 30km s<SUP>-1</SUP>.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Observing Solar Eclipses
Authors: Pasachoff, J.
1991atq..conf...67P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coronal Structures and the Sunspot Cycle
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1991LNP...387..283P    Altcode: 1991fpsa.conf..283P
  Several solar eclipses must be observed to study the, corona at
  different phases of the solar-activity cycle. I describe a series
  of coronal observations at various eclipses over the most recent
  saros. The most recent experiment studies a mechanism of coronal heating
  by measuring high-frequency intensity oscillations in coronal loops in
  the green line. I also describe an application of the monthly variation
  in the daily sunspot numbers to the solar-neutrino problem.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Measurements of 1-Hz Coronal Oscillations at Total Eclipses
    and Their Implications for Coronal Heating
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1991mcch.conf...25P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy, from the earth to the universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1991aeu..book.....P    Altcode: 1991QB45.P287......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Williams College, Hopkins Observatory, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts 01267. Report for the period Jul 1989 - Jun 1990.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1991BAAS...23..791P    Altcode: 1991BAAS...23..791.
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Solar Corona Over the Recent Saros
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1991LNP...380..285P    Altcode: 1991sacs.coll..285P; 1991IAUCo.130..285P
  We are now at both the maximum of the solar activity cycle and at the
  most populated part of the saros. I discuss the solar corona over
  the recent saros and its changes with the solar activity cycle. We
  consider the scientific value of eclipse studies and how they relate
  to other ongoing coronal studies on the sun and other stars.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Undergraduate Symposium on Research in Astronomy
Authors: Benson, Priscilla J.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Wong, Alex K.
1991usra.conf.....B    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Historical Comets Over Bavaria: the Nuremberg Chronicle
    and Broadsides
Authors: Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1991ASSL..167.1309O    Altcode: 1991cphe.conf.1309O; 1991IAUCo.116.1309O
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: The restless sun. By Donat G. Wentzel. Smithsonian
    Institution Press, Washington DC, 1989. 279 pp., including
    indexes. ISBN 0-87474-982-4. $27.95 cloth
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1990Icar...88..262P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - the Teaching of Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1990S&T....80..381P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coronal Velocities from Fabry-Perot Line Profiles at the
    1983 Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Desai, J. N.; Ashok,
   N. M.
1990BAAS...22.1196P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - the Teaching of Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Percy, J. R.
1990Sci...249..574P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - the Teaching of Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Percy, J. R.
1990JBAA..100R.103P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fabry-Perot Interferogram Profiles in Lambda 5303 IN Relation
    to Coronal Structures - 1980 and 1983 Eclipses
Authors: Desai, J. N.; Raju, K. P.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ashok, N. M.;
   Pasachoff, J. M.
1990IAUS..142..251D    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - the Teaching of Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Percy, J. R.
1990AstQ....7..254P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The teaching of astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Percy, John R.
1990teas.conf.....P    Altcode: 1990IAUCo.105.....P
  This book stems from the proceedings of the International Astronomical
  Union Colloquium 105. Every facet of the teaching of astronomy is
  explored by the contributors. Courses, training and teaching techniques
  form a large sector of the book. Practical information on computers,
  textbooks and astronomical equipment is given, linking in with chapters
  on student projects and teaching techniques. The philosophical aspects
  and the history of astronomy are described in a chapter entitled
  astronomy and culture. Popularisation of astronomy is discussed
  including the role of planetariums and the contribution of amateur
  astronomers. This comprehensive and well illustrated book offers a
  unique overview of international teaching technology and expertise
  that will serve as a lasting guide to astronomers involved in education.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Peterson first guide to the solar system
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Peterson, Roger Tory; Tirion, Wil
1990pfgs.book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Urania Observed
Authors: Fernandez, Rafael; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Volz, Robert
1990teas.conf..431F    Altcode: 1990IAUCo.105..431F
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy in American Textbooks
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1990teas.conf..201P    Altcode: 1990IAUCo.105..201P
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Is Comet p/ Halley of 684-A.D. Recorded in the Nuremberg
    Chronicle
Authors: Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1989JHA....20..171O    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Search for Localized Sources of Noncosmological Deuterium
    near the Galactic Center
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Anantharamaiah, K. R.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1989ApJ...345..770L    Altcode:
  The VLA at the 92 cm D I hyperfine transition was used to search
  for a possible localized concentration of atomic deuterium near the
  Galactic center over a velocity range of + or - 180 km/s. The search
  yielded an upper limit for the D column density N(D) = 7.78 x 10 to
  the 16th T(s)/sq cm where T(s) is the spin temperature of the D I
  hyperfine lines. For the smaller velocity range of + or - 30 km/s, a
  more sensitive upper limit of N(D) = 3.12 x 10 to the 16th T(s)/sq cm is
  obtained. If D is associated with the H I clouds to the Galactic center,
  an upper limit for the D/H ratio of 0.0043 is obtained for the clouds
  at V = 20 km/s and 50 km/s. If a significant fraction of the D exists
  in atomic form in molecular clouds, the upper limits are 1.2 x 10 to
  the -7th for the V = 20 km/s molecular cloud near the Galactic center
  and 8.3 x 10 to the -7th for the V = 50 km/s molecular cloud near the
  Galactic center. These results are consistent with the D observed in
  the Galactic center and the ISM being primarily cosmological in origin.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: CUREA: The Consortium for Undergraduate Research and Education
    in Astronomy
Authors: Snider, J.; Bracher, K.; Meyers, K.; Mickelson, M.; Mitchell,
   W., Jr.; Naftilan, S.; Pasachoff, J.; Snodgrass, H.; Yorka, S.;
   Zook, A.
1989BAAS...21.1065S    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astrophysics of the Sun
Authors: Zirin, Harold; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1989AmJPh..57..669Z    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Search for Remnant Planetary Nebulae around Hot sdO Stars
Authors: Kwitter, Karen B.; Massey, Philip; Congdon, Charles W.;
   Pasachoff, Jay M.
1989AJ.....97.1423K    Altcode:
  Spectroscopic and imaging searches for nebular emission associated
  with a sample of hot subdwarf O (sdO) stars have been carried out. Of
  45 stars searched, no evidence of such nebulosity is found in 44. The
  single exception is RWT 152, around which a planetary nebula had been
  discovered previously. These negative results place constraints on
  the evolutionary history of these stars.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Contemporary astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1989coas.book.....P    Altcode: 1989QB45.P29.......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Teaching about the planets at (large) scale
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1989PhTea..27...38P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Deuterium in the Universe (May, 1974)
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fowler, William A.
1989ppc..book..151P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Peterson First Guide to Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Tirion, W.; Brickman, R.; Byrd, D.
1989S&T....77...38P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The need to observe the distribution of interstellar deuterium.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.
1989ComAp..14...61P    Altcode:
  The abundance of deuterium is linked with nucleosynthesis in the first
  1000 seconds of the history of the universe. Though the interstellar
  deuterium abundance is known in the solar neighborhood from ultraviolet
  studies of Lyman lines, it is poorly known in other parts of the
  Galaxy. Determining the deuterium abundance gradient in the Galaxy,
  or extending observations to distant galaxies, should resolve the
  question of non-cosmological deuterium formation and should give
  cosmological insights.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins Observatory, Williams College, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts 01267. Report for the 1987 - 1988 academic year.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1989BAAS...21..680P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Peterson First Guides - Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Hilditch, R.
1988Obs...108..250P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Up-to-date astronomy revisited
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1988PhTea..26..424P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Search for Remnant Planetary Nebulae Around Hot Subdwarf
    O Stars
Authors: Kwitter, K. B.; Massey, P.; Congdon, C. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1988BAAS...20.1052K    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Historical Comets of the "Nuremberg Chronicle"
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.
1988BAAS...20..991P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Peterson first guide to astronomy. A simplified field
    guide to the stars, planets and the universe.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1988pfgt.book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: New telescopes view the sky.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1988itod....2....6P    Altcode:
  Concerning the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope, Roque de los Muchachos
  Observatory, La Palma, Canary Islands.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Peterson first guide to astronomy maps
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Peterson, Roger Tory; Tirion, Wil;
   Brickman, Robin
1988pfga.book.....P    Altcode: 1988QB46.P376......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - a Field Guide to Stars and Planets
Authors: Menzel, D. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Tirion, W.; Soltynski, M.
1988MNSSA..47..161M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: New Information on Comet p/ Halley as Depicted by Giotto DI
    Bondone and Other Western Artists
Authors: Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1987A&A...187....1O    Altcode:
  Artists' depictions of comets provide the only visual evidence of
  historical comets, most notably of Halley's Comet. In this paper we
  discuss the visual evidence of comet P/Halley at several passages
  through that of 1301 and compare it with descriptions and modern
  images. Since it was first recognized that Giotto di Bondone painted a
  comet in place of the Star of Bethlehem and suggested that this was a
  portrait of the 1301 apparition of comet Halley (Olson, 1979), a great
  deal of new information has come to light. We present a synopsis of
  the textual, visual, and astronomical evidence to support the theory
  that when Giotto painted his comet in the Scrovegni Chapel he was
  reflecting his viewing of Comet Halley in 1301.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Addendum - High-Frequency Oscillations in the Corona Observed
    at the 1983 Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Ladd, E. F.
1987SoPh..110..412P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Sesquicentennial of Williams College's Hopkins Observatory
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kwitter, K. B.; Friend, D.
1987BAAS...19R1065P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: High-Frequency Oscillations in the Corona Observed at the
    1983 Eclipse
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ladd, Edwin F.
1987SoPh..109..365P    Altcode:
  We detected excess oscillatory power at 0.25 2.0 Hz in a coronal loop
  in the 1983 Indonesian total solar eclipse. In this second-generation
  experiment enlarging upon the work of Pasachoff and Landman (1984),
  we observed in two frequency channels, one coronal and one continuum,
  to monitor atmospheric and instrumental effects. We briefly discuss
  the effects of an oscillation near 1 Hz on the coronal heating problem.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A Search for Localized Sources of Deuterium Near the Galactic
    Center
Authors: Lubowich, D. A.; Anantharamaiah, K. R.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1987BAAS...19Q1076L    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1987S&T....74..263P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fabry-Perot Line Profiles in 5303A and 6374A Coronal Lines
    Obtained during the 1983 Eclipse
Authors: Sekhar, T. C.; Desai, J. N.; Ashok, N. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1987BASI...15R..18S    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Timing of the 1984 Total Solar Eclipse and the Size of the Sun
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Nelson, Brant O.
1987SoPh..108..191P    Altcode:
  We report accurate timing of second and third contacts made from
  videotape of the total solar eclipse of 23 November, 1984, observed in
  Papua New Guinea. The magnitude of the discrepancies between predicted
  and observed times indicates that the secular change in the size of
  the Sun reported by some observers is within the uncertainty.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy, from the earth to the universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1987afet.book.....P    Altcode: 1987QB45.P287......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Interpreting Quasar Redshifts
Authors: Maltby, Per; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Kierein, John
1987PhT....40c.110M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A scientist's view of cosmology
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1986PhTea..24..569P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: New Information on Comet Halley as Depicted by Giotto DI
    Bondone and Other Western Artists
Authors: Olson, Roberta J.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1986ESASP.250c.201O    Altcode: 1986ehc3.conf..201O
  Artists' depictions of comets provide the only visual evidence of
  historical comets, most notably of Halley's comet. The authors discuss
  the visual evidence of comet Halley at several passages (684, 1066,
  1145, 1222, 1301, 1456, 1531, 1682, 1759 and 1835) and compare these
  with descriptions and modern images. They also include their own
  images made with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Since it was
  first recognized that Giotto di Bondone painted a comet in place of
  the Star of Bethlehem and suggested that this was a portrait of the
  1301 apparition of comet Halley.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - a Brief View of Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; McNally, D.
1986SSRv...44..408P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Contemporary Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Hill, P. W.
1986Obs...106..121P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Contemporary Astronomy 3RD-ED
Authors: Pasachoff, J.
1986Mercu..15...94P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Historical Studies of Halley's and Other Comets via Artists'
    Depictions
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.
1986BAAS...18..792P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A brief view of astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1986bva..book.....P    Altcode: 1986QB43.2.P357....
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The X-Ray Universe
Authors: Tucker, Wallace; Giacconi, Riccardo; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1986PhT....39f..87T    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Gamma Ray Astronomy
Authors: Hiller, Rodney; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1986PhT....39g..71H    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Periodic Comet Halley (1982i)
Authors: Hua, T.; Grundseth, B.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Ladd, E.; Schroder,
   M. F.; Pastoriza, M.; Dottori, H.; Kepler, S. O.; Bergmann, T. S.;
   Ducati, J. R.; Livi, S. H. B.; Schmidt, A.; Bonatto, C.; Costa,
   R. D. D.; Kosai, H.; Bortle, J.; Merlin, J. -C.; Krisciunas, K.;
   Cavagna, M.; Keen, R.; Green, D. W. E.
1985IAUC.4126....2H    Altcode:
  T. Hua and B. Grundseth, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope; and
  J. M. Pasachoff and E. Ladd, Hopkins Observatory, report observations
  of P/Halley on Oct. 23.3 UT with the photon-counting camera at the
  f/8 Cassegrain focus of the 3.6-m CFHT on Mauna Kea. Images with
  the CN (387.1 nm) filter show diffuse emission with central area 30"
  in size. Continuum emission through a 0.8-nm filter at 500.7 nm and
  a 0.47-nm H-alpha filter fills the field and is more peaked as is CO+
  emission through the 426-nm P/Halley standard filter. M. F. Schroder,
  M. Pastoriza, H. Dottori, S. O. Kepler, T. S. Bergmann, J. R. Ducati,
  S. H. B. Livi, A. Schmidt, C. Bonatto and R. D. D. Costa, Departamento
  de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, find
  B = 15.3 and V = 14.8 (both +/- 0.2, total magnitude) on Sept. 22.29 UT
  from plates taken at the 1.6-m telescope of the Observatorio Astrofisico
  Brasileiro. H. Kosai, Tokyo Astronomical Observatory, reports V = 14.0
  with a 30" diaphragm on the 0.91-m Okayama telescope on Sept. 13.67
  UT. Total visual magnitude estimates: Oct. 7.39 UT, 11.0 (J. Bortle,
  Stormville, NY, 0.32-m reflector); 10.94, 11.0 (J.-C. Merlin, Le
  Creusot, France, 0.40-m reflector); 14.52, 10.8 (K. Krisciunas, Hilo,
  HI, 0.15-m reflector); 17.95, 10.2 (M. Cavagna, Valcava, Italy, 20 x 80
  binoculars); 20.40, 9.1 (R. Keen, Mt. Thorodin, CO, 8 x 40 binoculars);
  24.38, 8.5 (D. W. E. Green, Oak Ridge Observatory, 20 x 80 binoculars).

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Comet Book
Authors: Chapman, Robert D.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1985PhTea..23..387C    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Contemporary astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1985coas.book.....P    Altcode: 1985QB45.P29.......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A brief view of astronomy.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1985bva..book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Invisible Unviverse: Probing the Frontiers of Astrophysics
Authors: Field, George B.; Chaisson, Eric J.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1985PhT....38j.107F    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - a Field Guide to the Stars and Planets
Authors: Menzel, D. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1984S&T....68..227M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Planetary Nebula around the sdO Star RWT 152
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kwitter, K. B.; Massey, P.
1984BAAS...16..994P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coelostat and heliostat: alignment and use for eclipse and
    other field purposes
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Livingston, William C.
1984ApOpt..23.2803P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Coelostat and heliostat: Theory of alignment
Authors: Demianski, M.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1984SoPh...93..211D    Altcode:
  For perfectly aligned heliostats and coelostats tracking at the
  solar rate and half the solar rate, respectively, the solar beam
  has no translational motion. But, particularly in the field at
  eclipses, it is not possible to align heliostats and coelostats with
  infinite precision. We derive the effect of small misalignments on
  the translational motion of the beam, and give tables to allow the
  calculation of the accuracy to which the instruments must be mounted and
  adjusted to attain a desired accuracy over a given duration. Further,
  we show how to derive the necessary adjustments to improve alignment,
  given measurements of the tracking error.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fabry-Perot interferometric observations of the coronal red
    and greenlines during the 1983 Indonesian eclipse.
Authors: Chandrasekhar, T.; Ashok, N. M.; Desai, J. N.; Pasachoff,
   J. M.; Sivaraman, K. R.
1984ApOpt..23..508C    Altcode:
  A dual-channel Fabry-Perot interferometric system was used to study
  simultaneously the coronal emission lines at 5303 Å (Fe XIV) and at
  6374 Å (Fe X). Initial results indicate an emission corona confined
  largely within 1.2 R_sun;. Doppler temperatures derived from the
  width of the 5303-Å line appear to be appreciably lower than similar
  temperatures determined during the solar-maximum eclipse of 1980.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: High Frequency Coronal Oscillations and Coronal Heating
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Landman, D. A.
1984SoPh...90..325P    Altcode:
  At the 1980 total solar eclipse, we searched for high-frequency
  (0.1 2 Hz) oscillations in the intensity of the 5303-Å coronal
  green line, as a test of predictions of theories of coronal heating
  via magnetohydrodynamic waves. Portions of the image 2.5- or 5-arc
  sec across were fed to cooled photomultipliers using fiber-optic
  probes. We detected excess power in Fourier transforms of the data
  for the region between 0.5 and 2 Hz at the level of 1% or 2% of the
  incident power. Such oscillations could be associated with Alfvén
  waves that are trapped on loops a few thousand kilometers long or
  with fast waves that are trapped on loops a few thousand kilometers
  in diameter. Additional observations at the 1983 eclipse are planned
  to resolve atmospheric and instrumental contributions.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - a Field Guide to the Stars and Planets
Authors: Menzel, D. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.; de Jager, C.
1984SSRv...38..185M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J.
1984Mercu..13...91P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Teacher's Guide to Astronomy - from the Earth
    to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; van der Hucht, K. A.
1984SSRv...37..402P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - a Field Guide to the Stars and Planets - ED.2
Authors: Menzel, D.; Pasachoff, J.
1984Mercu..13S..86M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Sun and Planetary System
Authors: Fricke, W.; Teleki, G.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1984ApL....24..129F    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Boyle, R. J.
1984S&T....68..423P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - a Field Guide to the Stars and Planets - ED.2
Authors: Menzel, D. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1984Natur.309..477M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy from the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; van der Hucht, K. A.
1983SSRv...36..420P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: On the Balmer: Paschen ratio in prominences
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Pilger, Eric J.; Platt, Stephen R.
1983SoPh...89...31P    Altcode:
  Vidicon data for the intensities of Balmer and Paschen lines for n =
  11 to 18 indicate a line ratio within 1σ of the theoretical value of
  3.27, calculated with the assumptions of an optically thin atmosphere
  and angular momentum substates populated according to their statistical
  weights. The observed value is not consistent with the value of 8
  reported in some early work, or with the model that higher angular
  momentum states have low populations.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: POST-USE REVIEW: Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Marschall, Laurence A.
1983AmJPh..51.1054P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J.
1983Sci...220..402P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe ED.2
Authors: Pasachoff, J.; Hughes, D. W.
1983Natur.302..186P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Space Astronomy on Videodisk
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1983S&T....65...32P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Teacher's guide to astronomy: from the earth to the universe.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1983tgta.book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - the Cambridge Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences
Authors: Smith, D. G.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1983S&T....65..234S    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy, from the earth to the universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1983afeu.book.....P    Altcode: 1983QB45.P287......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A field guide to the stars and planets
Authors: Menzel, Donald Howard; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1983fgts.book.....M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe - ED.2
Authors: Pasachoff, J.; Fraknoi, A.
1983Mercu..12...88P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1983S&T....65Q.242P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Contemporary Astronomy - ED.2
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1982Natur.298..310P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Letters: Ikeya-Seki, Its
Authors: Seargent, David A. J.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1982CNSMP..33....2S    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: Contemporary Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Houziaux, L.
1982SSRv...31..459P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomical Data Bank - the Largest Optical Telescopes
Authors: Pasachoff, J.
1982Mercu..11..142P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Contemporary Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Lestrade, J. P.
1982S&T....63..156P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins Observatory, Williams College, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts 01267. Report for the 1980 - 1981 academic year.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1982BAAS...14..206P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Erratum - Book-Review - Our Cosmic Universe
Authors: Kraus, J.; Pasachoff, J.
1982S&T....63Q...5K    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: Invitation of Physics
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kutner, M.; Mewe, R.
1982SSRv...31..457P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Helium Excitation in Quiescent Prominences
Authors: Landman, D. A.; Bernat, A. P.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1981BAAS...13..552L    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Helium excitation in quiescent prominences.
Authors: Landman, D. A.; Bernat, A. P.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1981BAAS...13R.552L    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Contemporary Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1981Sci...213.1002P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Invitation to Physics
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kutner, M. L.
1981S&T....62R.156P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Contemporary Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1981S&T....62..361P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Our Cosmic Universe
Authors: Kraus, J.; Pasachoff, J.
1981S&T....62..469K    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins Observatory, Williams College, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts 01267. Report for the 1979 - 1980 academic year.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kwitter, K. B.
1981BAAS...13..157P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Invitation to physics.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kutner, M. L.
1981itp..book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Contemporary astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1981coas.book.....P    Altcode: 1981QB45.P29.......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Projects and Demonstrations in Astronomy
Authors: Tattersfield, Donald; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1981AmJPh..49...93T    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Preliminary Report of 1980 Eclipse - Coronal Oscillations
    Experiment
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Landman, D. A.
1980BASI....8..137P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: An Eclipse Search for 1-10 Hz Temporal Variations in Coronal
    Loops
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Landman, D. A.; Schierer, J. P.
1980BAAS...12Q.793P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Turbulence in the dust cloud L134 - High-resolution
    observations of 6 centimeter formaldehyde absorption
Authors: Dickman, R. L.; Kutner, M. L.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Tucker, K. D.
1980ApJ...238..853D    Altcode:
  Observations of 6 cm formaldehyde absorption were made at high spatial
  and velocity resolution toward the central regions of the dust cloud
  Lynds 134. A least-squares fit to the hyperfine manifold of each
  spectrum yielded precise υ<SUB>LSR</SUB> values at each position;
  these show no evidence of positional variation. This suggests that
  if previously observed smooth shifts in υ<SUB>LSR</SUB> (which occur
  over a much larger portion of the cloud than observed here) are in fact
  due to rotation, this rotation is not carried into the most heavily
  obscured parts of the cloud. The fit procedure also yielded precise
  values for the line velocity dispersion at each position. These vary
  significantly over the cloud core. These results are used to discuss
  turbulent models of the cloud velocity field. In the absence of an
  energy source, the resulting picture of the cloud must be regarded
  as highly improbable. One or more embedded T Tauri stars undergoing
  mass loss could account for the turbulent dissipation expected for
  the cloud, and the presence of such stars is not observationally
  excluded. The dynamical consistency of such a model remains to be
  established, however. We also briefly discuss the observations in
  terms of a systematic velocity field for the cloud. Subject headings:
  interstellar: molecules nebulae: individual

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Hughes, D. W.
1980Natur.283..913P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1980Sci...207..174P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy now
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Warasila, R. L.
1980ApL....20..148P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Popular Open Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1980SciN..117..227P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Maximum Eclipse - 1980FEB16
Authors: Ohno, H.; Fujii, A.; Tomioka, H.; Sperling, N.; Marschall,
   L. A.; Allan, R. P.; Lipschutz, S.; Brooks, E.; Gerber, L.; van den
   Bergh, S.; van den Bergh, G.; Pasachoff, J.
1980S&T....59..383O    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy : from the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J.
1980Mercu...9S..20P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins-Observatory / Williams-College
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1980BAAS...12..129P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy now
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Andrews, P. J.
1980Obs...100Q..48P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - University Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kutner, M. L.; Zimmermann, R. E.
1980S&T....60..229P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Some tests of astrology.
Authors: Pasachoff, J.
1980Mercu...9..137P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Astronomy - from the Earth to the Universe
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Andrews, P. J.
1980Obs...100R..48P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Response to ”Astronomical meaning of a tropical year”
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1979AmJPh..47.1017P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Neutrinos for Interstellar Communication
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Kutner, Marc L.
1979CosSe...1....2P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The future of the universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1979PhTea..17..291P    Altcode:
  Olber's paradox is discussed in terms of Hubble's law, and the
  question of the closure of the universe is considered in light of
  recent experimental observations. (AIP)

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: IUE and the Search for a Lukewarm Corona
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Linsky, J. L.; Haisch, B. M.; Boggess, A.
1979S&T....57..438P    Altcode:
  The use of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) to search
  for stars having neither a hot corona nor a cool outer atmosphere,
  but a lukewarm corona is outlined. An interactive computer system
  permits extensive analysis of the data immediately after transmission
  to earth, allowing the results of one exposure to influence the taking
  of subsequent exposures. The observation program is illustrated for the
  star HR 1099, noting that observations were taken while previous spectra
  were being analyzed. Observations of many stars of spectral types G and
  K lead to the construction of a border region on the Hertzsprung-Russell
  diagram between stars with hot coronas and those with cool outer
  atmospheres. Stars lying near this border region were then observed;
  however, none with lukewarm coronas was found. The interactive control
  facility in the satellite control room is considered an important
  factor in the efficient implementation of the search procedure.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Laboratory Exercises in Astronomy -- Cepheid Variables and
    the Cosmic Distance Scale
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Goebel, Ronald W.
1979S&T....57..241P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - Van-Nostrand Scientific Encyclopedia ED.5
Authors: Pasachoff, J.
1979ApL....20..112P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Repechage
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1979afeu.book...67P    Altcode:
  A method is discussed of enhancing student learning by providing an
  opportunity for students to provide corrected answers to questions
  gotten wrong on examinations, with up to half credit awarded
  back. However, if the course is graded on a curve, if all students got
  half credit back, their relative scores and thus their grades would
  remain the same. The method thus provides an incentive for students
  to participate in the repechage, a term from the sport of crew.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book-Review - University Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J.; Kutner, M. L.; Nicolson, I.
1979JBAA...90...87P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astronomy, from the Earth to the universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1979afeu.book.....P    Altcode: 1979QB45.P287......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Piaget
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1979afeu.book...65P    Altcode:
  Teachers of astronomy often misinterpret the reliability of
  Piaget's conclusions about concrete and abstract reasoning for
  young students. This misinterpretation can result in interesting
  material being excluded from teaching. The discussion here gives
  some references and broader conclusions evaluating Piaget's work and
  providing alternatives.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Teacher's guide to Astronomy, from the Earth to the universe
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1979tasg.book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins Observatory, Williams College, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts 01267. Report for the 1978 - 1979 academic year.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1979BAAS...11..128P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Contemporary Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1978AmJPh..46.1084P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Spatial structure in lines in the 3398 3526 å region at the
extreme limb: Observation, identification and interpretation
Authors: Canfield, R. C.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Stencel, R. E.; Beckers,
   J. M.
1978SoPh...58..263C    Altcode:
  We have obtained spectrograms of high spatial and spectral resolution of
  the extreme solar limb, using the vacuum tower telescope of Sacramento
  Peak Observatory. We have identified emission lines in the range 3398
  3526 Å, and classified them according to intensity, spatial structure
  (intensity variation), and profile. Some lines show spatial intensity
  variation; others do not. We show that this effect is related to
  the abundance of the element responsible for the line and the mean
  lower-level excitation potential of interlocked lines. We explain
  the effect in terms of radiative interlocking with other lines, as
  well as the characteristic size of the volume contributing to the
  mean intensity.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Review of Publications Contemporary Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1978JRASC..72Q.117P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Review of Publications Student Guide to Contemporary Astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Kutner, Marc L.; Pasachoff, Naomi
1978JRASC..72R.117P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Infrared Observations of the 1977 Total Solar Eclipse.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Sanford, M. T., II; Keller, C. F., Jr.
1978BAAS...10..431P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins Observatory, Williams College, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts. Report for the 1976 - 1977 academic year.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1978BAAS...10..126P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Teacher's guide to university astronomy.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kutner, M. L.
1978tgtu.book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: University astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kutner, Marc L.
1978unas.book.....P    Altcode: 1978QB43.2.P36.....
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: A High Resolution Study of 6-cm Formaldehyde Absorption in
    L 134
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Dickman, R. L.; Kutner, M. L.; Tucker, K. D.
1977BAAS....9..591P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins Observatory, Williamstown, Massachusetts. Observatory
    report.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1977BAAS....9..118P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Student guide to contemporary astronomy.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Kutner, M. L.; Pasachoff, N.
1977sgtc.book.....P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Contemporary astronomy
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1977coas.book.....P    Altcode: 1977QB45.P29.......
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Silicon vidicon spectrometry and its infrared capabilities
    for solar research
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Muzyka, D. F.; Schierer, J. P., Jr.
1976ApOpt..15.2884P    Altcode:
  A description is given of the use of a rapid-scanning silicon vidicon
  spectrometer at the total solar eclipse of June 30, 1973. The instrument
  had been employed to observe the two strong IR coronal emission lines,
  which are forbidden lines, of Fe XIII. The ratio of the intensity of
  the 1074.7-nm and 1079.8-nm lines is relatively insensitive to coronal
  temperature and depends sensitively on the coronal electron density.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Fine Structure Variations in High-Spatial-Resolution Solar
    Spectra.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Canfield, R. C.; Stencel, R. E.; Beckers,
   J. M.
1976BAAS....8..501P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins Observatory, Williamstown, Massachusetts. Observatory
    report.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1976BAAS....8..111P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Infrared coronal lines : (Observations of infrared [iron XIII]
    at the 1973 total solar eclipse)
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Muzyka, D. F.
1976VA.....19..341P    Altcode:
  IT HAS only been recently that vidicon systems have gained sufficient
  sensitivity as to allow their use in ground-based infrared studies of
  the solar corona. This paper reports on the use of a silicon vidicon
  spectrometer for ground-based eclipse studies of infrared coronal
  lines. Two forbidden spectral emission lines in the ground state of Fe
  XIII in the near infrared at 10,747 Å ( <SUP>3</SUP>P <SUB>1</SUB> →
  <SUP>3</SUP>P <SUB>0</SUB>) and 10,798 Å ( <SUP>3</SUP>P <SUB>2</SUB>
  → <SUP>3</SUP>P <SUB>1</SUB>) are the strongest coronal lines in
  line-to-continuum ratio accessible to ground-based observers. It has
  been shown that the ratio of the intensity of these lines is insensitive
  to temperature and provides a good measure of the electron density
  in corona since one level is radiatively and the other collisionally
  populated. Simultaneous observations of the 10,747 Å and 10,798
  Å lines therefore provide a sensitive probe of coronal electron
  density. Both coronagraphic and eclipse observations of these lines
  have been made but all observations have been severely handicapped
  by the fact that the lines lie beyond the effective limit of most
  photographic film and on the upper end of the wavelength limit of the
  S-1 photocathode of the most commonly employed image tube. At the total
  solar eclipse of June 30, 1973 in Kenya, we observed the spectral
  region that included the two lines with a Tektronix J20/7J20 rapid
  scanning silicon vidicon spectrometer. We scanned the corona in height
  from 1.1 to 2.0 R<SUB>☉</SUB>. We report here on the observations
  and their reduction, as well as describe the instrumentation and the
  theory of the [Fe XIII] lines.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1975SoPh...43..521P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book reviews
Authors: Grant Athay, R.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1975SoPh...43..513G    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Infrared Observations of the Solar Corona with a Silicon
    Vidicon Spectrometer.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Muzyka, D. F.
1975BAAS....7..409P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Astrophysical Concepts by Martin Hewitt. Reviewed
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1975AmJPh..43..197P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins Observatory, Williams College, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts. Observatory report.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1975BAAS....7...73P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1974SoPh...39..267P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Further observations at the interstellar deuterium frequency.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Cesarsky, D. A.
1974ApJ...193...65P    Altcode:
  Two sets of Sgr A observations of neutral deuterium in the direction
  of the galactic center are reported. A wider bandwidth was used
  in the second set with no significant reduction of overall noise
  levels. The line-peak temperature of the merged data from both years
  yields an upper limit for the D/H ratio of 0.00035; if the absorption
  is the deuterium line, this ratio will be between the above value and
  0.00002. These values continue to imply cosmic densities insufficient
  to close the universe.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Spatial and Spectral Structure of Chromospheric Lines
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Harris, F. S.; Beckers, J. M.
1974IAUS...56...31P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins Observatory, Williams College, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts. Observatory report.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1974BAAS....6...60P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: The Solar Corona
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1973SciAm.229d..68P    Altcode: 1973SciAm.229...68P
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Uchida, Y.; Vassilyeva, G.; Henoux, J. C.
1973SoPh...30..273P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: 327 MHz observations of the galactic center: Possible detection
    of a deuterium absorption line.
Authors: Cesarsky, D. A.; Moffet, A. T.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1973BAAS....5S.284C    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: 372-MHz Observations of the Galactic Center: Possible Detection
    of a Deuterium Absorption Line
Authors: Cesarsky, Diego A.; Moffet, Alan T.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1973ApJ...180L...1C    Altcode:
  We have observed the spectrum of radiation from the galactic center in
  the vicinity of the deuterium ground-state hyperfine transition. With
  100 hours of observing time the spectrum shows rms fluctuations 7 X
  i0- of the on-source power level. An absorption feature at 327.38837 4
  0.00001 MHz (corrected to the local standard of rest) has a depth of 2
  X i0- of the continuum level. This feature is probably the deuterium
  line at VLSR = -3.7 km -1 Subject headings: abundances - hyperfine
  structure - interstellar matter

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Hopkins Observatory, Williams College, Williamstown,
    Massachusetts. Observatory report.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1973BAAS....5..129P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Detailed Correlation of Type III Radio Bursts with Hα
Activity. I: Active Region of 22 May 1970
Authors: Kuiper, T. B. H.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1973SoPh...28..187K    Altcode:
  We compare observations of type III impulsive radio bursts made
  at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory with high-spatial-resolution
  cinematographic observations taken at the Big Bear Solar
  Observatory. Use of the log-periodic radio interferometer allows us to
  localize the radio emission uniquely. This study concentrates on the
  particularly active region close to the limb on 22 May 1970. Sixteen
  of the 17 groups were associated with some Hα activity, 11 of them
  with the start of such activity.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1972SoPh...26..260P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: de Feiter, L. D.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Vassilyeva, G.; Gussmann,
   E. A.; Vassilyeva, G. J.; Henoux, J. -C.; Uchida, Y.; Namba, O.
1972SoPh...23..501D    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Helium D<SUB>3</SUB> in Stellar Chromospheres.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Lepler, E. C.
1972BAAS....4Q.235P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1972SoPh...22..503P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: R Coronae Borealis.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1972IAUC.2403....1P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Henoux, J. -C.; de Feiter, L. D.; Ambroš, P.; Pasachoff,
   Jay M.
1972SoPh...22..252H    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Absolute Intensity Calibrations of Solar K-Line Profiles
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1971SoPh...19..323P    Altcode:
  Individual K-line profiles from elements of fine structure on the
  surface of the Sun are calibrated absolutely. The continuum calibrations
  of Labs and Neckel and of Houtgast and Namba are considered, and the
  average K-profile is scaled to that of White and Suemoto. The ranges
  of intensities across a high-resolution spectrogram are tabulated for
  various parts of the line profile. Although the spatially-averaged value
  for K <SUB>3</SUB> of 4.2% of the continuum corresponds to a brightness
  temperature of 4155 K, minimum and maximum values were 3980 and 4360 K,
  respectively. Similarly, K <SUB>2v </SUB> ranges from 4200 to 4560K,
  and K <SUB>2r </SUB> from 4180 to 4460K in small elements about 1 arc
  sec across.

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Vassilyeva, G. J.; Henoux, J. -C.; de
   Fetter, L. D.
1971SoPh...19..494P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book review
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1971SoPh...18..177P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: On K-Line Central Reversals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Zirin, Harold
1971SoPh...18...27P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Book Review: Astronomy and astrophysics. Edited by
    S. R. POTTASCH AND J. L. STEINBERG. Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
Price: Institutional subscribers—DM 100 per volume; personal
    subscribers—DM 16 per volume
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1971Icar...14..288P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Henoux, J. -C.; de Feiter, L. D.
1971SoPh...17..277P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

---------------------------------------------------------
Title: Motion picture record of the 7 March 1970 total solar eclipse.
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.; Menzel, D. H.
1971BAAS....3R.263P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: The Calibration of the Wilson-Bappu Effect on the Sun
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1971ApJ...164..385P    Altcode:
  A quantitative assessment of the contribution of very asymmetric
  spectral profiles from small areas on the solar disk to the mean K4ine
  profile for the Sun is now available. Implications for the ilsonBappu
  effect are indicated.

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Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Stepanyan, N.; Namba, O.
1970SoPh...13..504P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Fine structure in Ca  ii on the solar disc
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1970SoPh...12..202P    Altcode:
  High-dispersion spectra of the core of the K line of Ca ii as seen
  at the center of the solar disc have been reduced. Resolution on the
  spectra approach 1 arc sec. Line profiles of individual elements are
  very asymmetric and often are peaked on only one side of the line
  center. Variations of the line profiles and the emission peaks are
  discussed. The doubly reversed mean profile of the K line is explained
  as a spatial average of individual profiles, and it is suggested that
  single peaks may be caused by Doppler-shifted discrete elements in
  the chromosphere.

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Title: Search for New Microwave Spectral Lines from Interstellar
    Molecules and Atoms
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Gottlieb, Carl A.; Snyder, Lewis E.;
   Buhl, David; Palmer, Patrick; Zuckerman, B.; Dickinson, Dale F.
1970BAAS....2Q.213P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Henoux, J. C.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Vassilyeva, G. Y.
1970SoPh...11..343H    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Uchida, Y.; Gussmann, E. A.; de Feiter, L. D.; Henoux,
   J. -C.; Stepanyan, N. N.; Pasachoff, Jay. M.
1970SoPh...11..173U    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Eclipse instrumentation for the solar corona.
Authors: Menzel, D. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.
1970ApOpt...9.2626M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: The Structure of the Solar Transition Zone
Authors: Pasachoff, J. M.
1969cctr.conf..281P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Stepanyan, N.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ambrož, P.; Vassilyeva,
   G.; Henoux, J. -C.; Fokker, A. D.; de Feiter, L. D.; Gussmann, E. A.;
   Uchida, Y.; Namba, O.
1969SoPh....8..491S    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ambrož, P.; Namba, O.
1969SoPh....8..248P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: K-Line Profiles of Solar Fine Structure
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.
1969BAAS....1R.289P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Radio Spectra and Related Observations of a Solar Active
    Region in July 1968
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Castelli, John P.
1969BAAS....1S.289P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Coronal Polarization and Structure at the Total Solar Eclipse
    of 22 September 1968
Authors: Schatten, Kenneth H.; Menzel, Donald H.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1969BAAS....1Q.261S    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Gussmann, E. A.; Stepanyan, N. N.; de
   Feiter, L. D.; Uchida, Yutaka; Švestka, Z.; Vassilyeva, G. J.
1969SoPh....6..155P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Ninety Minutes of Totality!
Authors: Mercer, Robert D.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1969S&T....37...20M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Fine Structure in the Solar Chromosphere.
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay Myron
1969PhDT.........1P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Abstracts of papers from other journals
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Vassilyeva, G. Y.; Henoux, J. -C.;
   Stepanyan, N.
1968SoPh....5..588P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: Spectral Observations of Spicules at Two Heights in the
    Solar Chromosphere
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Noyes, Robert W.; Beckers, Jacques M.
1968SoPh....5..131P    Altcode:
  An observational program at the Sacramento Peak Observatory in
  1965 provided high-dispersion spectra of the solar chromosphere
  in several spectral regions simultaneously. These regions included
  various combinations of the spectral lines Hα, Hβ and H∊, the
  D<SUB>3</SUB>-line of He i, the infrared triplet of O i, and the H-
  and K-lines and the infrared triplet of Ca ii. With the use of an image
  slicer the observations were made simultaneously at two heights in the
  solar chromosphere separated by several thousand kilometers. From these
  data we draw the following conclusions: (a) Emission of different lines
  arises in the same chromospheric features. The intensity ratio of lines
  of different elements varies significantly from spicule to spicule. For
  the H- and K-lines of ionized calcium, this ratio remains constant,
  independent of wavelength throughout the line, overall intensity,
  and height in the chromosphere. Two rare-earth lines in the wing of
  the H-line show no spicular structure at all. (b) The line-of-sight
  velocities of many features reverse as a function of time, although
  most spicules show velocities in only one direction. The simultaneous
  spectra at two heights show most spicules to have the same line-of-sight
  velocity at both. There may be an additional class of features,
  mostly rapidly moving, whose members have line-of-sight velocities
  that increase with height. These features comprise perhaps 10% of the
  total. Velocity changes occur simultaneously, to within 20 sec, at two
  heights separated by 1800 km, indicating velocities of propagation
  of hundreds of km/sec. The velocity field of individual features is
  often quite complicated; many spectral features are inclined to the
  direction of dispersion, implying that differential mass motions are
  present. (c) The existence of anomalously broad H and K profiles is
  real. Even with high dispersion and the best seeing, such profiles
  are not resolved into smaller features. The central reversal in K,
  H and Hα appears to remain unshifted when the wings are displaced in
  wavelength, indicating that the reversal is non-spicular.

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Title: The Interpretation of the Absorption-Line Red-Shifts in the
    Solar Spectrum
Authors: Pasachoff, Jay M.; Silk, Joseph I.
1968SoPh....4..474P    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: On the Obliteration of Strong Fraunhofer Lines by Electron
    Scattering in the Solar Corona
Authors: Menzel, Donald H.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1968PASP...80..458M    Altcode:
  No abstract at ADS

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Title: New Observations of Solar Chromospheric Spicules.
Authors: Beckers, Jaques M.; Noyes, Robert W.; Pasachoff, Jay M.
1966AJ.....71T.155B    Altcode:
  We observed the spectra of spicules on the solar limb simultaneously at
  two heights in the quiescent ebromosphere with the 16-in. coronagraph
  and the 12-m Littrow spectrograph at the Sacramento Peak Observatory
  during the summer of 1965. Time sequences of simultaneous observations
  were obtained, using the following combinations of lines: K, H, HE,
  and D3 H, HE, D3, and the 0 1 infrared triplet; H, HE, D3, and the Ca
  II infrared triplet; and Hp and HCL. Time intervals between exposures
  ranged from 5 to 30 sec, and the height separation was 2000 km. Our
  preliminary conclusions follow. (a) A strong correlation exists between
  the intensities of the spectra of spicules in HE and D3, while spectra
  in H and HE show less correlation. The rare earth line between H and
  HE shows no brightness or velocity structure. This suggests that it is
  nonspicular in Origin. (b) We see the line-of-sight velocities of some
  spicules reverse in direction. This suggests tbat the apparent rising
  and subsequent falling seen in HCL on the limb may represent actual
  mass motions. Further, most of il~e spicules with large line-of-sight
  velocities seem to be moving faster at the higher than at the lower
  levels. (c) The profiles of the H and K lines are indeed very broad with
  respect to the HCL line, in agreement with Athay. It is unlikely that
  these large widths are caused by overlapping spicules. (d) Many spicular
  spectra are tilted with respect to the direction of the dispersion. We
  believe this to be a real effect, caused by differential motions across
  the spicule. (e) The H and K lines are strongly self-reversed at low
  levels. We believe the self-reversal to be nonspicular in origin because
  it does not share the Doppler shifts of spicules. Microphotometry and
  detailed reduction of the data are underway.