Research interests: click here.
G. t Hooft
G. t Hooft List of PhD Students
G. t Hooft
The Niels Bohr Institute Medal of Honour
, Copenhagen, 30 November 2016.
Appointed as Adjunct Professor in Physics, at Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia,
from November 2, 2016 to December 31, 2020.
Laureated by Carlo and Karin Giersch through the Stiftung Giersch as:
FIAS (Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies) Senior Fellow Laureatus, Frankfurt, September 28, 2016.
This home page has been
translated into Indonesian. The reason given to me:
Indonesia is the 4th biggest country in the world in terms of inhabitants and
internet is growing rapidly there. My autobiography is translated in
When I was a student, I was often inspired by marvellous scientific
discoveries, and then I asked the question whether I were in any
position to reproduce such discoveries. As a kid, I tried to measure
the speed of light, and Newton's constant of gravity. Both attempts
were hopeless failures. But the phenomenon of phase contrast, yes,
that I could reproduce that in my own microscope.
Here is the explanation.
( Ik werk thans aan de
Universiteit Utrecht )
In vroeger tijden was het verplicht minimaal 10 "stellingen" toe te
voegen in een dissertatie. De stellingen moesten wetenschappelijke
onderwerpen betreffen maar niet direct op het proefschrift betrekking
hebben. Hiermee kon de promovendus aantonen dat zijn wetenschappelijke
belangstelling verder reikt dan alleen het onderwerp van het proefschrift
(daar is nu natuurlijk geen tijd meer voor),
maar stelden opponenten die niet de gelegenheid hadden gehad het uiterst technische geweld van het
proefschrift in zich op te nemen, ook in staat om interessante
vragen te stellen.
De Nobelprijs chemie van 2014 ging naar E. Betzig, S.W. Hell en W.E.
Moerner voor de ontwikkeling van super-resolutie fluorescentie microscopie.
We lezen in de officiële toelichting van de Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien
dat de gebruikelijke formule voor het oplossend vermogen van een
microscoop luidt: Δ = λ / 2n sin α ; in 1992
werd door Bobroff, en in 2002 door Webb, benadrukt dat die formule kan worden
verbeterd: Δmin = λ / (2n sin α√N
waar N het aantal gebruikte fotonen is. In de jaren 2002 - 2006 werd
de hoge resolutie fluorescentiemicroscopie ontwikkeld waar deze formule op
van toepassing is.
Stelling 8 van mijn proefschrift (1972) luidde:
De onzekerheidsrelatie Δx ≈ λ in de optika is niet algemeen geldig indien de
waarneming met veel meer dan een foton wordt gedaan. Zij moet dan worden vervangen door
Δx ≈ λ / √N
N het aantal fotonen is dat nodig is voor de waarneming. In de microscopie kan men in
principe hiervan gebruik maken."
(De factor 2n sin α is in deze discussie minder belangrijk)
Het spreekt vanzelf dat ik geen idee had hoe deze vaststelling in de praktijk zou kunnen worden
toegepast; dit is wat de Nobel laureaten van 2014 hebben ontdekt.
- Birth Grandson Benjamin Leendert van Deutekom, 3855g, 51 cm. October 7 2015.
- Artificial Anthropomorphic Intelligence, an
- Nederland in Ideeën
- Lucas Ellerbroek, "Planetenjagers" (Prometheus / Bert Bakker) is aan te
- Opvattingen over:
godsdienstextremisme als besmettelijke ziekte.
skeptische verhandeling over sommige amateurs in de natuurwetenschappen (in Dutch)
- Long review paper on the "Cellular Automaton Interpretation of
Quantum Mechanics, A View on the Quantum Nature of our Universe, Compulsory or
Impossible?", where all arguments concerning entanglement, superdeterminism
and conspiracy are displayed at length, besides numerous models. See
Page " How to become a GOOD theoretical physicist" has
been replaced. The website is back in a good shape and is being maintained by
G. t Hooft is married to: A. A.Schik, MD, formerly anesthesiologist, Arbo-arts
(medical doctor for company personnel). Now retired. Two daughters:
Saskia A. Eisberg - t Hooft. Labyrinth Risk Consulting
Now living in Zeist (NL), and
Ellen M. t Hooft. Veterinary Surgeon at Hopmans
, Roden, Drenthe (NL)
Some pictures of t Hooft family
Grandson Daniel is practicing etiquette for his next Nobel Banquet
Tijd in machten van Tien
door Gerard ’t Hooft en Stefan Vandoren, Uitgave Natuurwetenschap &
Techniek, onderdeel van Uitgeverij Veen Magazines B.V.
Time in Powers of Ten , by G. t Hooft and Stefan Vandoren,
translated by Saskia ’t Hooft
The idea is simple: Physicists and astrophysicists
have produced various popularized descriptions of the enormously varying length scales in the Universe, in books and
films. The Universe is some 50 billion light years across, that's nearly 1029
cm. The smallest conceivable objects
are superstrings, somewhere around 10-32
cm. At every scale in powers of ten, our world looks different and very special.
So now, we do the same thing with time. In fact, the variations in the time scales are even bigger. The time scale
for super strings is 10-43
seconds, and age of the Universe is less than 1018
seconds, but there are phenomena that
outlast our Universe by gigantic factors. The lifetime of the most fundamental particle in our world, the proton, is
expected to be something around 1041
seconds, and large black holes can last much longer than that. At nearly every time
scale, things happen in our world, and we describe them,
starting with just one second, then 10 seconds, 100 seconds and so on, until in the middle of the book, where we
switch to the fastest time scales conceivable, until at the end we return to one second.
Taming the forces between Quarks and gluons - Calorons Out of The Box
Scientific Papers by Pierre van Baal, eds G. 't Hooft and C.P. Korthals Altes,
Wold Scientific. Book presented at the Lorentz Institute, Leiden June 21, 2013.
The English translation of "Planetenbiljart" has appeared. English title:
"Playing with Planets" (World Scientific, Singapore). The original text has been
improved in many ways. Translation by my daughter Saskia.
An account of our investigations in
elementary particle physics, translated in various languages:
Pictures, art work and curiosa:
some new fractals
obtained using PostScript
and PovRay, see Computer
A few more tesselations
See Computer art . Please first check your screen.
animations used in PowerPoint presentations (Note: these files tend to be a bit large, be patient with
Figure at left: the "Peaucellier–Lipkin linkage". See
Meccano Mathematics I", a little treatise on some nice features of meccano strips.
For those who like Meccano and Euclidean geometry at shigh school level.
Meccano Math II describes the solutions to the exercises given in Meccano
Math I, and more. Interesting new solutiosn (from the 19th century!) are described in
Meccano Math III
Phase Contrast Microscope.
Gravitating misconceptions: response on claims by a group of self proclaimed scientists
concerning the validity of the theory of General Relativity.
Taalperikelen (door G. t Hooft)
Voordracht over Professor Sickbock t.g.v. de Marten Toonder tentoonstelling in het
Teylers Museum te Haarlem,1 juni 1996.
Some old documents were found when cleaning some closets:
Here is what Frederick Reines wrote on a napkin in a restaurant on Balboa Island,
Newport Beach, California, back in 1981.
2) In the year 2000, at Copenhagen, many physicists were bold and optimistic about supersymmetry.
Here is a
wager, duly recorded. The date of "discovery of supersymmetry" was set at June 21, 2010.
I would be ready to give them another six or so years, but then I will politely approach my
susy friends to inquire about the bottle of cognac.
Brief aan Darwin (in Dutch, op uitnodiging van De Volkskrant
that was sent to The New Scientist by a group of scientists who urge
to establish new categories of Nobel Prizes. Later, I learned that the Nobel
Committee itself reacted very much in the same spirit.
Columns in FYLAKRA:
Uit t Hooft
A treatise on evolution.
More papers that were never published can be obtained
The inconveniences of life, such as modern software, see my Fulmination Pages
Read this fairy tale.
Your reactions are welcome
Complaints about MS Word®:
Add to this the serious troubles with
its so-called "smart quote" feature, which inverts quotation marks incorrectly.
In particular, it deliberately
wrecks the spelling of the
family name t Hooft, where it replaces the apostrophe by a beginning quotation
And here is the universal
manual for everything
June 5, 2012: Honorary Doctorate from the National Polytechnical University of Odessa, Ukraine.
Boek van Lucas Ellerbroek, "Planetenjagers" (Prometheus . Bert Bakker) is
aan te raden.
Exploration of the Moon and Mars.
See book: "Playing with Planets".
link1; link2; a hotel on the Moon,
Go Back to the Moon
A human settlement on Mars is
possible! See Mars One...It is
going to be a spectacular mission - if the plans can be realized. It all
depends on how much support these plans will receive world-wide! And
9491 Thooft has its orbit
between those of Mars and Jupiter. This asteroid was discovered March 25, 1971,
by C.J. van Houten and I. van Houten-Groeneveld on Palomar Schmidt plates taken
by T. Gehrels.
They are also the discoverers, in 1977, of asteroid
11779 Zernike , named after my
grand-uncle Frits Zernike.
As illustrated by this photo, all cattle in the meadows of the Netherlands by
law have to wear ear tags. My bicycle trip in the countryside inspired me to modify the bylaws of Constitution Law # 13 for
9491 Thooft-s Constitution
An article concerning freedom of religion was added
For alternative views concerning the question "what is science, and what isnt?",
Robert J. Langs Origami science.
More papers that were never published can be obtained
Het Platform Bèta Techniek
met alle Bèta
Meer weten over natuurkunde? Zie de site Kennislink
A web site for all ambitious starting theoretical physicists
, featuring a complete list
of all mandatory topics in mathematics and elementary as well as advanced
theoretical physics. See:
How to become a GOOD theoretical physicist.
Don t wait until
you enter the University. Start now.
How to become a BAD theoretical physicist
, a page that was translated
into Polish here
Support the heroic
, an activity based in India.
Check the logic of your opponents arguments
was published by the Nobel Foundation. It is translated in
The 1999 Nobel Prize in Physics has
been awarded by the
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences jointly to
Gerardus t Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman. The Academys citation:
"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak
interactions in physics."
Gerard t Hooft receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty the
King Carl XVI
Gustaf and Mrs t Hooft
The Nobel Prize Diploma
A frequently asked question:
Can Theoretical Physics explain
paranormal phenomena? You do not want to hear about it. So
do NOT click on
explanation (in English) , or Poster op
het Skepsis-congres (in het Nederlands) , 8 mei
1998. My Slovakian friends will be happy to learn that my comments on
paranormal phenomena have been translated in the Slovak language
Special message to those who wish to mail
to me their new revolutionary theories: Please first check your Baez
index , and/or consult Warren Siegel .
Another "experiment" was recently
reported in which paranormal signals were claimed to be observed. Probably the
flaw is an incorrect handling of the statistics, where unintentional bias was
difficult to exclude. I am prepared to challenge these and any other serious
investigators with a bet. See here
an explanation of the apostrophe ( ), click
This home page was translated into Georgian here,
into Indonesian here.
Last revised: ≥ December 2016