Gerard t Hooft

Professor Theoretical Physics

home page

Postal address: Spinoza Instituut,
Leuvenlaan 4
Postbus 80.195
3508 TD Utrecht.  

Voorts verbonden aan:

Institute for Theoretical Physics
Universiteit Utrecht
Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CC Utrecht

Tel.: +31 30 253 5928
        +31 30 253 1863
Fax: +31 30 253 5937e-mail:

Warning: due to severe clogging of this email post box, I can no longer guarantee that received messages will be processed and/or answered.
Warning 2:
Since notions of privacy have been completely abandoned by Facebook, I do not accept friends there. Requests to be “connected” in other social networks such as LinkedIn are only occasionally considered if they are written with some personal note, certainly not when they seem to come from robots.

secretary: Mrs. Wanda Verweij, [] 
Discussing Magnetic Monopoles with Rembert Duine

From January 2007: Chief Editor of  Foundations of Physics,  an International Journal  devoted to the conceptual bases and fundamental theories of Modern Physics, Biophysics and Cosmology, Springer.

Click here for lectures (notes, PowerPoint files)


- Birth Grandson Benjamin Leendert van Deutekom, 3855g, 51 cm. October 7 2015.

- Artificial Anthropomorphic Intelligence,  an Essay

- Nederland in Ideeën

- Lucas Ellerbroek, "Planetenjagers" (Prometheus / Bert Bakker) is aan te raden.

- Opvattingen over: godsdienstextremisme als besmettelijke ziekte.
- Een skeptische verhandeling over sommige amateurs in de natuurwetenschappen (in Dutch)
- Long review paper on the "Cellular Automaton Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics,  A View on the Quantum Nature of our Universe, Compulsory or Impossible?", where all arguments concerning entanglement, superdeterminism and conspiracy are displayed at length, besides numerous models. See

Page "How to become a GOOD theoretical physicist" has been replaced. The website is back in a good shape and is being maintained by Navaneeth Gaddam.


G. ’t Hooft is married to: A. A.Schik, MD, formerly anesthesiologist, Arbo-arts (medical doctor for company personnel). Now retired. Two daughters:
Saskia A. Eisberg - ’t Hooft.  Now living in Driebergen (NL), and 
Ellen M. ’t Hooft.  Veterinarian at Drachten, Friesland (NL)
Some pictures of  ’t Hooft family  some pictures of my family.
Grandson Daniel is practicing etiquette for his next Nobel Banquet


Tijd in machten van Tien, door Gerard ’t Hooft en Stefan Vandoren, Uitgave Natuurwetenschap & Techniek, onderdeel van Uitgeverij Veen Magazines B.V.

Time in Powers of Ten, by G. ’t Hooft and Stefan Vandoren, translated by Saskia ’t Hooft  - Eisberg. World Scientific. The idea is simple: Physicists and astrophysicists have produced various popularized descriptions of the enormously varying length scales in the Universe, in books and films. The Universe is some 50 billion light years across, that's nearly 1029 cm. The smallest conceivable objects are superstrings, somewhere around 10-32 cm. At every scale in powers of ten, our world looks different and very special. So now, we do the same thing with time. In fact, the variations in the time scales are even bigger. The time scale for super strings is 10-43 seconds, and age of the Universe is less than 1018 seconds, but there are phenomena that outlast our Universe by gigantic factors. The lifetime of the most fundamental particle in our world, the proton, is expected to be something around 1041 seconds, and large black holes can last much longer than that. At nearly every time scale, things happen in our world, and we describe them, starting with just one second, then 10 seconds, 100 seconds and so on, until in the middle of the book, where we switch to the fastest time scales conceivable, until at the end we return to one second.

Taming the forces between Quarks and gluons - Calorons Out of The Box, Scientific Papers by Pierre van Baal, eds G. 't Hooft and C.P. Korthals Altes, Wold Scientific. Book presented at the Lorentz Institute, Leiden June 21, 2013.

The English translation of "Planetenbiljart" has appeared. English title: "Playing with Planets" (World Scientific, Singapore). The original text has been improved in many ways. Translation by my daughter Saskia.


An account of our investigations in elementary particle physics, translated in various languages:


Pictures, art work and curiosa:

For some new fractals obtained using PostScript and PovRay, see  Computer art gallery.

 May, 2013: A few more tesselations

See Computer art.  Please first check your screen.
Some animations used in PowerPoint presentations (Note: these files tend to be a bit large, be patient with downloading)

A (very tiny) stamp collection.

See some photographed creatures

Unpublished work:


Figure at left: the "Peaucellier–Lipkin linkage". See "Meccano Mathematics I", a little treatise on some nice features of meccano strips. For those who like Meccano and Euclidean geometry at shigh school level.  Meccano Math II describes the solutions to the exercises given in Meccano Math I, and more. Interesting new solutiosn (from the 19th century!) are described in Meccano Math III.

Gravitating misconceptions: response on claims by a group of self proclaimed scientists concerning the validity of the theory of General Relativity.

Taalperikelen (door G. ’t Hooft)

Voordracht over Professor Sickbock t.g.v. de Marten Toonder tentoonstelling in het Teylers Museum te Haarlem,1 juni 1996.

Some old documents were found when cleaning some closets:
1) Here is what Frederick Reines wrote on a napkin in a restaurant on Balboa Island, Newport Beach, California, back in 1981. And:
2) In the year 2000, at Copenhagen, many physicists were bold and optimistic about supersymmetry. Here is a wager, duly recorded. The date of "discovery of supersymmetry" was set at June 21, 2010. I would be ready to give them another six or so years, but then I will politely approach my susy friends to inquire about the bottle of cognac.
3) Brief aan Darwin (in Dutch, op uitnodiging van De Volkskrant
4) Reaction upon a letter that was sent to The New Scientist by a group of scientists who urge to establish new categories of Nobel Prizes. Later, I learned that the Nobel Committee itself reacted very much in the same spirit.

Columns in FYLAKRA:
Uit ’t Hooft
’t Hooftthema
’t Hooftkussen

A treatise on evolution.

More papers that were never published can be obtained here.



The inconveniences of life, such as modern software, see my Fulmination Pages  (mopperpagina's):  food,   software,   powerpoint, printers.

Read this fairy tale. Your reactions are welcome.

Complaints about MS Word®: . Add to this the serious troubles with its so-called "smart quote" feature, which inverts quotation marks incorrectly. In particular, it deliberately wrecks the spelling of the family name ’t Hooft, where it replaces the apostrophe by a ‘beginning quotation’ mark.

And here is the universal manual for everything

Past events:

June 5, 2012: Honorary Doctorate from the National Polytechnical University of Odessa, Ukraine.

General interests:

Boek van Lucas Ellerbroek, "Planetenjagers" (Prometheus . Bert Bakker) is aan te raden.

Exploration of the Moon and Mars. See book: "Playing with Planets".

link1; link2; a hotel on the Moon, Lunex, Go Back to the Moon

A human settlement on Mars is possible! See Mars One...It is going to be a spectacular mission - if the plans can be realized. It all depends on how much support these plans will receive world-wide! And funding. The press conference December 10 disclosed how the plans further evolve: contracts with Lochheed Martin to develop and construct the first Mars One unmanned Mars lander, and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL) for the communications satellite that will orbit Mars.


Asteroid 9491 Thooft has its orbit between those of Mars and Jupiter. This asteroid was discovered March 25, 1971, by C.J. van Houten and I. van Houten-Groeneveld on Palomar Schmidt plates taken by T. Gehrels.
They are also the discoverers, in 1977, of asteroid
11779 Zernike, named after my grand-uncle Frits Zernike.

As illustrated by this photo, all cattle in the meadows of the Netherlands by law have to wear ear tags. My bicycle trip in the countryside inspired me to modify the bylaws of Constitution Law # 13 for  9491 Thooft-s Constitution.

An article concerning freedom of religion was added.


 For alternative views concerning the question "what is science, and what isn’t?", see this link

 See also Robert J. Lang’s Origami science.

More papers that were never published can be obtained here.

Het Platform Bèta Techniek, met alle Bèta ambassadeurs.

Meer weten over natuurkunde? Zie de site Kennislink.

A web site for all ambitious starting theoretical physicists, featuring a complete list of all mandatory topics in mathematics and elementary as well as advanced theoretical physics. See: How to become a GOOD theoretical physicist.  Don’ t wait until you enter the University. Start now. Comments are welcome.
See also:
How to become a BAD theoretical physicist.

Support the heroic Rationalist International, an activity based in India.
Check the logic of your opponent’s arguments here!

Nobel Prize

The 1999 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences jointly to Gerardus ’t Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman. The Academy’s citation:

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics."

Gerard ’t Hooft receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty the King
King Carl XVI Gustaf and Mrs ’t Hooft
The Nobel Prize Diploma
The Medal


A frequently asked question:
Can Theoretical Physics explain paranormal phenomena? You do not want to hear about it. So do NOT click on
A sober explanation (in English) , or Poster op het Skepsis-congres (in het Nederlands), 8 mei 1998.

Special message to those who wish to mail to me their new revolutionary theories: Please first check your Baez index, and/or consult Warren Siegel.

Another "experiment" was recently reported in which paranormal signals were claimed to be observed. Probably the flaw is an incorrect handling of the statistics, where unintentional bias was difficult to exclude. I am prepared to challenge these and any other serious investigators with a bet. See here the conditions.

For an explanation of the apostrophe ( ’ ), click here.

This home page was translated into Georgian here

Last revised:  November 27,  2014